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2 



4 
1 ' 



I 



Vol. V, Part L iSSzJ 



» 



iSgntntPouop 



SinbolnsfitlS ^t 



SransarKoits 



of tfrc ]l|onottrBMe 



SorÌFfg of OpniFo&opíon 



tit. 



EDITED BY 

THOMAS POWELL, M.A.(OxoN.) 



PRINTED FOR THE S0CIE1*Y 

Br 

T. RICHARDS, 37, GREAT QUEEN STREET, W.C 



COin'ENTS OF PART I. (VOL. V.) 

APKIL 1882. 



The Necessity of Teaching English through the Medium of Welsh. 

By Rev. D. J. Dayies, M.A. „. ... ... 1 

What Government is doing for the Teaching of Irish. By the Editor 14 

the late Sir Hugh Owen. By Lewis Morris, Esq. ... ... 39 

WeWi Fairy Tales. By Professor Rhys ... ... ... 49 

Morwynion Glàn Meirionydd. With Translation by H. W. Lloyd, 

Esq., M.A., and Music ... ... ... ... 144 

Professor Rhys on Welsh Antiquities and Fairy Tales ... ... Itô 

Dinas Penmaen or Penmaenmawr, a Druidical Temple before being 

a British Fortroas. ByClaxaP. ... ... ... 154 

:Namea of Printers and Publishers of Welsh Books. By Bernard 

Quaritch, Esq. ... ... ... ... ... 159 

Reviews of Books :— 

Telynegioo, ar DMtanaa Amrywiol. Gan Daniel Silnm Evans, 

•9. X .lO. ••• la. ••> ••• ••• ,JQL . 

Zeittohnft fur Veigldichende Sjiraohforflohiing ... ... 163 

c 

Correspondence ... ••• ... ... ... 163 

The Folk-lore of Wales.— Riddles. The Yellow Plague ...167 

Notes and Queries ... ... ... ... ... 168 



CYMMRODOR, 



EMBODTINO THR 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE HONOURABLE 



SOCIETY OF CYMMRODORION 



OF LONDON. 

ETC. 



* • • • , 



EDITED BY 



THOMAS POWELL, M.A.(OxoN.) 



VOL. V. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 

BY 

WHITING & CO. (LIM.), SARDINIA STREET, W.C. 

1882. 



^ 



^n^o 



c 



V. 



• • • 



• « 

* • 



« 



'• • 



• • 



• " * • • • • • *• • 






î^ Cpmmroöor, 1882. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. V 



The Necessity of Teaching English through the Medium of Welsh. 

By the Rev. D. J. Davies, M.A. . . . - 1 

\V hat Government is doing for the Teaching of Irish. By the 

Editor - - - - - - - 14 

The late Sir Hugh Owen. By Lewis Morris, Esq. • 39 

Welsh Fairy Tales. By Professor Rhys - - - 49 

Morwynion Glân Meiríonydd. With Translation by H. W. 

Lloyd, Esq., M.A., and Music .... 144 

Professor Rhys on Welsh Antiquities and Fairy Tales - - 148 

Dinas Penmaen or Penmaenmawr, a Druidical Temple before 

being a British Fortress. By Clara P. - - 154 

Names of Printers and Publishers of Welsh Books. By Ber- 
nard QuARiTCH, Esq. .... - 159 

Reviews of Books : — 

Telynegion, ar Destunau Amrywiol. Gan Daniel Sil- 
van Evans, S.T.B. - - - - - 161 

Zeitschrift fiir Vergleichende Sprachforschung - - 163 

Correspondence - - - - - - - 163 

The Folk- lore of Wales. -Riddles. The Yellow Plague - - 167 

Notes and Queries ...... igg 

The Legend of the Oldest Animals. By Professor E. B. Co well 169 

On the Delimitation of the English and Welsh Languages. By 

Alexander J. Ellis, F.R.S. - - - - 173 



IV CONTENTS. 

The Ancient Ethnology of Wales. By Professor \V. Boyd 

Dawkins, M.A., F.K.S. - - - 209 

The Welshman of English Literature. By David Lewis, Esq. 224 

The Poem by lolo Goch on Owain Glyndwr*s Palace of Sycharth. 

By HowKL W. Lloyd, M.A. - - - - 261 

The Traditional Route of the Romans across the Carnanronshire 

Mountains. By Clara P. - - - - - 274 

The National Eisteddfod of 1882 280 

The Eisteddfod and Popular Music in Wales - - - 285 

Higher Education in Wales and the Proposed University Colleges 294 

Reviews of Books : — 

Origins of English History. By Charles Elton - - 307 

The Making of England. By J. R. Green, M.A., LL.D. 807 

Celtic Britain. By J. Rhys, M.A. - - - 807 

Les Celtes et les Langues Celtiques. Par H. D'Arbois de 

JUBAINVILLE ------ 317 

The Hidtory of the Princes, etc., of Powys Fadog. By 

J. Y. W. Llotd, Esq., M.A., K.S.G. - - - 818 

Ysten Sioned : neu Y Gronfa Gymmysg - . - 318 

John Jones yn yr Ysgol. Gan y Parch. Kvan Jones, 

B.D. - - - - . - - 319 

Aeron Rhondda. Gan Homo Ddn - - - 820 

Y Geninen. Cylchgrawn Chwarterol Cenedlaethol • 820 

Notes and Queries - ..-.-. 322 



• • - . 




Cgmmrotnor. 



JANUARY 1882. 



ON 

THE NECESSITY OF TEACHING ENGLISH, 
THKOUGH THE MEDIUM OF WELSH, 

IN ELEMENTABT SCHOOLS IN WELSH-SPOKEN DISTRICTS.! 

By the Rev. D. J. DAVIES, M.Â., late Fellow of Emmanuel 

College, Cambridge. 



No question has been so much discussed during the last four 
years on the platform and in the press in Wales, as the means 
and methods of supplying the acknowledged deficiencies in 
her educational machinery. Yet, so far as I am aware, the 
deplorable fact that thousands of children, after seven or eight 
years' regular attendance at elementary schools, annually 
laimch into the world practically ignorant of English, has 
been altogether overlooked, or, at all events, been regarded 
as an inevitable state of things, quite beyond the limits of 
legislative reform. Even the late Departmental Committee, 
appointed to inquire into the condition of education in Wales, 
while reporting the prevalence of the Welsh language to be a 
serious impediment to educational progress, offers no sugges- 
tion how it may be removed, but dismiss the subject with the 
remark "that there is every appearance that the Welsh 
language will long be cherished by the large majority of the 
Welsh people, and that its influence upon the progress of 

' Read before the Hon. Soc. of Cymmrodorion at the Freemasons' 
Tayem, on January 25th, 1882. 

VOL. V. B 



2 ON THE NECEfcfexft OF 'PRÂíälÌŴÍ ẂíGLISH THROUGH 

**• •• «•••• 

their education, Arid; vf>oi\ tteui prapp&pte^*in competing with 
English-bom students, will be, for an indefinite time, little 
less in the future than it has been in the past." It is, I think, 
much to be regretted that this question should have received 
apparently so little consideration at the hands of that Com- 
mittee, and that thus they should have let slip a golden 
opportunity of authoritatively recommending to the Govern- 
ment some plan by which the admittedly greatest difficulty 
Welsh youths have to contend with, might be lessened, if not 
totally annihilated. A knowledge of English is perfectly 
compatible with a knowledge of Welsh, and even with an 
intense affection for it ; and it is a matter of common observa- 
tion that, however much a Welshman may cherish his native 
tongue, he is careful to bring up his children in English when 
he can ; and when he cannot, to send them to school, where, 
should it unfortunately be an elementary one, he vainly 
hopes they will acquire a knowledge of English. It is be- 
cause elementary schools in Welsh spoken districts have not 
yet succeeded, and as at present carried on, cannot succeed in 
imparting to the great majority of their scholars a knowledge 
of English adequate for the practical purposes of Hfe, and 
because I believe that the time has now arrived when this 
state of things need no longer continue, that I have taken 
upon me to prepare this paper. 

The extent of the evil which arises from ignorance of 
English is clearly in proportion to the number of children 
who leave school without having obtained such a mastery of 
it as to be able to speak and understand it With the aid of 
oflScial documents which have recently been published, this 
number can be approximately ascertained The report of 
the Committee above referred to, quoting Mr. Eavenstein's 
results, states that 1,006,100 persons in Wales and Mon- 
mouthshire habitually speak Welsh. If so, it means that 
there are 143,728 children between the ages of five and 



THE MEDIUM OF WELSH IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 3 

thirteen who at home never hear any English. But, as I do 
not know what data Mr. Bavenstein had for his calculations, 
I must beg leave to state my impression that his estimate is 
too high. I prefer to adopt the results given in two of the 
Welsh Schools Inspectors' reports to the Council of Education, 
for last year, as the basis of my own estimate. Mr. Edwards, 
who has charge of the Merthjn* Tydvil district, comprising 
the three Unions of Merthyr Tydvil, Pontypridd, and Crick- 
hjrwel, with an aggregate population of 200,000, or one-eighth 
of that of the whole of Wales and Monmouthshire, states 
that he made a minute inquiry into the extent to which 
Welsh is spoken in his district, and found that 55 per cent, 
of the children above seven years were returned as speaking 
Welsh habitually at home. In the Rhondda valley, he adds, 
the proportion of purely Welsh children is much greater, 
viz., 72 per cent. This average of 55 per cent would probably 
represent the number of such children in the whole of 
Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire, omitting the towns of 
Cardiff, Newport, and Swansea ; while, for the rest of Wales, 
excepting Sadnorshire, part of the coimties of Brecon, Pem- 
broke, and Flint, there would be a considerably higher 
percentage of purely Welsh-speaking children, as may be 
gathered from the report of Mr. Williams, Her Majesty's 
Inspector of Schools for the counties of Cardigan, Pembroke, 
and part of Carmarthen. He states that, except in the 
southern half of Pembrokeshire, most of the children in his 
district habitually speak Welsh at home. If the population 
of the excepted districts be deducted from the total popula- 
tion of Wales and Monmouthshire, there will remain not less 
than 1,200,000 persons, 55 per cent at least of whose children 
are purely Welsh. Adopting the usual proportion of one in 
seven as the number of children of school age, and taking 
55 per cent of the result, it will be foimd that upwards of 
94,000 children attend the daUy elementary schools, who 

b2 



4 ON THE NECESSITY OF TEACHING ENGLISH THROUGH 

never have any opportunity of learning English except during 
the brief time they are at school ; which impUes that 13,000 
children, or an average of 1000 for each county, annually 
leave school without, as is on all hands acknowledged, any, 
except the most meagre, acquaintance with the English 
tongue. But the mere extent of this evil conveys no adequate 
conception of its seriousness, and is no proper measure of the 
importance of the question I would this evening commend to 
the consideration of your honourable Society. 

To form some idea of the gravity of this misfortune, I will 
take three typical cases, and consider how ignorance of English 
in each case tends to frustrate the efiTorts of Welsh boys to rise 
in the world, or lowers their intelligence, and, consequently, 
diminishes their usefulness as citizens, as compared with three 
English lads of like social station. The first case I shall 
choose is that of the sharp talented boy, whose progress and 
successes at an elementary school encourage and justify his 
friends to make sacrifices to send him to a higher school, with 
a view of giving him a chance of raising himself by his 
learning and abilities to whatever position he can win in the 
field of intellectual contest. Such a case as this is by no 
means uncommon, either in Wales or in England. But the 
Welsh boy, when he enters a grammar school, say at thirteen 
or fourteen, is under disadvantages which can hardly be ex- 
aggerated, as compared with his English rival The master 
teaches, of course, in EnglisL Say the subject is Latin. The 
one boy may learn declensions and vocabularies as well as 
the other. But, when it comes to translation, the English 
boy has the difficulties of only one language to overcome, 
whereaô the Welsh boy has the difficulties of two. He is, in 
fact, set .to do the absurd task of turning sentences from one 
language to another, neither of which he knows. The rules 
in his English text-book, he very imperfectly understands, 
while the master's explanations — speaking being always more 
difficult to follow than written matter — are, at the commence- 



THE MEDIUM OF WELSH IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 5 



• 



ment of his studies, when he most needs assistance, altogether 
thrown away on the Welsh boy. This state of things con- 
tinues long enough for the English boy to obtain a lead, 
which is never diminished during the whole period of their 
scholastic career. The consequence is obvious. As Scholar- 
ships and Fellowships are at present awarded, the best are 
necessarily won by the English boy ; and who does not know 
that even the minute difference of attainments, or of skill in 
displaying them, which often decides whether of two candi- 
dates is to receive one of these academical prizes, secures to 
the one a comparative independence and a choice of careers, 
whue it condemns the other to make it his first study how 
to get his daily bread ? The circumstances and natural en- 
dowments of the two boys have throughout been assumed to 
be the same, with this only difference, that the one is, per- 
force, almost totally ignorant of English at the time of entering 
a school of higher grade, while the other is English-bom. 
The testimony of head-masters of Welsh grammar schools, 
which may be found in the Blue-books issued by the Schools 
Inquiry Commission of 1868, and the Departmental Com- 
mittee of 1881, shows that the above description applies to 
the English attainments of not a few meritorious lads who 
have been admitted to secondary schools in Wales. 

The second case shall be that of two farmers' sons who, 
one Welsh-speaking, the other English-speaking, both have 
received their education in an elementary school The boys, 
on leaving school, being supposed to be of similar tastes, 
adopt their fathers' ccdling. One can only add to his know- 
ledge through the contracted channel of the Welsh language, 
for he is unable to read English with pleasure. The other, 
of course, reads English, and if he is desirous, as many are, of 
profiting by the experiments of scientific farmers, he can do 
so with much interest and advantag.e. But, let us foUow the 
two into an agricultural meeting, board of guardians, or court 
of justice, where all the business is conducted in EnglisL 



6 ON THE NECESSITY OF TEACHING ENGLISH THROUGH 

The Englishman can understand, and take intelligent part in, 
the proceedings, and thus pubUc business becomes to him a 
most valuable means of acquiring information and of mental 
development ; while to the Welshman the whole thing is so 
much vanity and vexation of spirit, and if he takes any part 
in the business, it is as the tool of some one — scrupulous or 
unscrupulous as the case may be — ^who may desire to use 
him. The farcical character of Welsh juries' functions has 
long been proverbial. 

But let us proceed to the third case which I propose to 
consider, viz., that of two labourers' sons. What are their 
respective prospects of bettering their condition in life ? It 
has been said of the English labourer that his is the only 
vocation in this free country in which a man cannot raise 
himself by intelligence and thrifty and industrious habits. 
If that statement be true, it might, perhaps, be hastily in- 
ferred that it can matter very little what language a mere 
labourer speaks, as, whether it be Welsh or English, his life 
must be spent on the same dull level of hopelessness. But 
although a labourer, however thrifty and intelligent, may 
not be able to raise himself as a labourer, yet, if he is familiar 
with the language of commerce, he may, and often does, by 
changing his occupation, rise to a higher position than that 
in wliich he was bom. But such a change of occupation is 
seldom possible for a Welsh-speaking labourer. He is doomed 
by his ignorance to life-long manual toil and poverty, what- 
ever virtues or natiural intelligence he may possess. 

Mr. Bobert Lingen has some appropriate remarks with 
regard to him which are as true now as when they were 
written thirty-five years ago. "In the works, the (purely 
Welsh-speaking) workman never finds his way into the office. 
He never becomes either clerk or agent. His language keeps 
him under the hatches, being one in which he can neither 
acquire nor communicate the necessary information, and 



THE MEDIUM OF WELSH IN ELEMEKTARY SCHOOLS. 7 

thus Ills social sphere becomes one of complete isolation 
from all influences save such as arise within his own order/' 
An Essex agricultural labourer of good natural parts, but who 
can neither read nor write, was lately lamenting to me his 
hard lot, and said he considered his parents as much to 
blame in not sending him to school, as if they had sold him to 
slavery; for he added, ''Because I am ignorant, I am no 
more free to choose what I shall do— whether I work with 
my head or with my hands — ^than if I had been a real slave." 
Without altogether accepting this harsh view of his case, 
I may observe that^ by the compulsory enactments of recent 
Education Acts, the State has emancipated the rising gene- 
ration of English labourers from such ignorance as he referred 
to ; but the monoglot Welshman, though he may be able to 
write and read as well as a clerk, is stül, materially, no better 
off than my illiterate Essex friend. And there is little doubt 
that ignorance of English, in spite of, or, rather, because of, 
the present system of elementary instruction, if not altered, 
will prevail for an indefinite period in Welsh-spoken dis- 
tricts, and continue to bar against thousands every avenue to 
intellectual progress and social advancement. It is unne- 
cessaiy to describe what that system is, as all are sufficiently 
familiar with the working of an elementary school In 
Anglesea and East AngUa, in town and country, the same 
inflexible method is practised. The school is everywhere 
conducted in English, with sublime disregard for the lan- 
guage which the scholars understand. There is no pro- 
vision for explaining to children, who know no language but 
Welsh, the meaning of what is said or read. Words of com- 
mand are certainly picked up, and isolated words and 
phrases, after being often heard, cannot fail to be remem- 
bered; but they are frequently iU-understood. I much doubt 
whether in eight years a child now learns as much English 
as he would in eight months under a rational method of 



8 ON THE NECESSITY OF TEACHING ENGLISH THROUGH 

instruction. I do not blame the teachers, but the senseless 
system which imposes upon them the necessity of paying no 
attention to that which the children most require — ^the art of 
expressing themselves in English. Some idea may be formed 
of the vast energy that is daily wasted by teachers in Welsh 
schools, by a visit to an infant department in a Welsh-spoken 
district. Twenty or thirty little mites, who imderstand no- 
thing but Welsh, sit up on raised seats in front of a mistress, 
who tries her very best to rivet their attention by a pretty 
little story told in English. Now, it is one of the rarest 
gifts to be able to instruct well a class of infants^ even 
through the medium of the language they understand. It is 
futile to attempt it in any other ; and I am not surprised to 
hear, that the tendency of Welsh teachers is more and more 
to Hmit their efforts to the merely mechanical repetition of 
English words. In Standards I, II, and III, things are no 
better. The reading-books in use may be in themselves 
excellent, full of matter which would be interesting and 
instructive to an English child, but no more interesting or 
instructive to the Welsh child than if he read the words 
in his book up and down, instead of across the page, while 
any remarks made by the teacher by way of explanation 
are equally unintelligible. Now, it may be asked how such 
a system came to be adopted. It does not owe its origin to 
the malevolence or indifference of the powers that be, or even 
to what has often been alleged to be the animating principle 
of their policy towards Wales in times past — the desire to 
bring about the extinction of the Welsh language. But it is 
mainly, if not entirely, due to the expressed wishes of Welsh- 
men themselves a generation ago. Those who loved our 
nation saw tlient no less clearly than we see now, that the 
thing that weighed down our countrymen was ignorance of 
English. But the question was — How was it to be removed ? 
Competent teachers were scarcely anywhere to be found. 



THE MEDIUM OF WELSH IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 9 

The schoolmaster of those days was in most cases a broken- 
down tradesman or mechanic, and his school-room was an 
appropriate emblem of his own condition — usually a dila- 
pidated cottage, and, now and then, an abandoned outbuilding. 
His method of instruction was, as might be expected, veiy 
rudimentary. He laboured under grievous disadvantages. 
Next to the want of knowledge was the want of books and 
appliances; but he meant and aimed well. He made an 
honest attempt to teach his pupils what they most required, 
viz., English. One thing greatly hampered him. He was 
almost wholly ignorant of it himself. So it was seldom a 
success, and, as a rule, he confined himself to teaching the 
English equivalents of the more ordinary Welsh words. In 
these circumstances, and, as none who were masters of both 
languages were attracted to the profession in country places, 
on account of the miserable pittance to be got by it, it became 
a question with those in whose hands the appointment of a 
schoolmaster lay, which would teach the children most English 
— a Welshman who knew no English, or an Englishman who 
knew no Welsh. It was certainly a choice of evils, but 
when their choice fell on the latter, it seems to me that they 
chose the lesser evil of the two. This course was advocated 
by Welshmen at the first inquiry into the state of education 
in Wales in 1847 ; and that it should have been adopted by 
the (rovemment of the day was only natural, as it both 
accorded with Welsh opinion, and did away with the ne- 
cessity of making one scheme for England and another for 
Wales. Hence the present practice of conducting an ele- 
mentary school in Wales, without any regard to the mother- 
tongue of the children to be taught But the circumstances 
which originated— I may say necessitated — ^the existing 
system are past. There is now an abundant supply of 
competent and trained teachers who are familiar with both 
languages, and a stafif of inspectors who can test the pro- 



10 ON THE NECE8S1TT OF TEACHING ENGLISH THBOUGH 

ficiency of the scholars both in Welsh and English. It only 
needs that Welshmen should make known their altered cir- 
cumstances, and express their wishes with regard to this 
matter, and, I doubt not, that any reasonable reforms that 
may be proved to be required, will speedily be effected. 
Three or four generations ago, Wales received but scant 
justice at the hands of those in power; but that was at 
a time when her political representatives were mutes, or had 
no sympathy with their constituencies; when the words of the 
Hebrew prophet might have been fitly applied to her — ^** There 
was none to guide her among all the sons she had brought 
forth ; neither was there any that took her by the hand of all 
the sons that she had brought up." We live in happier 
times. Wales now sends to the Imperial Parliament men 
who sympathise with and can give, when occasion serves, 
articulate expression to the wants and aspirations of her 
children. I make no reference to party poUticè, for patriot- 
ism ia above party. There are many facts to point to that 
their efforts have not been fruitless, and Parliament has 
shewn a disposition to minimise as far as possible the natural 
disadvantages of Welshmen by just and wise laws. Except 
touching the matter of education, I doubt if, at the present 
time, the most ardent patriot could mention any grievance 
which his country has not in common with the rest of Great 
Britain ; and steps have been taken to remedy that. I am 
only anxious that the whole of this educational grievance 
should be clearly laid before Parliament, that the remedy 
may be complete. 

I have already stated that the greatest desideratum is an 
efficient method of teaching English, so that every child on 
leaving school may be able to read it with pleasure and 
speak it with fluency. As I have endeavoured to show what 
evils arise from anything short of this, I will conclude my 
paper with a brief sketch of what I consider should be done 



THB MEDIUM OF WELSH IK ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 11 

to achieve such an eminently desirable result To begin 
with the infants, yiz., children from three to seven. In Welsh- 
speaking districts the mistress should be required to give 
her instruction chiefly in the Welsh language. In the im- 
pending education code there is reason to believe that great 
stress will be laid on what are called object lessons for 
infants ; that is, I take it, teaching the names, properties, 
and uses, of common thinga It will be found impossible to 
make such lessons profitable to Welsh in&nts, except through 
the medium of the language they use at home ; if that is 
Welsh, the language of instruction should also be WelsL 
The Welsh names of two or three objects having been taught, 
as well as their English equivalents, short sentences should 
be formed, first in Welsh, then in English, in which these 
names occur, and the children made to say them after the 
teacher until they know them. The same process should be 
repeated with new Welsh words and their English equiva- 
lents ; but the learning of the letters of the alphabet and 
reading should, as now, be confined to EngUsh. As it would 
require considerable skill and invention to form easy and 
progressive sentences, it would be necessary that a series of 
graduated books, containing a collection of suitable exercises, 
should be placed in the hands of most teachers. The whole 
of a child's time until he is seven years old should be devoted 
to this kind of work. In Welsh schools it is clear something 
must be sacrificed, if English is to be mastered. I would, 
therefore, sacrifice arithmetic and needlework in the infants' 
school .In Standard I, one English lesson daily should be 
given, but of a more advanced character ; and arithmetic and 
needlework might now be commenced. It would probably 
be found that the language of instruction need no longer be 
Welsh, provided that the teacher uses it for the purpose of 
explaining difficulties when occasion requires. The English 
lesson would consist of grammar and translation of given 



12 ON THE NECESSITY OF TEACHING ENGUSH THROUGH 

Welsh sentences into EnglisL There would be no necessity 
to teach the children to write Welsh, as the object is not to 
teach Welsh, but EnglisL In the higher standards the 
English lesson would be continued, the exercises being made 
more diflScult. In Standard IV, English letter writing 
should be taught, and a daily conversation lesson insisted 
upon ; and here English might take the place of a specific 
subject, in the same sense as French or Latin is a specific 
subject The requirements of the Education Code would, of 
course, have to be altered for such schools, and a separate 
schedule, which may be called the Welsh schedule, appended 
to it. As an inducement to teachers and school-managers 
to put forth their best energies to make their scholars 
proficient in English, the pa3rment for passes in arithmetic 
and writing should be made conditional on a satisfactory 
conversational examination in English being passed, and the 
standard for a pass in arithmetic lowered. Besides, it might 
be desirable to make the capitation grant for English larger 
than that for the other subjects, in the lower standards. 
After undergoing such a process as I have described, it would 
be a dull child that would leave school at ten or eleven 
years of age without sufficient knowledge of English to con- 
verse freely, and read a simple book without a dictionary. 
It should, also, be made compulsory upon school managers to 
provide a lending library of such English books as would be 
interesting to the class of children who might borrow them ; 
these libraries to be open to all boys and girls under fifteen, 
whether at school or at work. The perusal of these books 
besides adding greatly to a child's store of information, would 
perfect his knowledge of English acquired at school No one 
doubts that the government of a country has the right to 
choose the language in which its pubUc business shall be 
transacted; but it imposes upon it the duty of teaching that 
language to any portion of its citizens who may be ignorant 
of it And it is only by some such scheme as I have sketched 



THE MEDIUM OF WELSH IN ELEMENTAKY SCHOOLS. 13 

* 

that justice can be done to the Welsh speaking masses in 
Wales.- 

This question, though not falling directly under the head 
of intermediate education, is yet so inseparable from it that 
the present seems to be an appropriate time to endeavour to 
create a public opinion upon it. For it must be confessed 
that Wales hardly suspects the existence of a cause which, by 
enforced non-development of her mental faculties, from one 
generation to another, tends to weaken more and more the 
vigour of her intellectual vitality ; and, like a patient who 
suffers no pain from a wasting malady, she feels not the want 
of a physician. This apathy, though easily accounted for, is not 
creditable to those who have her best interests at heart, and 
are in a position to help her. Those who suffer most from 
the evil results of the present imperfect, irrational system of 
State education occupy of necessity only the humblest spheres, 
and their grinding toil affords them httle leisure for pro- 
blems of social reform. But there is a large number of more 
fortunate Welshmen who, yet, have smarted under the bitter 
experience of struggles, which an imperfect knowledge of 
Enghsh at the first start in life entails. If, on looking back 
at their early school-days, they should be of opinion that 
some such plan as I have suggested would have smoothed 
their path, I ask them to unite and make their views known 
to the Government, and thus give a helping hand to Welsh 
lads of the future. 

Your Society may fairly claim to have been instrumental 
in directing public attention to the unsatisfactory state of 
higher education in Wales, with a result that promises to be 
of the utmost benefit to your coimtrymen. I venture this 
evening to ask you to give another impulse to the cause, by 
organising a movement for eliciting the views of the various 
sections of the Welsh public on this important question, so 
that tlie foundation-stone of their temple of learning may be 
well and truly laid. 



14 



WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR THE 

TEACHING OF IRISH. 

By the editor. 



It was with great satisfaction I learnt some weeks since that 
Mr. Davies had undertaken to bring before the notice of the 
Society and the country the important question discussed in 
the preceding paper. I had for some time had it in mind to 
call attention to the matter in another connection ; but I re- 
joice that it has been taken up by one so much better able to 
do justice to it, who has made the educational wants of the 
Principality a subject of careful study, and is able to speak 
with the authority that belongs to special knowledge. As 
closely bearing upon the present subject, it may, perhaps, not 
be inappropriate to describe briefly what has already been 
done imder somewhat similar circumstances elsewhere. 

The claim put forward by Mr. Davies that Welsh should 
be used as the medium for teaching English in the lower 
standards cannot be called an extravagant one. Yet the pre- 
sent system has so long prevailed unquestioned, that many 
may regard even this modest demand as wholly chimerical. 
Indeed, such is the blinding efiFect of long familiarity with an 
absurd system, that some, no doubt, will maintain that the 
best way to teach English to Welsh children is for the teacher 
himself carefully to abstain from the use of Welsh, and 
strictly to forbid its use to the pupils. It is true that, as a 
man cast among a foreign people, whose language he is com- 
pelled to use as he can, picks up a good deal of that language 
in time, so under the present system the Welsh-speaking 
children at our elementary schools learn perforce a certain 



WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 15 

amount of English ; but it is not true that they are taught, 
nor that they learn in the way that is easiest, quickest, and 
best calculated to train their intellect. 

There may be some, however, who feel and deplore the 
evil, but regard it as the inevitable result of peculiar circum- 
stances, which it is unreasonable or futile to expect Govern- 
ment to meet by any special provision. To such I would 
first point out what has already been demanded and readily 
conceded in Ireland, where the conditions are somewhat 
analogous to those which obtain in our own country. In 
1877 a society was formed in Dublin, called " The Society 
for the Preservation of the Irish Language". It reckons 
among its leading members a number of the members of 
the Royal Irish Academy, together with other influential 
scholars and patriots. The Seport of the Society for 1880 is 
now before me, and from that Report I find that the number 
of members during that year was 293, about the number of 
our own Society. Feeling how important it was, both in the 
interests of education, and also in furtherance of the special 
object of the Society — ^the preservation of Irish as a spoken 
language — that something should be done to encourage its 
study in the elementary and intermediate schools of the 
country, the Society decided to petition the Commissioners of 
National Education to have the language placed in the 
Government programme as a special subject. This petition 
appears to have been readily granted by the Commissioners, 
who fixed the substantial fee of ten shillings, as the Govern- 
ment grant for each pupil who passed a satisfactory examina- 
tion in Irish. Thus, with but few of the powerful pleas that 
can be advanced to support a claim for the recognition of 
Welsh in the educational programme of the Principality, this 
Society has demanded and obtained from the Commissioners 
concessions far more important than any Mr. Davies has 
ventured to claim on behalf of the youth and teachers of 
Wales. 



16 WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR 

To show exactly what has been done in Ireland, and how 
it was done, I transcribe from the Beport the following me- 
morial : — 

Society for the Preeervation of the Irish Ijangoage, 

19, Kildare Street, Dublin, 
ISih June 1878. 

Sir, — I am directed by the Council of the " Society for the Preserva- 
tion of the Irish Language" to forward to you the accompanying 
Memorial for presentation to the CommissionerB of National Education 
in Ireland. 

Attached to the Memorial are copies of the signatures of repre- 
sentative and influential persons who have supported the Memorial 
The original signatures can be forwarded, if considered necessary. A 
large percentage are managers of National Schools. 

There are also lists of the classes and associations which have been 
formed throughout the countr}^, and of the National and other schools 
into which the teaching of Irish has been introduced. 

As the Council believe it is only necessary to make a representation 
to the Board, they have deemed the signatures already sufficiently 
numerous, though their numbers might be multiplied indefinitely. 

I have the honour to be, your obedient servant, 

J. J. Macswbemet, Secretary, 
W. H. NeweU, Esq., LL.D., 

Secretary to the Board o/ National Education, 



To the Bight Honourable the Commissioners of National Education in 

Ireland. 

My Lords and Gentlemen, — ^We have been directed by the Council 
of the ** Society for the Preservation of the Irish Language", to submit 
for the consideration of the Commissioners some reasons for having the 
teaching of the Irish language placed on the Besults Programme of 
the National Schools. 

The Council have observed that Latin, Greek, and French, have 
been for some years past on the Results Programme of the Commis- 
sioners, and that Results fees have been paid their teachers for 
successful instruction in those subjects, as set forth in the Annual 
Reports of the Board. The Council regard this fact as a forcible 
reason for asking the Commissioners to place Irish on a somewhat 
similar footing. 

In support of this appeal, the Council beg to quote the recorded 
opinion of the highly-esteemed Resident Commissioner, P. J. Keenan, 



THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 17 

Esq., C.B., as printed in the Twenty-second Annual Beport of the 
Commissioners, p. 7Ö, when that gentleman was Head Inspector of 
National Schools. He says :— 

** The Census Returns show that upwards of a million and a half, or 
23.3 per cent of the population, spoke Irish in the year 1851. The 
National System is every year diminishing this number ; even in places 
where all social communication is earned on in Irish, and where, in 
short, few or none of the adult population know a word of English, the 
language of the National schools, the books, the teachings, etc., are 
entirely English. The children of parents who at present speak Irish 
only will, through the course of education pursued in the National 
schools, and the experience of home, speak English and Irish when 
they grow up; but their children will, in nine cases out of every ten, 
speak English only. In this way the Irish language will graduaUy fall 
into disuse, and be, perhaps, forgotten. Many good men would rejoice 
at this, but they seem to me to forget that the people might know both 
Irish and English, and they also forget that by continuing to speak 
Irish, and learning Engush through its medium^ the latter language would 
be enriched by the imagery and vigour of the mother tongue, and the 
process of learning would be a mental exercise of so varied and power- 
ful a character, that its disciplinal effect upon the mind would be equal 
in itself, and by itself, to a whole course of education of the ordinary 
kind. The shrewdest people in the world are those who are bilingual ; 
bordexers have always been remarkable in this respect. But the most 
stupid children I have ever met with are those who were leamiug 
English whilst endeavouring to forget Irish. It is hard to conceive 
any more difficult school exercise than to begin our first alphabet, and 
first syllabication, nxia first attempt at reading, in a language of which 
we know nothing, and all this without the means of reference to, or 
comparison with, a word of our mother tongue. Yet this is the ordeal 
Irish-speaking children have to pass through, and the natural result is 
that the English which they acquire is very imperfect. The real policy 
of the educationist would, in my opinion, be to teach Irish gram- 
matically and soundly to the Irish-speaking people, and then to teach 

them English through the medium of their native language My 

experience last year of the schools of the county Donegal (see Leckonnel 
in the Appendix), a county in which 27.8 per cent, of the people speak 
Irish, led me to reflect very much on this important question. I have 
already stated in substance the conclusions at which I arrived, but for 
convenience sake I beg to repeat them. I am convinced — 

'^ Ist. That the Irish-speaking people ought to be taught the Irish 
language grammatically; and that school-books in Irish should be 
prepared for the purpose. 

VOL. V, C 



18 WHAT GOVEKNMENT IS DOING FOR 



ct 



2nd. Hiat English should be taught to all Irish-speaking children 
through the medium of the Irish. 

'' 3rd. That if this system be pursued, the people will be yery soon 
better educated than they are now, or possibly can be for many genera- 
tions upon the present system ; and 

*'4th. That the English language will, in a short time, be more 
generally and purely spoken than it can be by the present system for 
many generations.» 

These thoughtful and condusiye arguments leave the Council very 
little to add upon the subject. 

We may, however, be permitted to observe that any system of 
National Education must be regarded as incomplete that does not pro- 
vide for the teaching of the nation's language ; and therefore an oppor- 
tunity should be a£forded to all Irishmen of having their children taught 
their native tongue. 

The study of Celtic is every day becoming more important, in con- 
nection with ancient and modem literature, and already holds a very 
high place in the science of Philology. This being so, a grammatical 
knowledge of Irish — the most important branch of the Celtic — offers 
advantages not as yet sufficiently appreciated, as an educational instru- 
ment, being, at once, an ancient language cognate with the classical 
languages of antiquity, and a modem living language, equal to any in 
beauty, energy, copiousness, and every attribute which renders the best 
of the modem languages valuable. 

Add to this that it is the language of Ireland, and the best suited to 
the natural genius of the countrymen of Scotus Erigena, the ^'perfer- 
vidum ingenium Scotomm*\ the best calculated to preserve the traditions 
and idiosyncrasies of the nation, being cast in that Celtic or intellectual 
mould which rendered the country so singularly famous in former 
times, and thus enabled her to become the leader of civilisation in 
western Europe. 

It is well known that the Irish language is held in the highest 
possible esteem, and its value recognised by the most distinguished 
scholars in the department of comparative philology and linguistics in 
Germany, France, Italy, Denmark, and Switzerland. And Oxford, 
following the example of the Continental scholars and universities, has 
recently established a chair for the study of Celtic. 

At the last meeting of the ** Irish Society^' (April 1877), testimony 
was borne to the extent to which Irish is still spoken, and the affection 
with which it is regarded by the people. At that meeting was also 
stated the remarkable fact that in two counties the speaking of Irish is 
on the increase. The number of Irish-speaking persons in the country 
is 817,875. In Munster and Connaught, with a population of 2,239,698, 



THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 19 

there are 84,019 speaking Irish only, and 631,617 speaking both Irish 
and English, total 710,686, nearly 32 per cent. — very little short of 
one-third of the population of .these two proYÌnces. In the western part 
of Ulster, Irish is still largely used, there being over 29 per cent, of the 
people of County Donegal Irish speakers. These figures, shown by the 
last census returns, are by no means to be received as the total, as the 
Council are aware that the returns do not include the entire number of 
people who speak Irish, since it is well known that many persons, for 
want of education in the vernacular, and of due appreciation of its 
value, do not admit their knowledge of the language, and that many 
more who know it were never questioned on the subject at the census- 
taking. But even those returns, defective as they are, show that 200,000 
persons under twenty years of age, and 334,000 between twenty and 
fifty, speak Irish. This number surely has a claim on the country as 
regards education. 

Such being the facts regarding the present position of the Irish as a 
living language, we may also remark that the state of ita literature, if 
not very flourishing, is at least sufficient to show that the number of 
persons reading the language and studying its books is much larger 
than it was at any time previous, and continues to increase. The 
numerous volumes of our ancient literature which have been printed 
and published within the past forty years for the first time, and the 
eagerness with which they are sought after and studied, will suffice to 
show that the Gaelic is not dead in Ireland, and that its literary 
prospects are more encouraging than might be supposed. The publica- 
tions of the Royal Irish Academy (both printed works and facsimile 
reproductions of valuable manuscripts), the Irish Archsological, Celtic, 
and Ossianic Societies, the works edited by O^Donovan and O^ Curry, 
such as the Annals of the Four Masters^ etc., and the many important 
and valuable works in the language, published with the sanction and at 
the expense of the Government for the ^* Brehon Law Commission", 
etc., show the extent and value of our ancient literature. 

The modem works actually produced in Irish, such as the poetical 
productions of the last century, the minstrelsy and remains of the Irish 
bards, sermons of eminent divines, many of which have only recently 
been printed, and put within the reach of Irish readers, are numerous 
and valuable. More recently still, we have the translation of the lUad 
into Irish metre, and of the Melodies of Moore, by the Archbishop of 
Tuam, and several other works by eminent scholars, all of which have 
enriched the language, and are eagerly read and studied. The number 
of elementary books, and the lessons appearing from time to time in 
journals and newspapers, are further signs of progress and of the eager- 
ness of the people to cultivate their language. All these recent publica- 

C2 



20 WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR 

tions, though few compared with those in other langaagee, are yet 
sufficient to show that the foundation of a liring modern literature has 
been well laid. The Society have reason to know that many scholars 
in Ireland are prepared to add largely to Gaelic literature, and are solely 
prevented by want of encouragement. 

The people are desirous of learning their native language, and we 
have been informed that over two thousand teachers connected with 
the National Board of Education are able and willing to teach them, 
provided it be placed on the Results Programme. 

The Council have further much pleasure in stating that the National 
Teachers of Ireland, at their various congresses held in Dublin of late 
years, have repeatedly passed resolutions, asking that the Irish language 
should be placed on the Results Programme, with a view to have it 
taught where the teachers are qualified. They have also been much 
gratified by the fact that in several instances managers and teachers of 
National schools have, even in the absence of Results Fees, begun to 
establish Irish classes in connection with their schools, and with ex- 
cellent efiPect. 

Seeing that the Education Department has, within the past few 
weeks, agreed to recognise the teaching of Gaelic in the Highland 
schools, we trust that our application to have the Irish language placed 
on the Results Programme will receive a similar favourable re- 
cognition. 

By placing the Irish language on the Results Programme of the 
Board of Education, the country will be spared a national loss, and 
science, civilisation, and literature, the extinction of another branch of 
the Indo-European family of languages — a loss we are sure the Commis- 
sioners would regret in common with the philologists and scholars of 
Europe. 

As some of the Commissioners may be aware, the Council have pre- 
pared and published first and second books for the use of teachers and 
pupils anxious to promote the study of the Irish language, llie First Irish 
Book has already reached the twentieth thousand, and the Second Irish 
Book, although published so recently as the 30th January last, has reached 
the eighth thousand. A copy-book for teaching young persons to write 
the Irish language has also been prepared in consequence of the many 
calls for such a publication. 

We desire to call the attention of the Board to the comparatively few 
pupils that availed themselves of the opportunity of instruction in Latin, 
Greek, and French, in 1876, according to the Board's last report. 
Passed in French, 587 ; in Latin, 261 ; in Greek, 115. Total in the 
three languages, 963 ; while we appeal on behalf of about 200,000 
children already speaking Irish, and who would probably supply in 



THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 21 

many single parishes far more pupils to learn to read and write their 
vernacular than the whole annual total here set forth as having passed 
in Latin, Greek, and French. 

We pray, then, that this request in the interest of education may be 
complied with, for we believe that twenty persons would learn Irish for 
one that would learn any of the other languages, and with this result, 
that the Irish people would become more intellectual and more devoted 
to literature and reading. 

We beg to forward herewith for the information of the Commissioners 
a list of the classes already in practical operation in the country, and 
also a list of the Officers and Council of the Society for the Preservation 
of the Irish Language. 

In condnsion, the Council beg to express a hope that the Commis- 
sioners of National Education will favourably entertain their request to 
place the Irish language on the programme of the National Schools, 
and thus to satisfy the earnest wishes of a large proportion of the Irish 
people. 

We have the honour to be, my Lords and Grentlemen, 

Your obedient Servants, 

John Nolan, O.D.C, "> 

J. J. MacSweeney, R.LA ,> ^^^^^^^^^ 

No. 19, Eildare Street, Dublin, June 17 th, 1878. 

The Memorial was signed by the Council and Officers of the Society, 
and by the Catholic Archbishops of Armagh, Cashel, and Tuam ; the 
Bishops of Limerick, Kilmore, Killala, Clogher, Down and Connor, 
Ross, £)phin, Cloyne, Achonry, Raphoe, Ossory, Ferns : the Protestant 
Bishop of Ossory (now of Cork) ; the Dean of Cashel (now Bishop of 
OsBory) ; the Deans of Armagh and Waterford ; the Earl of Granard ; 
the Lord Mayor of Dublin and many members of the Corporation; 
the Majors and Councillors of several other cities ; by more thau forty 
members of Parliament ; many Poor- Law Boards ; P.L.6.S and T.Cs 
of various districts; by nearly 200 J.P.s of counties and boroughs; 
High Sherifis ; D.L.S, etc. ; by fifty Protestant and Presbyterian 
clergymen; 120 Catholic Deans, Archdeacons, P.P.S, and Heads of 
Religious Houses, and over lôO G.C.s, the foregoing being nearly all 
managers of schools ; by Inspectors of schools ; by the Central Com- 
mittee on behalf of the National teachers of Ireland; by over 100 
members of the Royal Irish Academy, the Royal Historical and Archao- 
logical Associations of Ireland, and other learned societies ; by ten Pro- 
feasors, and many Scholars and Students of Trinity College ; by the 
Rector, Vice-Rector, Deans, and Professors of the Catholic University; 



22 WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR 

ProfesBorsof Maynooth College; the Queen's Colleges; the President 
and Professors of St. Patrick's College, Carlow; French College, 
filackrock ; Holjcross Coll^^, Clonliffe ; All Hallows College, Drum- 
condra ; Magee College, Deny ; St. Kieran's College, Kilkenny ; St. 
John's College, Waterford; St. Peter's College, Wexford; St. Mel's 
College, Longford ; St. Jarlath's College, Tuam ; St. Ignatius' College, 
Galway; Seminaries, Naran, Waterford, Limerick, etc.; Royal and 
Grammar Schools of Raphoe, Banagher, Galway, etc.; and many other 
educational institutions. There were also appended representative 
signatures from the following, amongst other cities, towns, and districts, 
viz. : Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Waterford, Kilkenny, Clonmel, Sligo, 
Ennis, Cashel, Kilrush, Queenstown, Tuam, Skibbereen, Loughrea, 
BaJlycastle, Carrick-on-Suir, Cahir, Tullamore, Gorey, Clifden, Dun- 
fanaghy, Kanturk, Enniskillen, Ennistymon, MuUinavat, Achill, Faugh- 
anvale, Boherbee, Athleague, Cappoquin, Portmamock, Cardonagh. Li 
all about 1300 signatures of a very representative character were for- 
warded to the Society to be attached to their memorial. Had the 
Council's intention been made public, hundreds of thousands of signa- 
tures might have been obtained ; but a representation was all that was 
desired, and an expression of opinion from those concerned in the 
education of the country, which was elicited in a very remarkable 
manner. 

The reply of the Commissioners was prompt and generous. It is as 
follows : 

'' Office of National Education, 4th July, 1878. 

'^ Sir,— Having laid before the Commissioners of National Education 
the memorial from the * Society for the Preservation of the Irish 
Language', which accompanied your letter of the 27th ult., I am directed 
to inform you that they have, after full consideration, passed the follow- 
ing resolution : 

'^ ^ That the Commissioners are prepared to grant Results Fees for 
proficiency in the Irish language, on the same conditions as are applic- 
able to Greek, Latin, and French.' 

*^ I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient servant, 

^^ John E. Sheridan, Secretary, 

'* J. J. MacSweeney, EJsq., Secretary of the Society for the Preservation 
of the Irish Language, 19, Kildare Street,*^ 

In accordance with the above resolution, the Commissioners 
soon afterwards issued the following — 



THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 23 



PROGRAMME OF EXAMINATION 

In the Irish Language for Pupils o/bth and 6th Classes in National 

Schools, 

FiBST Year ...(a) — Grammar to the end of the regular verb, with 

the verbs is and td. 

(6) — Twenty pages of an Irish Phrase Book, or the 
phrases in the First and Second Irish Books 
published by the Society for the Preserva- 
tion of the Irish Language. 

Second YEAB...(a) — Grammar to the end of Syntax. 

(5) —Twenty additional pages of a Phrase Book, or 
an equivalent in prose or poetry to the Story 
of Oisin in Tir na n-6g. 

(c) — Translation of the Second Book of Lessons 
into Irish. 

Thikd Yeab ...(a) — A more critical knowledge of Grammar. 

(6) — ^The Story of Déirdre (omitting the poetry), 
or the children of Lir ; or some equivalent 
book. 

■ 

(c)" Translation of the Third book of Lessons into 
Irish. A short letter or essay in Irish. 

Pupils who have made the necessary 100 days* attendances, and 
who have been regularly enrolled in the 5th or 6th Glass, may be 
examined for Results Fees in Irish. A fee of lOs. will be allowed for 
each pupil who passes in the foregoing programme, on the usual condi- 
tions laid down for examinations in extra subjects. 

By Order, 

Wm. H. Newell, i 
John E. Sheridají, \ ^^'' 

Education Office, Dublin, Oct. 1878. 



In the Report we find a list of elementary schools in which 
classes were formed for the teaching of Irish with a view to 



24 WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR 

examination under the above programme. Complaints have 
since been made that the standard fixed by the Commissioners 
is too high. It has also been pointed out that, in order to 
present pupils for examination in the higher classes, the 
teaching of Irish must be begun in the lower ones, and it is 
claimed that this teaching should be recognised by the autho- 
rities, and encouraged by a suitable grant. 

In order to secure a staff of properly qualified instructors, 
the Commissioners decided to grant National Teachers a 
special certificate of competency to teach Irish. From the 
programme it will be seen that the standard of acquirements 
necessary to qualify for a certificate is not extravagantly 
high. During the years 1879 and 1880 twenty-four teachers 
passed the examination. 

PROGRAMME OF EXAMINATION 
For National Teachers seeking Certificates of Competency to teach Irish, 

1. Grammar. 

2. To translate into Irifth a short passage selected from the Third or 

Fourth National School Reading Book. 

8. Toruigheacht Dhiarmuda agus Ghráinne^ Parts I and II (Society for 
the Preservation of the Irish Langaage). 

i. Eeating^s Forus Feasa air Eirinn^ Book I. (Gaelic Union). Mac- 
ghnimhartha Fhinn, (Gaelic Union). 

N.B. — Candidates will be expected to identify the places mentioned in 
the several texts, and to answer questions on the subject matter. 

But it is not only in the primary schools that the study of 
Irish is carried on : Gaelic classes are also taught in a large 
number of diocesan and other colleges and schools. The 
Commissioners of Intermediate Education have also placed the 
language on their programme, which is here given. (The 
Beport for 1881-2 states that " the number that passed were 
151, as against 119 last year".) 



THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 25 

INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATIONS. 

Fbooramme for 1881. 

junior grade. 
Maximum of Maries^ 600. 

1. LaoiJh Oisin air Thir na n-og ... 100 ^ 

PublÌBhed for the Gaelic Union. [ 200 

Toruigheacht Dhiarmuda agus Gkrainne - • 100 ) 

Fart I publiahed for the Society for the Preservation of 
the Irish Language. 

2. Grammar (Boorke or Joyce) .... 200 

3. A paspage from an easy Celtic author, for translation at 

sight 100 

4. Short English sentences for translation into Celtic, help 

being given by a vocabulary .... 100 



h 



Total, 600 

MIDDLE GRADE. 

Maximum o/Marks^ 600. 

1. Foraê Feasa ẁ Eirinn. Part I of Dr. Eeating's History qf' 

Ireland, eàiìeàhj Joyce. Gaelic Union Publications - 100^ 200 
Toruigheacht Dhiarmuda agus Ghrainne - - 100 

Part U published for the Society for the Preservation of 
the Irish Language. 

2. A passsge from some other prose work, for translation at 

sight, some help being given by a vocabulary - - 150 

8. Grammar (Bourke^s or Joyce's) .... 150 

4. Short English sentences and an easy passage for translation 

into Celtic, help being given by a vocabulary - - 100 



Total, 600 

SENIOR GRADE. 

Maximum o/Marks^ 600. 

1. Mac-ghnùmihariha Fhinn .... 100\ 

Published for the GaeHc Union. y 200 

Fághaü craoMe Chormaic mic Airt ... lOO) 
(Ossianic Society^ Transactions, Srd vol) 

2. Grammar (O'Donovan's or Bourke*s Grammar. Parts I, 

U, and III) 100 

8. A passage from a Celtic author for translation at sight - 120 

4. A passage of English for translation into Celtic - - 120 
6. Celtic Literature. (O^Curry*s Lectures on the MS. Materials 

of Ancient Irish History ^ Lectures I, III, YU, and XI) - 60 

Total, 600 



26 WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR 

To the arguments brought forward in the above petition, I 
respectfully invite the most careful attention of our readers ; 
and I submit that if those arguments are valid in the 
case of the Sister Tsland, they apply with tenfold force to 
Wales. Let the reader for a moment consider the present 
position of the two countries as far as regards their Celtic- 
speaking populations. First, the number of strictly Welsh- 
speaking people is very much greater than that of those who 
regularly speak Irish. Mr. Eavenstein's figures are based, I 
believe, on returns forwarded to him by the Registrars of the 
Principality. I am inclined to believe, with Mr. Davies, that 
his numbers are too high ; but it is certain that the number of 
people who habitually speak Welsh is far greater than that 
of those to whom Irish is the sole or principal vehicle of 
thought. 

But it is when we come to consider the amount of mental 
culture which can be attained solely by a knowledge of Welsh 
and of Irish respectively, that the immense difference between 
the two peoples most clearly appears. In the first place a large 
proportion (I am unable to give the figures, but it is a very 
high percentage) of the Irish-speaking peasantry are unable 
to read : a Welsh-speaking person unable to read is now 
happily, an exception. Then, the Welshman goes regularly 
to church or chapel, where he hears sermons which, even at 
their worst, are dressed in fairly grammatical language, and 
at their best often (to say the least) equal the finest specimens 
of pulpit oratory in other lands. Irish is to some extent used 
by the Boman Catholic clergy in their sermons, but I have it 
on the authority of some of the best modern Irish scholars 
that very few of them possess a grammatical knowledge of 
the language, or can use it either in the pulpit, or in conver- 
sation, with accuracy. 

Again, a large proportion of the Welsh people are regular 
attendants at Sunday School, and there, every Sabbath, year 



THE TEACHING OF lEISH. 27 

after year, are, through their Welsh Bible, brought into con- 
tact with the noblest productions of the human mind, clothed 
in language which, in its sustained elevation and vigour, is 
not unworthy of the sublime conceptions which it bodies 
forth and enshrines. The educational value to the thoughtful 
of this constant contact with noble thoughts can scarcely be 
overrated, and, even to the most thoughtless, is not incon- 
sidei-able. Indeed, it is only in the Welsh Sunday School that 
the Platonic ideal of an education that continues through 
life has hitherto been realised as regards an entire com- 
munity. How valuable this Sunday School education is, any 
one who has had an opportunity to compare the intellectual 
state of the Welsh agricultural labourer with that of his 
English brother as he appears, say in Somerset or Berks, will 
be able very fully to comprehend. Now, in Irish-speaking 
Ireland, this valuable educational agency is almost entirely 
wanting ; there, as far as I am aware, the Sunday School can 
scarcely be said to exist. 

Further, our Welsh-speaking countrymen have at their 
service an abundance of periodical literature, which, whether 
good, bad, or indifferent as literature, is at least always pure. 
On the other hand, the periodical literature of modern Irish 
Ì8 represented by a single « Gaelic column" in a weekly news- 
paper called The Tuam News} 

Lastly, Ireland has no Eisteddfodau ; and these again, 
whatever may be urged against them, certainly stimulate 
to much mental activity a class that in no other country is 
similarly or at all stimulated. If the literature which it 

1 Such was the caae a few yean ago. Bat from the Irieh Society's 
recently iaeaed Report for 1881-2, with which the Secretary has kindly 
&Toared me, I learn that a new weekly journal has been started in 
America called An Qeunlhal, devoted to the cultivation of the Irish lan- 
guage. This, we are told, ^'adds another to the list of American 
journals which devote their columns to the publishing of Irish literature 
in the Irish character''. 



28 WHAT GOVEENMENT IS DOING FOR 

calls forth is not of the very highest order, still, when it 
is remembered that the bulk of it emanates from working 
men, we have every reason to be proud of it ; and however 
estimated, it represents an amount of mental training that 
cannot be too highly valued. And I venture to assert that 
the Awdlau, Cywyddau, and Englynion of the Eisteddfod 
infinitely surpass in literary merit most of the Greek and 
Latin (and, probably, one need not fear to add, the English) 
poetical effusions that win the laurel at our grammar schools 
and universities. 

I have thus endeavoured to draw out the contrast.between 
modern Irish and modem Welsh, in order to show that, if, 
notwithstanding the serious disadvantages described above, 
the former language has been deemed worthy of recognition 
by Grovemment as an element in the educational machinery 
of the Sister country, infinitely more important is it to give 
Welsh a similar place in the future educational system of the 
Principality. 

Assuming that the general principle is granted, the ques- 
tion may be asked, what place should be given to Welsh 
in the elementary school curriculum ? Ought the Welsh 
people to put forward the same claims which have been ad- 
vanced by the Irish Society ? It wiU be observed that one 
demand of that Society is identical with that so convincingly 
advocated by Mr. Davies, viz., that English should be taught 
through the medium of the native languaga The arguments 
in favour of this demand appear to me simply irresistible. 
The present system, as Mr. Davies has shown, stands self- 
condemned by its practical failure. Moreover, it is even 
worse than a failure : it is cruel and irrational to the last 
degree. For proof of its cruelty we need not go back to the 
good old times, familiar, doubtless, to many of our readers, 
when the ** Welsh Note" circulated in the parish school, and, 
when using a word of Welsh, was " an heinous crime, yea, an 



THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 29 

iniquity to be punished by the" schoolmaster, and to be ex- 
piated under the birch or the cane. How cruel it is, anyone 
who may have witnessed for half an hour the working of a 
class of young children in an elementary school in a Welsh- 
speaking district, has had clear indication in the oft painfully 
bewildered expression on the faces of the young victims. 
And the irrationality of a system which is a constant process 
of trying to teach one unknown thing through the medium 
of another equally unknown surely needs no proof. 

What would be thought of an English schoolmaster who 
introduced into his school none but French text-books, con- 
veyed all his instruction in French, and insisted upon his 
pupils using only that language ? Time was, indeed, when 
just such a system did prevail in aU the schools through the 
length and breadth of England, when that country lay 
crushed under the heel of the Norman. And we know what 
was then, and what is now thought of that tyrannical policy. 
A contemporary writer bewails the fact that " children in 
school, against the usage and manner of aU other nations, be 
compelled for to leave their own language, and for to construe 
their lessons and their things into French, and so they have 
since Normans first came to England'*. Mutatis rvominibus 
de Ttobis fabvla narratur. The folly and tyranny of this 
enactment of the Norman Conquerors has often been dwelt 
upon; and English historians point with pride to the fact 
that, in spite of aU, the people clung to their native language, 
and that it finally rose and triumphed. A system that was 
foolish, cruel, and tyrannical in Norman England cannot be 
wise and benevolent in modem Wales. 

But the Irish Society has gone further, and has successfully 
urged the importance of directly teaching the native language 
in Government schools. Is it desirable that the same de- 
mand should be put forward on behalf of Welsh ? To this, 
I answer without hesitation, Yes. And if this is not done, a 



30 WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR 

most valuable means of mental training Ijring ready to the 
hand of the Welsh teacher will continue to be sacrificed. The 
intellectual advantage of possessing an adequate knowledge 
and ready command of two languages is simply incalculable. 
And this great advantage can be secured for every Welsh 
child, wherever our native tongue is spoken, with very little 
trouble, if the conditions be properly met. If proper advan- 
tage were taken of the peculiar bilingual state of the country, 
the Elementary Schools of Wales might be placed at least on 
an equality, as far as regards the amount of real mental cul- 
ture imparted, with the middle-class schools of England. 
These latter differ from the elementary schools mainly by the 
fact that a little French or Latin, or both, is included in their 
curriculum, in addition to the ordinary English subjects 
taught (and very often better taught) at the elementary 
schools. What does this differentiating element, this teach- 
ing of French and Latin, really amount to ? Generally to 
this, that an average boy who leaves school for business, say 
at sixteen, is perhaps able to translate easy French narrative 
into English without the help of his dictionary, and to turn 
into French a number of sentences which he has met with in 
his exercise books ; but, as for translating a piece of English 
prose, however easy, into French, it is generally beyond his 
powers. In Latin, if he has learnt any, his acquirements are, 
of course, still more moderate. 

Now, let us inquire what are the circumstances of the 
Welsh child, and how they can be turned to his advantage. 
Welsh he acquires naturally, and without trouble, in conver- 
sation at home, and in the Sunday School and the services at 
church or chapel. If Mr. Davies's suggestions were adopted 
he would soon acquire a fair knowledge of English almost as 
easily and naturally. Very soon it would be possible to ex- 
ercise him in translation from the one language to the other, 
both written and viva voce, an exercise acknowledged from 



THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 31 

the days of Cicero to be of the very highest value as a 
means of mental training. From translation he should be led 
on to original composition in both languages. Concurrently 
with this, the grammar of the two languages should be taught, 
as it could be with comparatively little difiSculty. Under 
the present system the teaching of grammar is far more diffi- 
cult than it need be. The grammar of Welsh, the language 
that is fairly well understood, is, of course, ignored : and the 
teaching of English grammar is of necessity most difficult, as 
it is an attempt to deduce general principles from facts which 
are only very imperfectly known. 

If some such course as I have described were adopted, the 
child who now leaves school, as Mr. Davies has said, '' prac- 
tically ignorant of English", would go forth into the world 
with the power of using two languages with equal ease, and 
possessing a fair grammatical knowledge of both. Need it 
be asked which is the more valuable mental acquisition, such a 
practical and intelligent knowledge, or a smattering of French, 
soon to be forgotten ? That a system like the present, which, 
instead of using the naturally acquired knowledge of Welsh, 
as it might be, and ought to be used, as a most powerful in- 
tellectual lever, persists in treating it as so much lumber, 
thereby neglecting a quite exceptional means of mental 
training — that such an insane system should have prevailed 
at all would be incredible were it not painful before our 
eyes. 

In this way the " bilingual difficulty", so much bewailed, 
might be turned into an invaluable boon. Even as it is the 
difficulty is not without some compensating advantages. I 
believe it has been shown (though I am not at present able 
to verify the statement) that the elementary schools in 
Wales earn, in "results fees'*, a larger proportion of their 
working expenses than do English schools. How is this to 
be accounted for ? Is it not due to the fact that such know- 



32 WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR 

ledge of the two languages as a large proportion of the 
children possess, imperfect as it is, yet exercises a marked 
quickening influence on their mental faculties by the power 
of comparison that it gives them ? 

But it may be objected that the *«achers of our elementary 
schools cannot afiTord to take up Welsh in the manner sug- 
gested, as all their time is required for the necessary prepara- 
tion of their pupils for examination in those subjects with 
which the Government grants are connected ; and that 
knowledge of Welsh will be no recommendation in the eyes 
of Her Majesty's Inspector. Even so ; still, I assert that, if 
Welsh were used first, as Mr. Davies has suggested, as the 
medium for acquiring an elementary knowledge of English, 
and subsequently as a means of perfecting that knowledge 
and of general mental training, such a course would be 
amply justified by the increased power developed by the 
pupils, who would thereby be enabled far more successfully 
to grapple with the special subjects to which results fees are 
attached. But I would ask further. Have we not every right 
to demand that Welsh, like Irish, should be made an extra 
subject, and a substantial grant made on account of every 
"pass" secured in it? Surely, the object of educational 
grants is to promote the real education of the people by any 
and every means ; and if Welsh can be used as a most eflS- 
cient educational instrument, why should not its use be 
encouraged in the ordinary way ? 

It may be objected, again, that in the case of those who 
proceed to higher schools, in order to prepare themselves for 
the University, to take up Welsh would involve a loss of time, 
which would seriously handicap them in the race for distinc- 
tion. To this objection the same answer may be made, that 
the intellectual gain would more than compensate for the 
time taken up. And it should be remembered that what has 
to be done is not to acquire a new language, but simply to 



THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 33 

utilise for mental discipline an instrument already in the 
pupil's possession. The time taken up would not be con- 
siderable, because the facts of the language would be already 
known, acquired without difficulty in Nature's way, not 
slowly and painfully from books. If the right method were 
pursued, Welsh and English would become to the children of 
the Principality almost as two vernacular languages : in both 
they would be able to think and to express their thoughts 
with equal ease. This would be an attainment of the highest 
value, in an educational point of view, as it would constitute 
a stimulus to mental activity that could not otherwise be 
supplied. For it is very rarely that such a knowledge of 
French or German is acquired at our giummar schools as 
enables the pupil to use either of these languages with any 
degree of facility, if at alL And until a language can be 
used freely as an exponent of thought, it does not serve its 
highest purpose as an instrument of culture. 

As bearing out what has been urged about the importance 
of a grammatical knowledge of Welsh, I would state, as the 
result of my own experience and observation, both in the 
elementary school and in the grammar school, that the prac- 
tical inconvenience arising from the habitual use of Welsh at 
home appeared to be in inverse proportion to the degree 
to which the language had been employed as a means of 
culture. Those who had been accustomed to speak the 
language merely, and no more, certainly were at least tem- 
porarily under a disadvantage ; but those who had also been 
in the habit of reading Welsh, and had studied it gramma- 
tically, did not suffer at all in comparison with those who had 
always used English at home. Indeed, I have observed in 
numerous instances that those who had thus made Welsh 
an educational instrument, were able to use English with 
more force and freedom than any of their schoolfellows who 
habitually spoke that language. 

VOL. V. D 



34 WHAT THE GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR 

But the efforts of the Irish Society did not end with what 
has been above detailed. To crown the edifice, they felt that 
it was necessary to give Irish a place in the University edu- 
cation of the country. With this view, the Council presented 
to the Senate of the new Royal University of Ireland the 
following Memorial : — 

To the Senate of the Royal ÜDÌyerBÌty of Ireland. 

The Memorial of the CooncO of the Society for the Preserration of 
the Irish language 

Sheweth that the Uniyenity of Dublin, and the Catholic Uniyenity, 
and other uniyersities, both of Great firitftin and the^Continent of 
Europe, haye Chairs of Celtic Language and Literature. 

That the Irish language is now taught in many of the colleges and 
schools of Lreland. 

That it has a place on the programme of the National Board and of 
the Commissioners of Litermediate Education. 

That, independent of the educational utility of the study of the 
Irish language, its scientific yalue has long been recognised by savants 
in yarious countries, to whose zeal in its cultiyation [the comparatiye 
philology of the Indo-European languages owes much of its present 
state of adyancement. 

That, further, few countries in Europe equal Ireland in the poflaession 
of such an abundant store of ancient literature, containing materials 
not only intrinsically interesting in themselyes, but capable of con- 
tributing importantly to the new study of comparatiye mythology, and 
of illustrating the primitiye modes of thought, and the common tradi- 
tion of the Aryan family of mankind ; and that a knowledge of the 
language in question is indispensable to the utilisation of .those yaluaUe 
materials. 

That the consideration of the aboye-mentioned facts induces your 
memorialists to submit that, in placing the Irish language on the curri- 
culum of the Royal Uniyersity of Ireland, the Senate would be but ac- 
cording it a position corresponding to its acknowledged yalue, and suited 
to the dignity of an ancient and still liying language. 

The following letter was received from the Secretaries to 
the Senate : — 



THE TEACHING OF IBISH. 35 

The Royal University of Ireland Offices, 

The Castle, Dublin, 

22jid February, 1881. 
Sir, — Referring to oar letter of the 28th October, we beg to inform 
yon that the Memorial from the Council of the Society for the Preser- 
Tstion of the Irish Language, which was thereby acknowledged, has 
been carefully r^;arded by the Committee, and we trust that the cur- 
riculum, which is about to be laid before Uer Majesty for approval, will 
be found, when published, to meet the wishes of your Society. 

We are, Sir, yours obediently, 
J. C. Meredith > ^ 
D. B. DusKE 1 Secretarte*. 

J. G. MacSweeney, Esq., 
9, Slildare Street. 

The nature of the curriculum referred to will be seen from 
the annexed programme. 

ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND. 

Programme o/ Examituitions for Celtic, 1881. 

MATRICULATION EXAMINATION. 

Celtic'— P««f. 

1. Irish Grammar. 

2. Two diort easy works, or portions of two works. 
The books for the present are : 

Annala rioghachta eireaniiy 1592 to 1598 indusiye. 
Two short poems by Cuooigrich 0*Clery, giyen in 0*Curry*B MSS, 
Materials of Irish History, pp. 562-569. 

3. Translation of easy sentences into Irish. 
Honours. 

In addition to the Pass Course : 

Annala rioghackta eireann, 1598*1603 inclusive. 

Oidhe Chinne Lir, 

2. More advanced questions in Grammar. 

3. Longer passages for translation into Irish. 
History of Ireland during the reign of Elizabeth. 

FIRST UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION. 

Celtic — Pass. 

1. Translation from two works. 
The books for the present are : 

' Candidates presenting Celtic must give notice to the Secretaries at 
least three calendar months before the date fixed for the examination. 

d2 



36 WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR 

Oidhe cloinne tuirend, 

Teagasc Flatha by Tady MacBrodin. 

2. Qaeetions on Grammar and Idioms. 

3. Translation of a piece of English prose into Irish. 
Honours, 



In addition to the Pass Course : 

1. Leabhar hreathnech, together with the Duan Eireannach, and 

Duan Atbanach, (Irish Nennius). Dublin, 1848. 

2. More advanced questions on Grammar and Idioms. 

3. Early History of Ireland to commencement of the Incnndons of 

Northmen. 

SECOND UXIVERSITT EXAMINATION FOR CANDIDATES PROCEEDING 

TO THE B.A. DEGREE. 

Celtic — Pass, 

1. Translation from two prescribed works. 
The books for the present are : 

Fled Duin na n- Gedh. (Battle of Magh Rath. Dublin, 1842). 
Cath Mhuighe Leana, (Dublin, 1856). 

2. Grammar and Idioms. 

3. Translation of a piece of continuous English prose into Irish. 
Honours, 

In addition to the Pass Course : 

1. Longes m<K n- Usnig. 

Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaihh, (London, 1867). 

2. Elementary Philology of the Irish Language. 

3. History of Ireland from the commencement of the Incursions of 
the Northmen to the Norman Invasion. 

B.A. DEGREE EXAMINATION. 

Celtic — Pass. 

1. Translation from prescribed works. 
The books for the present are : 

Serglige Conculaind, 
Scela na Esergi, 
Comrac Firdiad. 

2. Elementary Philology of the Irish Language. 

3. History of Celtic (Irish) Literature. 
Honours, 



In addition to the Pass Course : 

1. Cain Aigiüne, 

2. Philology of the Irish Language. [Ebel's Zeuss]. 



THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 37 

examination for m.a. degree. 
Celtic. 

1. Breatha ComaitheeM. 

2. Transcript, with contractions fully set out, and translation from 
acHne selected MS. 

The tract selected for the present is : 

llie History of Alexander the Great in the Leabher Brec. 

3. Philology of the Celtic Languages. 

N.B. — The Candidates will be expected to show a knowledge of 
the works of Zeuss, £bel, Windisch, and other Celtic scholars. 

Even this does not exhaust the list of concessions which the 
perseverance and energy of the Society have wrung from the 
authorities. When Irish was placed on the list of extra sub- 
jects for results-fees in the primary schools, the Board exacted 
from each pupil studying Irish a quarterly fee of two shil- 
Ungs. This fee, as might have been expected, acted very in- 
juriously in preventing many pupils from joining the Irish 
classes. In consequence of complaints and protests made by 
teachers very generally against this fee, the Council of the So- 
ciety petitioned the Board for its removal. This was at first re- 
fused. Thereupon the Council drew up a circular, which was 
sent to all the Irish Members of Parliament, requesting them 
to use their influence with the Government to have the 
obnoxious fee abolished ; and, this was at last obtained The 
efforts of the Council are now directed towards obtaining from 
Government direct encouragement to the teaching of Irish in 
the lower classes of elementary schools ; and when this point 
has been gained, the Society will be able to boast that it has 
secured for the native language of Ireland — what would have 
been considered hopeless a few years ago — an important 
position in the Educational system of the country at every 
stage, from the lowest class in the primary school to the 
highest in the University. 

I have thus set forth, at what some of my readers may 
regard extravagant length, what has been done for the native 



38 WHAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING FOR THE TEACHING OF IRISH. 

language in Ireland, because I think the action of the Irish 
Society, and the success that has attended it, are in a special 
manner at once an example and an encouragement to the Prin- 
cipality. The place which has been given to Irish in the 
Educational programme of the country cannot, surely, be 
denied to Welsh, which occupies so much more important a 
place as a factor in popular culture. Seeing what it already 
does for the training and elevation of the masses, through the 
Pulpit and the Press, the Sunday School and the Eisteddfod, 
I maintain we have an unanswerable argument in support of 
a demand that it should be used directly as an Educational 
agent in our Elementary Schools, our Grammar Schools, and 
the University. 



39 



THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 

By LEWIS MORBIS, Esq., of Fenbryn, UoDorary Fellow of Jesiui 

College, Oxford. 



In the early autumn of last year, the friends of education in 
Wales were more sanguine and hopeful than they had been for 
years. The Committee so ably presided over by Lord Aberdare 
had reported, a friendly Government with a great majority was 
in full power, and the question seemed nearer a triumphant 
solution than ever before. There seemed to be little differ- 
ence of opinion among earnest Welshmen, not blinded by 
party feeling, on the value and justice of the Beport Above 
all, Hugh Owen, the consistent friend and promoter of edu- 
cation in his native country, had just received at the hands 
of the Sovereign, wholly unsought by himself, the honour, 
too often lavished on accidental or undeserving recipients, 
but, in his case, by common consent due to the success which 
had attended his lifelong efforts for good; and was at Impost 
energetic as ever. A slight failure of the usual clearness and 
perspicacity of his mind, which had troubled him for a short 
time, was passing away, after a short period of leisure, spent 
in acquiring new stores of knowledge on the subject which was 
nearest to his heart. Finally, as a measlire of precaution, he 
was advised, early in November, to spend the more inclement 
months of winter in the beautiful climate of the Eiviera. 
With the spring, it was hoped that he would be once more 
among us, to watch, in common with other friends of the old 
country, including the writer of this article, the passing 
through Parliament of the brief but important measure, which 



40 THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 

the labours of the Departmental Committee on Welsh educa- 
tion had made possible. 

" Man proposes, but God disposes." Sir Hugh Owen died 
within ten days of his leaving England, leaving his great 
work unfulfilled. The great measure for the education of 
Wales is still in the vague future. To-day it seems possible 
that the whole residue of the present Session may be taken 
up with fresh hopeless attempts at conciliation which does 
not conciliate, or of repression, baffled by the destruction of 
the moral sense, among a people wild with senseless hate, 
or paralysed by fear. Next Session is still far away, and 
many things may happen before then. Meantime, the youth 
of Wales must continue to grow up in ignorance, without 
any means of satisfying the desire for knowledge which is in 
them, and without enjoying any of the rewards of ability 
open to their young countrymen of the other portions of the 
kingdom. A measure for higher education in Scotland— a 
country for which enough has been already done — has been 
indeed brought in, and will doubtless be passed. If an 
additional sum, counted by hundreds of thousands, be asked 
for Ireland, it will be, doubtless, given. But for Wales and 
Welsh education, it is very unlikely that anything whatever 
will be done by Parliament, either now or soon, notwithstand- 
ing the strong personal interest which the greatest and most 
enlightened of English Prime Ministers is understood to take 
in the matter. 

In these depressing circumstances, it is more than ever 
necessary for Welshmen to hold fast by the example of the 
great and patriotic Welshman whose name is at the head of 
this article ; to imitate him in his imwearying and persistent 
efforts for his country ; and to resolve that they shall not be 
lost. If he did not see the accomplishment of his work here, 
the more necessary is it that we should do what we can 
to make it complete. 



THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 41 

Hugh Owen was born on the 14th of January 1804 at 
Voel, in the parish of liangeinwen, in Anglesea. The son of 
a yeoman, Owen Owen, in that county, by Mary, his wife, 
daughter of Owen Jones of the Quirt, a large farm in 
Anglesea ; it was in his case, as in that of many other dis- 
tinguished men, to the teaching and example of his mother 
that he owed the strength of purpose and rectitude of cha- 
racter which distinguished him through life. Of the educa- 
tion which he was so anxious to provide for othera, he himself 
enjoyed but little. From the age of eight to that of thirteen 
— a short seed-time for so full a harvest — was all the time 
which he spent in the attainment of such knowledge as can 
be gained from books. At thirteen, he left Carnarvon, where 
he had been at school, for his home in Anglesea. From that 
time untu the year 1825, when he was a young man of 
twenty-one, he seems to have remained at his father's farm 
in Anglesea, assisting in the cultivation of the land. Then, 
like many another yoimg Welshman in the past, and many 
others, no doubt, in the future, conscious of growing powers, 
he left Wales for London, where, for a time, he acted as clerk 
to Mr. Bulkeley Hughes, the late member for the Carnarvon 
Boroughs, who was then a practising barrister, with chambers 
in the Temple. Shortly afterwards, on the recommendation 
of that gentleman, he obtained a more lucrative situation in 
the office of a Welsh solicitor practising in Hatton Garden. 
With this gentleman he remained for eleven years, attaining 
a considerable knowledge of law, and it was his intention, as 
it was understood, to seek admission as a solicitor, when his 
views were suddenly changed by the establishment of the 
Poor Law Commission in 1836. 

In February of that year, Mr. Owen applied for, and ob- 
tained, a clerkship in the Poor Law Office, Somerset House. 
His career in that office was marked throughout by the con- 
scientious care and acute intelligence which were character- 



42 THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 

istic of him, and which attracted to him the respect and 
confidence of his official superiors. Long exercising a practical 
superintendence over the affairs of the office, he was, finally, 
appointed Chief Clerk of the Poor Law Board. Six and thirty 
years elapsed from the time when he first joined the office to 
that of his retirement in 1872. During that long period, he 
was the representative of his department before all Parlia- 
mentary Committees connected with its work. The great 
Andover inquiry was conducted with his assistance and 
under his auspices. From both parties in the State he 
received the greatest consideration and honour; and the 
writer has seen minutes and letters bearing the names of 
eminent statesmen, Liberal and Conservative, all uniting 
in expressions of great regard for the useful public servant 
who commanded the confidence of alL 

Space will not allow of more than the barest possible 
reference to the many and varied patriotic efforts and 
achievements of Sir Hugh Owen in the course of a long 
and well-spent life. A very full and ably-written notice, 
to which the present writer is greatly indebted, from the 
pen of Mr. Marchant Williams, appears in the current 
number of the Bed Dragon^ a new and ably-conducted 
national magazine, and many of the facts stated in this 
memoir have appeared in a short and imperfect notice of Sir 
Hugh's life contributed by the writer to the University Col- 
lege of Wales Magazine for December last The British and 
Foreign School Society in its work in Wales, the Bangor 
Normal College, the Swansea Training College for Female 
Teachers, the Cambrian Association for the Education of the 
Deaf and Dumb, the National Eisteddfod Association, the 
North Wales Scholarships Association, the Welsh Schools 
at Ashford; as representing Welsh objects: the London 
School Board, the National Temperance League, the 
London Fever Hospital (of which he was for many years 
honorary secretary), the Sunday Mission to Cabmen, on 



THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 43 

which he laboured with the most marked success, the 
British and Foreign School Society in its work in England, 
as representing general objects — such is the brilliant, but 
probably imperfect record of labours and achievements 
which for many years absorbed the scanty leisure of a 
hard-worked and most efficient public servant during the 
lengthened period of his active life. That he was the head 
and front of a greater undertaking than any which has yet 
been mentioned, in the establishment of the University Col- 
lie of Wales — that great and meritorious institution, which 
has held its own, in spite of prejudice, of misrepresentation, 
of much sectarian jealousy, and an eminently ill-chosen 
situation — is well known. To him was due the fact that 
higher education for Wales is to-day a thing in the mouths 
of all, and will, sooner or later, be represented on the 
Statute Book. He may almost be said to have created, 
or, at any rate, to have discovered, the thirst for educa- 
tion which now plays a great part in the present of Wales, 
and will play a greater part still in its future. To his 
initiative was due imdoubtedly the appointment of the 
Departmental Committee, which will not, surely, be with- 
out fruit for Wales. As Treasurer and Honorary Secre- 
tary of the College, previous to the writer of this, at his 
request, undertaking, with Dr. Evans, the latter office, he was 
to the last indefatigable in the interests of the College. 
Over and over again has the writer seen him travelling 
through the length and breadth of Wales, at his own expense, 
both of money and of labour, soliciting subscriptions, which 
at first were difficult to obtain, for the great object which he 
had at heart — the establishment of a satisfactory educational 
system for Wales. Few know better than the writer how 
powerfully the Seport of the Committee on Education was 
influenced by the firm grasp of facts and figures which he 
always showed in connection with the subject, and the ex- 
traordinary breadth, moderation, and equity of his views. 



44 THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 

With a life so many sided as Sir Hugh's, it is absolutely 
necessary to pass lightly over many phases of activity if we 
are to do fuU justice to any one of the numerous objects of 
his unceasing devotion. For us of the Cymmrodorion Society, 
there is an especial interest in the part which he took in the 
successful revival of the Society, and in the establishment of 
the Cymmrodorion Section of the Eisteddfod. The re-estab- 
lishment, in 1873, of the Society, originally founded, as the 
writer is proud to think, by the Morysiaid in the last century, 
was due to Sir Hugh, in conjunction with two admirable 
and patriotic Welshmen, now dead, Gohebydd, and the late 
Rev. Robert Jones of Rotherhithe, the late editor of this 
journal ; with Mr. W. Jones (Gwrgant), Mr. Stephen Evans, 
the present Chairman of its Council, and others. Of 
the efforts of these distinguished men on behalf of Wales 
this is not the occasion to speak. Probably Sir Hugh Owen 
was less of a scholar and archseologist than most of them, 
being, indeed, like others of us, more deeply interested in the 
future of his country than in its past. To him it was chiefly 
a means of bringing together on common ground his country- 
men, divided by far too many jealousies and distinctions of 
religion, of language, and of rank. He felt that if the Welsh 
nation was ever to be welded together into a whole, it must 
be by taking every opportunity of bringing Welshmen of all 
classes together on a common platform, as is, indeed, most 
successfully done at the meetings of the Society. 

Sir Hugh had also, as the writer believes, a far-reaching 
scheme for making the beautiful medal of the Society, com- 
pleted shortly before his death by another patriotic and gifted 
Welshman, since dead, Joseph Edwards, a means of educa- 
tional progress for Welsh people, as well as a reward for 
learned research. It was his wish, as the writer knows, that 
it should be found in many a humble Welsh cottage, where 
genius, in whatever form, displayed itself among the young, 



THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 45 

to act as an incentive to the cultivation of natural gifts. With, 
great reluctance, the Medal Committee, of which the writer 
has been a member, has found it impossible to formulate any 
plan, within the means of the Society, by which so heavy a 
burden could be undertaken by it with safety. It may pro- 
bably be found that the Society is unable to travel beyond 
its first obvious duty, as a learned society for the encourage- 
ment of research, or perhaps of mature and eminent achieve- 
ment in the chief branches of intellectual activity. But the 
writer is confident that Sir Hugh's great powers would have 
been found equal to the occasion, if he had lived to devote 
to this subject the strength of a clear intellect and the very 
remarkable faculty of organisation which he was known to 
possess. Robert Jones, Gohebydd, and Hugh Owen, are all 
dead and gone, but their work survives them in the present 
flourishing condition of the Cymmrodorion Society, which 
has never been in so satisfactory a state as at present, and 
would seem to have found its way to the support of all 
classes of Welshmen, without distinction of opinion or of creed. 
The establishment of the Cymmrodorion Section of the 
National Eisteddfod, an institution yet in its infancy, but 
which the writer believes will more and more tend to leaven 
the parent institution, and make it more powerful for good 
than at present, was also the work of Sir Hugh Owen. It was 
to him, indeed, that the establishment in 1861 of the Social 
Science Section of the National Eisteddfod was due. That Sec- 
tion had,after the dissolution,forvarious reasons, of the Eistedd- 
fodic Council, for some time ceased to exist, when, in 1879, 
Sir Hugh revived it at Birkenhead, under the designation of 
the Cymmrodorion Section. Crowded meetings at Carnarvon 
in 1880, and Merthyr Tydfil last year, testify to the success 
of this movement, and to the general feeling that it supplies 
a great want Nothing is more certain, in the opinion of the 
present writer, than that the discussion of social and economic 



46 THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 

subjects is a great and pressing want for the Welsh people, 
and one which the Eisteddfod proper does not and cannot 
supply. There is no reason why this Section should not do 
for Wales very much what the Social Science Association has 
for many years done for England in ventilating grievances, 
which, perhaps, might otherwise have smouldered for years, 
until they flamed forth into passionate outcries, or were ex- 
tinguished to appearance, but not in reality, leaving behind 
them, as in Ireland, a legacy of misunderstanding and hatred. 
There is, and may probably continue to exist, among the 
majority of the Welsh people, an extraordinary carelessness as 
to the quality of their Parliamentary representation. That is 
a matter which, in the minds of ordinary Welshmen, is 
of so little importance, that all question of personal fitness 
or political consistency, may be put aside as of no moment 
whatever, and postponed to the narrowest local considera- 
tions possible. Any institution, therefore, which shall make 
the people take an interest in general politics, cannot fail, as 
the writer believes, to do good in this direction, and may tend 
to a more intelligent appreciation of the duties of citizenship, 
and a more rational view at once of the value and of the 
natural limits of our Welsh nationality. If such a good 
result accrue from the Cymmrodorion Section, it will be due, 
almost entirely, to the initiative of Hugh Owen. 

There are many men who do good and useful work in the 
world, who must be credited with a strong sense of duty and 
a high ideal, but who never attract to themselves, as Hugh 
Owen did, the affectionate admiration of everyone who comes 
into contact with them. To the writer, his almost daily inti- 
macy with the subject of this Memoir, during the last years of 
hia life, was an unfailing source of pleasure and profit. It 
lifted him out of the ignoble atmosphere and surroundings of 
ordinary life, to be associated with a man whose every thought 
was for the good of others, and with whom selfish considera- 



THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 47 

tions had absolutely no conceivable weight. Hugh Owen 
was always full of some patriotic scheme, not the narrow and 
ill-advised patriotism which looks to the preservation of any- 
thing — an old language or an old institution — because it is 
old, but the wider patriotism which has for its sole object the 
greater development and the greater good of the greatest 
number. Old age, which narrows so many, only made him 
broader, more tolerant, and more eager for necessary change, 
because he knew that the time was short. How short, alas ! 
none of his many friends had any idea. After the Eeport of 
the Departmental Committee was presented to Parliament 
last year, he became conscious, as has been said above, of a 
certain fatigue of the faculties, which called for rest, and 
which led him to decline being present as President of the 
National Eisteddfod at Merthyr last year. How great the dis- 
appointment was to his countrymen, only the present writer, 
who was suddenly called upon, at his request, to replace him, 
can fully know. The leisure which he was then compelled to 
give himself, he employed in the congenial task of inspecting 
and considering the plan of the new College at Nottingham. 
On the 1 1th of last November, he left, by the advice of his phy- 
sician, to spend the winter on the beautiful Biviera of Genoa, 
probably passing on the road the present writer, who was re- 
turning from that favoured shore, and who little thought 
that he should never see his friend again. A letter, which 
he wrote to Mr. Stephen Evans, describing the beauti- 
ful country through which he passed, and all the novel life 
and scenery of the South, furnished a touching evidence of 
his strong religious faith, of his extreme appreciation of 
natural beauty, and of the thankfulness which, with all good 
and devout men, and with many, perhaps, who dare hardly 
claim such a high title, he felt for the great mercy and good- 
ness of God, and for the hand which had sustained him from 
the distant cradle to the already opening grave. The facul- 



48 THE LATE SIR HUGH OWEN. 

ties had almost regained their former vigour, only a little 
attack of hronchitis, contracted in London, and not to be much 
feared or considered in such a climate, somewhat interfered 
with his full restoration to health. "A little pressure," said 
the old Greek poet, long ago, " sends the aged to their last 
sleep," and it was thus that, despite the hopeful assurances 
of his physician, he sank peacefully to rest at Mentone on 
Sunday, November 20th, surrounded by members of his de- 
voted family in two generations. 

He was eminently an example of the good which a man, 
possessed by a high ideal of duty, but with natural gifts not 
probably much in excess of those of many who do nothing 
either for others or for themselves, may do in a world in which 
so much is wrong. It will be long before Wales finds another 
son so devoted to her interests, so free from the weaknesses 
of the national character, so strong and unswerving in his per- 
sistence in whatever course he was convinced was right, so 
tolerant and yet so sure, so gentle and yet so determined, a 
man in whom great business shrewdness and sagacity were 
combined with the simplicity of the Saint. It has been de- 
termined, by a meeting of the most influential character, 
comprising many Welsh representatives of both Houses of 
Parliament, and many other Welshmen of eminence in every 
branch of life, to erect to him a statue as a fitting memorial 
of his great public services, and also, if possible, to found a 
scholarship to bear his name. While this notice is being 
written, an appeal is being widely made to his countrymen 
for these purposes. It will be surprising if that appeal does 
not meet with an adequate response, for Sir Hugh Owen was 
one of those men of whom a nation should indeed be proud ; 
and, when a nation ceases to recognise its great men, it is no 
longer living, but dead. 



49 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

Bt Professor RHYS. 



VI. Beddgelert, Drws y Coed, etc. 

The best living authority I have found on the folk-lore of 
fieddgelert, Drws y Coed, and the surrounding district, is 
Mr. William Jones, now of Llangollen. He has written a 
good deal on the subject in the Brython, and in competition 
essays for various literary meetings in Wales. I have one 
such essay of his, together with the Brt/thon, before me, and 
I have, besides, had a number of letters from him, most of 
which contain some additional information. To meet the 
rule laid down by the editor of the Cymmrodar, I have asked 
Mr. Jones to give me a little of his own history. This he 
has been kind enough to do ; and, as I have so far followed 
no particular order in these jottings, I shall now give the 
reader the substance of his letters in English, as I am anxious 
that no item should be lost or be inaccessible to English 
students of folk-lore. What is unintelligible to me may not 
be so to Max MliUer or Andrew Lang. 

"I was bred and bom," says Mr. Jones,"in the parish of Bedd- 
gelert, one of the most rustic neighbourhoods and least subject 
to change in the whole country. Some of the old Welsh customs 
remained within my memory, in spite of the adverse influence 
of the Calvimstic Beformation^ as it is termed, and I have 
myself witnessed several Knitting Nights and Nuptial Feasts 
(Neühiorau), which, be it noticed, are not to be confounded 
with weddings, as they were feasts which followed the wed- 
dings at a week's interval At these gatherings, the song 

VOL. v. E 



50 WELSH FAIKY TALES. 

and story formed an element of prime importance in the 
entertainment, at a time when the Eeformation alluded to 
had already blown the blast of extinction on the Merry 
Nights (Noswyliau Llawen) and Saints' Fêtes^ (Gwyl Mab- 
sarvtav) before my time, though many of my aged acquaint- 
ances remembered them well, and retained a vivid recollection 
of scores of the amusing tales they used to relate for the best 
at the last-mentioned long-night meetings. I have heard 
not a few of them reproduced by men of that generation. 
As an example of the old-fashioned ways of the people 
of Beddgelert in my early days, I may mention the way 
in which wives and chüdren used to be named. The custom 
was that the wife never took her husband's family name, but 
retained the one she had as a spinster. Thus my grand- 
mother on my mother's side was called Ellen Hughes, daughter 
to Hugh Williams of Gwastad Anaa The name of her hus- 
band^ my grandfather, was Wüliam Prichard [= W. ab 
Ehisiart^ or Richard's son], son to Bichard William of the 
Efail Newydd. The name of their eldest son, my uncle 
(brother to my mother), was Hugh Hughes, and the second 
son's name was Eichard William. The mother had the pri- 
vilege of naming her first-bom after her own family in case 
it was a boy ; but if it happened to be a girl, she took her 
name from the father's family, for which reason my mother's 
maiden name was Catherine WiUiams. This remained her 
name to the day of her death ; and the old people at Beddge- 
lert persisted in calling me, so long as I was at home, 
Wüliam Prichard, after my grandfather, as I was my mother's 
eldest child." 

^ These were held, so far as I can gather from the descriptíoiia usually 
given of them, exactly as I have seen a kermess or kirchmeue celebrated 
at Heidelberg, or rather the village over the î^eckar, opposite that 
town. It was Iq 1869, but I forget what saint it was, with whose name 
the kermess was supposed to be connected : the chief features of it were 
dancing and beer drinking. 



WELSH FAIBY TALES. 51 

''Most of the tales I have collected/' says Mr. Jones, 
"relate to the parishes of Beddgelert and Dolwyddelen. My 
kindred have lived for generations in those two parishes, and 
they are very numerous ; in fact, it used to be said that the 
people of Dolwyddelen and Beddgelert were all cousins. 
They were mostly small farmers, and jealous of all strangers, 
so that they married almost without exception from the one 
parish into the other. This intermixture helped to carry the 
tales of the one parish to the other, and to perpetuate them 
on the hearths of their homes from generation to generation, 
until they were swept away by another influence in this 
century. Many of my ancestors seem to have been very 
fond of stories, poetry, and singing, and I have been told 
that some of them were very skilled in these things. So 
also, in the case of my parents, the memory of the past had 
a great charm for them on both sides ; and when the rela- 
tives from Dolwyddelen and Beddgelert met in either parish, 
there used to be no end to the recounting of pedigrees and 
the repeating of tales for the best. By listening to them, I 
had been filled with desire to become an adept in pedigrees 
and legends. My parents used to let me go every evening to 
the house of my grandfather, William ab Bhisiart, the clerk, 
to hear tales, and listen to edifying books being read. My 
grandfather was a reader ' without his rival', and ' he used to 
beat the parson hoUow*. Many people used to meet at Pen y 
Bont in the evenings to converse together, and some of them 
were exceedingly eloquent at their stories now and then. 
Of course, I listened with eager ears and open mouth, in 
order, if I heard anything new, to be able to repeat it to my 
mother. She, not willing to let herself be beaten, would 
probably relate another like it, which she had heard from 
her mother, grandmother, or her old aunt of Gwastad Anas, 
who was a fairly good verse-wright of the homely kind 
Then my father, if he did not happen to be busy with his 

s 2 



52 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

music-book, would also give us a tale he had heard from his 
grandmother or grandfather, the old John Jones of Ty'n Llan, 
Dolwyddelen, or by somebody else in the house. That is 
one source from which I got my knowledge of folk-lore ; but 
this ceased when we moved from Beddgelert to Carnarvon in 
the year 1841. My grandfather died in 1844, aged seventy- 
eight. 

" Besides those who used to come to my grandfather's house 
and to his workshop to relate stories, the blacksmith's shop, 
especially on a rainy day, used to be a capital place for a 
story, and many a time did I lurk there, instead of going to 
school, in order to hear old William Dafydd, the sawyer, who, 
peace be to his ashes ! drank many a homfull from the Big 
Quart without ever breaking down, and old Ifan Owen, the 
fisherman, tearing away for the best at their stories, some- 
times a tissue of lies and sometimes truth. The former was 
mischievous, up to all kinds of tricks, and funny. He made 
everybody laugh, while the latter preserved the gravity of a 
saint, however lying a tale he might be relating. The latter's 
best stories were about the Water Spirit, or, as he called it, 
Llamhigyn y Bwr, or, the Water Leaper. He had not him- 
self seen the Llamhigyn, but his father had seen it * hundreds 
of -times'. Many an evening he had prevented him from 
catching a single fish in Llyn Gwynan, and, when the fisher- 
man got on this theme, then his eloquence was apt to become 
highly pollysyUabic in its adjectives. Once in particular, when 
he had been angling for hours towards the close of the day, 
without taking anything, he found that something took the 
fly clean oflf the hook each time he cast his line. After 
moving from one spot to another on the lake, he fished oppo- 
site the Benlan Wen, when something gave his line a frightful 
pluck, * and, by the gallows, I gave another pluck', as the 
fisherman used to say, * with all the force of my arm : out it 
came, and up it went off the hook, whilst I turned my head 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 53 

to see, and it dashed against the cliff of Benlan, so that it 
blazed like lightning.' He used to add, ' If that was not the 
Llamhigyn, it must have been the very devil himself.' That 
diff must be two hundred yards from the shore at least. As 
to his father, he had seen the Water Spirit many times, and 
he had also been fishing in the Uyn Glas (Ffynon Las) once 
upon a time, when he hooked a wonderful and fearfid 
monster : it was not like a fish, but rather resembled a toad, 
but that it had a tail and wings instead of legs. He pulled 
it easily enough towards the shore, but, as its head was 
coming out of the water, it gave a terrible shriek that was 
enough to split the fisherman's bones to the marrow, and, had 
there not been a friend standing by, he would have fallen 
headlong into the lake, and been possibly dragged like a sheep 
into the deep; for there is a tradition that if a sheep got 
into the Uyn Glas, it could not be got out again, as some- 
thing would at once drag it to the bottom. This used 
to be the belief of the shepherds of Cwm Dyli, within my 
memory, and they acted on it in never letting their dogs go 
at the sheep in the neighbourhood of this lake. These two 
funny fellows, William Dafydd and Ifan Owen, died long 
ago, without leaving any of their descendants blessed with as 
much as the faintest gossamer thread of the storyteller's 
mantle. The former, if he had been still living, would now 
be no less than 129 years of age, and the latter about 120." 

We shall have to return, some other time, to the Water 
Spirit, as Mr. Jones has given me a good deal more about 
him. He proceeds to say that he had stories from sources 
besides those mentioned, namely, from Lowri Sobat, wife of 
Rhisiart Edwart, the " Old Guide", from his old aimt of 
Gwastad Anas, from William Wmfifra, husband to his grand- 
mother's sister, from his grandmother, who was a native of 
Dolwyddelen, and had been brought up at Pwllgwemog 
Nanmor, from her sister, from Gruffudd Prisiart of Nanmor, 



54 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

afterwards of Glan Colwyn, who gave him the l^end of 
Owen Lawgoch (Edward Uwyd's *'Gwr Blew"), and the stoiy 
of the bogie of PenpwU Coch. " But the chief story-teller 
of his time at Beddgelert was Twm Ifan Siams, who was 
brother", Mr. Jones goes on to say, " I believe, to Dafydd 
Sion Siams of the Penrhyn, who was a bard and pedigree- 
man. He lived at Nanmor, but I know not what his voca- 
tion was ; his relations, however, were small farmers, carpen- 
ters, and masons : it is not improbable that he also was an 
artizan, as he was conversant with numbers, magnitudes, and 
letters, and left behind him a volume forming a pedigree- 
book, known at Nanmor as the Barcud Mavrr or Great Kite, 
as Grufifiidd Prisiart told me. The latter had been reading it 
many a time in order to know the origin of somebody or 
other. All I can remember of this character is that he was 
very old — over 90 — and that he went from house to house in 
his old age to relate tales and recount pedigrees ; great was 
the welcome he had from everybody everywhere. I remember, 
also, that he was small of stature, nimble, witty, exceedingly 
amusing, and always ready with his say on every subject 
He was in the habit of calling on my grandfather in his ram- 
bles, and very cordial was the reception which my parents 
always gave him on account of his tales and his knowledge 
of pedigrees. The story of the Afanc, as given in this col- 
lection, is from his mouth. You will observe how little dif- 
ference there is between his version^ and that known to Ed- 
ward Llwyd in the' year 1695. I had related this story to a 
friend of mine at Portmadoc, who was grandson or great- 
grandson to Dafydd Sion Siams of the Penrhyn, in 1858, 
when he called my attention to the same story in the (7am- 
hrian Journal from the correspondence of Edward Llwyd. 
I was surprised at the similarity between the two versions 
and I went to Beddgelert to GruflFudd Ehisiart, who was re- 
lated to Twm Sion Siams. I read the story to him, and I 
^ I find that I cannot give that and Eimilar ones this time. 



WELSH FAIRT TALES. 55 

found that he had heard it related by his uncle just as it was 
by me, and in the Cambrian Journal. Twm Ifan Siams had 
funny stories about the tricks of Qwrach y Ehibyn^ the BocUteh 
GrlaSj and the Bwlnuih Llwydy which he localised in Nanmor 
and Uanfrothen ; he had, also, a very eloquent tale about the 
courtship between a sailor from Moel y Gest, near Portmadoc, 
and a mermaid, of which I retain a fairly good recollection. 
I believe Twm died in the year 1835-6, aged about 95." 

So far, I have freely translated Mr. Jones's account of him- 
self and his authorities as given me in the letter I have already 
referred to as dated in June last year. I would now add the 
substance of his general remarks about the fairies, as he had 
heard them described, and as he has expressed himself in his 
Essay for the competition on folk-lore at the Carnarvon 
Eisteddfod in 1880 : " The traditions respecting the Tylwyth 
Teg vary according to the situation of the districts with 
which they are connected, and many more such traditions 
continue to be remembered among the inhabitants of the 
mountains than by those of the more level country. In 
some places, the Tylwyth Teg are described as small folks of 
a thieving nature, who used to live in summer among the 
fern bushes in the mountains, and in winter in the heather 
and gorse. These were wont to frequent the fairs and to 
steal money from the farmers' pockets, where they placed in 
their stead their own fairy money, which looked like the 
coin of the realm, but, when they were paid for anything 
bought with them, they would vanish in the pockets of the 
seller. In other districts they were described as a little 
bigger and stronger folk; but these latter were also of a 
thieving disposition. They would lurk around people's 
houses, looking for an opportunity to steal butter and cheese 
from the dairies, and keep skulking about the cow-yards, in 
order to TnilV the cows and the goats, which they did so 
thoroughly that many a morning there was not a drop of 



56 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

milk to be had. But the principal mischief these used to do 
was to carry away unbaptised infants, and place in their 
stead their own wretched and peevish offspring. They were 
said to live in hidden caves in the mountains, and I have 
heard one old man asserting that he was sure that it was 
beneath Moel Eilio, a mountain lying between Uanberis 
and Cwellyn, the Tylwyth Teg of Nant y Bettws lived, 
whom he had seen many a time when he was a lad ; and 
that, if anyone came across the mouth of their cave, that he 
would find there a wonderful amount of wealth, * for they 
were thieves without their like*. There is still another 
species of Tylwyth Teg, very unlike the foregoing ones in 
their nature and habits. Not only were they far more 
beautiful and comely than the others, but they were honest 
and kind towards mortals. Their whole nature was replete 
with joy and fun, nor were they hardly ever seen except 
engaged in some merry-making or other. They might be seen 
on bright moonlight nights at it, singing and caroling play- 
fully on the fair meadows and the green slopes, at other 
times dancing lightly on the tops of the rushes in the valleys. 
They were also wont to be seen hunting in full force on the 
backs of their grey horses ; for this kind were rich, and kept 
horses and servants. Though it used to be said that they 
were spiritual and immortal beings, still they ate and drank 
like human beings, as well as married and had children. 
They were also remarkable for their cleanliness and wont to 
reward neat maid-servants and hospitable wives. So the 
housewives used to exhort the girls to clean their houses 
thoroughly every night before going to bed, saying that if 
the Tylivyth Teg happened to come in, they would be sure 
to leave money for them somewhere, but that they were not to 
tell anyone in case they found some, lest the Tylmyth should 
be offended and come no more. The women, also, used to 
order a tinful of water to be placed at the foot of the stairs. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 57 

a clean cloth on the table, with bread and its accompani- 
ments (bara ac enllyn) placed on it, so that, if the Tylioyth 
came in to eat, the maids should have their recompense on 
the hob as well as unstinted praise for keeping the house 
clean, or, as Mr. Jones has it in verse : — 

^* ^ Eu rhent ar y pentan, 

A Uwyr glod o bae llawr glan.' 

" Thus, whether the fairies came or not to pay a visit to 
them during their sleep, the houses would be clean by the 
morning, and the table set for breakfast. It appears that 
the places most frequently resorted to by this species were 
rushy combes surrounded by smooth hills with round tops, 
also the banks of rivers and the borders of lakes ; but they 
ivere seldom seen at any time near rocks or cliffs. So more 
tales about them are found in districts of the former descrip- 
tion than anywhere else, and among them may be mentioned 
Fenmachno, Dolwyddelen, the sides of Moel Siabod, Han- 
d^ai Mountain, and from there to Uanberis, to NantUe 
Lakes, to Moel Tryfan and Nant y Bettws, the upper portion 
of the parish of Beddgelert from Drws y Coed to the Pen- 
nant, and the district beginning from there, and including 
the level part of Eifion to Celynnog Fawr. I have very 
little doubt that there are many traditions about them in the 
neighbourhood of the Eiii and in Ueyn, but I know but 
little about these last This kind of fairies was said to live 
underground, and the way to their country lay under hollow 
banks that overhung the deepest parts of the lakes, or the 
deepest pools in the rivers, so that mortals could not 
follow them further than the water, should they try to go 
after them. They used to come out in broad daylight, two 
or three together^ and now and then a shepherd, so the saying 
went, used to talk and chat with them. Sometimes, more- 
over, he fell over head and ears in love with their damsels, 
but they did not readily allow a mortal to touch them. 



58 WELSH FAIBT TALES. 

The time they were to be seen in their greatest glee was at 
night when the moon was full^ when they celebrated their 
nocturnal merrymaking (noswaith lawen). That night, at 
twelve o'clock to the minute, they were to be seen rising out 
of the ground in every combe and valley; then, joining hands, 
they formed into circles, and began singing and dancing 
with might and main until the cock crew, when they 
vanished. Many used to go to look at them those nights, 
but it was dangerous to go too near them, lest they should 
lure one into their circle ; for if they did that, they would 
throw a charm over him^ which would make him invisible to 
his companions, and they would keep him with them as long 
as he lived. At times, some went too near them, and got 
snatched in ; and at other times, a love-inspired youth, fasci- 
nated by the charms of one of their damsels, rushed in fool- 
hardily to tiy to seize on one of them, and got instantly 
surrounded and covered from sight. But if he could be got 
out before the cock crew he would be no worse; but 
once they disappeared without his having been got out, he 
would never more be seen in the land of the living. The 
way such a one was got out was by means of a long stick of 
mountain ash (pren criafol), which two or more strong men 
had to hold with its end in the middle of the circle, so that 
when he came roimd in his turn in the dance he might take 
hold of it, for he is there bodily though not visible, so that 
he cannot go past without coming across the stick. Then 
the others pull him out, for the fairies dare not touch the 
mountain ash any more than any other spirit." 

We now proceed to give some of Mr. Jones's tales. The 
first is one which he published in the fourth volume of the 
BrytJion, page 70, whence the following free translation is 
made of it. I may premise that the editor of the Brython, in a 
note, mentions that this tale is not only like the Ystrad one, 
given in the Cymmrodor, vol. iv, pp. 188-194, but also to one 



WELSH FAIBY TALES. 59 

told of the son of the farmer of Braich 7 Dinas, in the parish 
of Ilanfihangel y Pennant, which I have not seen : — 

"In the north-west comer of the parish of Beddgelert 
there is a place which used to he called hy the old inhabi- 
tants the Land of the Fairies, and it reaches from Cwm 
Hafod Bofifydd along the slope of the mountain of Drws 
y Coed as far as Ilyn y Dywarchen. The old people of 
former times used to find much pleasure and amusement 
in this district in listening every moonlight night to the 
charming music of the Fair Family, and in looking at their 
dancing and their mirthful sports. Once on a time, a long 
while ago, there lived at the upper Drws y Coed a youth, 
who was joyous and active, brave and determined of heart. 
This young man amused himself every night by looking on 
and listening to them. One night they had come to a field 
near the house, near the shore of Uyn y Dywarchen, to pass 
a meny night. He went, as usual, to look at them, when 
his glances at once fell on one of the ladies, who possessed 
such beauty as he had never seen in a human being. Her 
appearance was like that of alabaster; her voice was as 
agreeable as the nightingale's, and as unrufiled as the zephyr 
in a flower-garden at the noon of a long summer's day ; and 
her gait was pretty and aristocratic ; her feet moved in the 
dance as lightly on the grass as the rays of the sun had a 
few hours before on the lake hard by. He fell in love with 
her over head and ears, and in the strength of that passion — 
for what is stronger than love ? — ^he rushed, when the bustle 
was at its height, into the midst of the fair crowd, and 
snatched the graceful damsel in his arms, and ran instantly 
with her to the house. When the Fair Family saw the 
violence effected by a mortal, they broke up the dance and 
ran after her towards the house ; but, when they got there, 
the door had been bolted with iron, wherefore they could not 
get near her or touch her in any way ; and the damsel had 



60 WELSH FAJEY TALES. 

been placed securely in a chamber. The youth, having her 
now under his roof, as is the saying, endeavoured, with aU his 
talent, to win her affection and to induce her to wed. But 
she would on no account hear of it at first ; on seeing his 
persistence, however, and that he would not let her free to 
return to her people, she consented to be his servant if he 
could find out her name ; but she would not be married to 
him. As he thought that was not impossible, he half agreed 
to the condition ; but, after bothering his head with all the 
names known in that neighbourhood, he found himself no 
nearer his point, though he was not willing to give up the 
search hurriedly. One night, as he was going home from 
Carnarvon market, he saw a number of the Fair Folks in a 
turbary not far from his path. They seemed to him to be 
engaged in an important deliberation, and it struck him that 
they were planning how to recover their abducted sister. He 
thought, moreover, that if he could secretly get within hear- 
ing, that he might possibly find her name out. On looking 
carefully around, he saw that a ditch ran through the turbary 
and passed near the spot where they stood. So he made his 
way round to the ditch, and crept, on all fours, along it until 
he was within hearing of the Family. After listening a little, 
he found that their deliberation was as to the fate of the lady 
he had carried away, and he heard one of them crying, 
piteously, * Penelop, Penelop, my sister, why didst thou 
run away with a mortal !' ' Penelop,' said the young man 
to himself, * that must be the name of my beloved ; that is 
enough.' At once he began to creep back quietly, and he 
returned home safely without having been seen by the 
Fairies. When he got into the house, he called out to the 
girl, saying, ' Penelop, my beloved one, come here T and she 
came forward and asked, in astonishment, ' 0, mortal, who has 
betrayed my name to thee V Then, lifting up her tiny folded 
hands, she exclaimed, ' Alas, my fate, my fate !* But she 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 61 

grew contented with her fate, and took to her work in 
earnest. Everything in the house and on the farm prospered 
under her charge. There was no better or cleanlier house- 
wife in the neighbourhood around, or one that was more pro- 
vident than she. The young man, however, was not satisfied 
that she should be a servant to him, and, after he had long and 
persistently sought it, she consented to be married, on the one 
condition, that, if ever he should touch her with iron, she 
would be free to leave him and return to her family. He 
agreed to that condition, since he beUeved that such a thing 
would never happen at his hands. So they were married, 
and lived several years happily and comfortably together. 
Two children were bom to them, a boy and a girl, the picture 
of their mother and the idols of their father. But one morn- 
ing, when the husband wanted to go to the fair at Carnarvon, 
he went out to catch a filly that was grazing in the field by 
the house ; but for the Kfe of him he could not catch her, 
and he called to his wife to come to assist him. She came 
without delay, and they managed to drive the filly to a secure 
comer, as they thought ; but, as the man approached to catch 
her, she rushed past him. In his excitement, he threw the 
bridle after her; but, who should be running in the direction of 
it, but his wife ! The iron bit strack her on the cheek, and she 
vanished out of sight on the spot. Her husband never saw 
her any more ; but one cold frosty night, a long time after 
this event, he was awakened from his sleep by somebody rub- 
bing the glass of his window, and, after he had given an 
answer, he recognised the gentle and tender voice of his wife 
sajring to him : — 

*^ * Lest my son Bbonld find it cold, 
Place on him his father's coat ; 
Lest the fair one find it cold, 
Place on her my petticoat' 

It is said that the descendants of this family still continue in 



62 WELSH FAIKT TALES. 

these neighbourhoods, and that they are easily to be recog- 
nised by their light and fair complexion. A similar story is 
related of the son of the fanner of Braich y Dinas in Han- 
fihangel y Pennant, and it used to be said that most of the 
inhabitants of that neighbourhood were formerly of a light 
complexion. I have often heard old people sajring that it was 
only necessary, within their memory, to point out, in the fair 
at Penmorfa, anyone as being of the breed of the Tylioyth, 
to have plenty of fighting for that day at least" 

The reader may compare with this tale the following, for 
which I have to thank Mr. Samuel Bhys Williams, whose 
words I give, followed by a translation : — 

" Yr oedd gwr ieuanc o gymmydogaeth Drws y Coed yn 
dychwelyd adref o Beddgelert ar noswaith loergan Ueuad, 
pan ar gyfer Uyn y Gader gwelai nifer o'r boneddigesaii a 
elwir y Tylwyth Teg yn myned trwy eu chwareuon nosawl. 
Swynwyd y Uanc yn y fan gan brydferthwch y rhianod hyn, 
ac yn neillduol un o honynt. CoUodd y llywodraeth amo ei 
hunan i'r fath raddau fel y penderfynodd neidio Tr cylch a 
dwyn yn ysbail iddo yr hon oedd wedi myned a'i galon mor 
Uwyr. Cyflawnodd ei fwriad a dygodd y foneddiges gydag ef 
adref. Bu yn wraig iddo, a ganwyd plant iddynt Yn 
ddamweiniol, tra yn cyflawni rhyw orchwyl, digwyddodd 
iddo ei tharo a haiam ac ar amrantiad difianodd ei anwylyd 
o'i olwg ac nis gwelodd hi mwyach, ond ddarfod iddi ddyfod 
at ffenestr ei ystafell wely un noswaith ar ol hyn a'i annog i 
fod yn dirion wrth y plant a'i bod hi yn arcs gerllaw y ty yn 
Hyn y Dywarchen. Y mae y traddodiad yn ein hysbysu 
hefyd ddarfod i*r gwr hwn symud i fyw o Drws y Coed i 
Ystrad Betws Gannon." 

*' A young man, from the neighbourhood of Drws y Coed, 
was returning home, one bright moonlight night, from Bedd- 
gelert ; when he came opposite the lake called Uyn y Guder, 
he saw a number of the ladies known as the Tylmyth Teg, 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 63 

going through their nightly froUcs. The youth was charmed 
at once by the beauty of these ladies, and especially by one 
of them. He so far lost his control over himself, that he re- 
solved to leap into the circle and carry away, as his spoil, the 
one who had so completely robbed him of his heart. He ac- 
complished his intention, and carried the lady with him 
home. She became his wife, and children were born to them. 
Accidentally, while at some work or other, it happened to 
him to strike her with iron, and, in a twinkling of an eye, 
his beloved one disappeared from his sight. He saw her no 
more, except that she came to Ids bedroom window one night 
afterwards, and told him to be tender towards the children, and 
that she was staying near the house in the lake called Uyn y 
Dywarchen. The tradition also informs us that this man moved 
fix)m Drws y Coed to live at Ystrad near Bettws Gannon." 

The name Ilyn y Dywarchen, I may add, means the Lake 
of the Sod, or of the Turf : it is the one with the floating 
island, described thus by Giraldus: ''Alter enim insulam 
habet erraticam, vi ventorum impeUentium ad oppositas 
plerumque lacus partes errabundam. Hie armenta pascentia 
uonnunquam pastores ad longinquas sabito partes translata 
mirantur." Sheep are known to get on the floating islet, 
and it is still beUeved to float them away from the shore. 
Mr. S. Rhys Williams, it will be noticed, has given the 
substance of the legend rather than the story itself I now 
proceed to translate the same tale as given in Welsh in Cymru 
Fu (pp. 474-7 of the edition of Messrs. Hughes and Son of 
Wrexham), in a very different dress — it is from Glasynys's 
pen, and, as might be expected, decked out with all the 
literary adornments he delighted in. The language he used 
was his own, but there is no reason to think he invented any 
of the incidents : — " The farmer of Drws y Coed's son was 
one misty day engaged as shepherd on the side of the moun- 
tain, a little below Cwm Marchnad, and, as he crossed a 



64 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

rushy flat, he saw a wonderfully handsome little woman 
standing under a clump of rushes. Her yellow and curly 
hair hung down in ringed locks, and her eyes were as blue 
as the clear sky, while her forehead was as white as the wavy 
face of a snowdrift that had nestled on the side of Snowdon 
only a single night. Her two plump cheeks were each like 
a red rose, and her pretty-lipped mouth might make an angel 
eager to kiss her. The youth approached her, filled with love 
for her, and, with delicacy and affection, asked her if he 
might have a chat with her. She smiled kindly, and, reach- 
ing out her hand, said to him, ' Idol of my hopes, thou hast 
come at last Ÿ They begin to associate secretly, and to meet one 
another daily here and there on the moors around the banks of 
Uyn y Gader ; at last, their love had waxed so violent that 
the young man could not be at peace either day or night, as 
he was always thinking of her or humming to himself a verse 
of poetry about Bella's charms [a pretty verse of Glasynys's 
own composition, which I will not spoil by trying to trans- 
late]. The yellow-haired youth was now and then lost for a 
long while, and nobody could divine his history. His ac- 
quaintances believed that he had been fascinated ; but at last 
the secret was found out. There were about Llyn y Dywar- 
chen shady and concealing copses ; it is there he was wont to 
go, and the she-elf would always be there awaiting him, and 
it is therefore the place where they used to meet got to be 
called liwyn y Forwyn, or the Maiden's Grova After fondly 
loving for a long time, it was resolved to wed ; but it was 
needful to get the leave of the damsel's father. One moon- 
light night it was agreed to meet in the wood, and the ap- 
pointment was duly kept by the young man, but there was 
no sign of the subterranean folks coming, until the moon 
disappeared behind the Garn. Then the two arrived, and the 
old man at once proceeded to say to the suitor : ' Thou shalt 
have my daughter on the condition that thou do not strike 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 65 

her with iron. If thou ever touch her with that, she will 
no longer be thine, but shall return to her own/ The man 
consented readily, and great was his joy. They were 
betrothed, and seldom was a handsomer pair seen at the 
altar. It was rumoured that a huge sum of money as dowry 
had arrived with the pretty lady to Drws y Coed on the 
evening of her nuptials. Soon after, the moimtain shepherd 
of Cwm Marchnad passed for a rich and very influential man. 
In the course of time they had children, and no happier 
people ever lived together than their parents. Everything 
went on regularly and prosperously for a number of years; 
they became exceedingly rich, but the sweet is not to be had 
without the bitter. One day they both went out on horse- 
back, and they happened to go near liyn y Gader, when the 
wife's horse got into a bog and sank to his belly in it. After 
the husband had got Bella ofT his back, he succeeded with 
much trouble in getting the horse out, and then he let him go. 
Tlien he lifted her on the back of his own, but, unfortunately, 
in trying quickly to place her foot in the stirrup, the iron 
part of the same slipped, and struck her — or, rather, it 
touched her at the knee-joint. Before they had made good 
half their way home, several of the diminutive family began 
to appear to them, and the sotmd of sweet singing was heard 
on the side of the hilL Before the husband reached Drws y 
Coed his wife had left him, and it is supposed that she fled 
to Uwyn y Forwyn, and thence to the world below to 
Faery. She left her dear little ones to the care of her 
beloved, and no more came near them. Soma say, how- 
ever, that she sometimes got to see her beloved one in the 
following manner. As the law of her country did not allow 
of her frequenting the earth with an earthly being, she and 
her mother invented a way of avoiding the one thing and of 
securing the other. A great piece of sod was set to float on the 
surface of the lake, and on that she used to be for long hours, 

VOL. V. F 



66 WELSH FAIBY TALES. 

freely conversing in tenderness with her consort on shore ; \>j 
means of that plan they managed to live together until he 
breathed his last. Their descendants owned Drws y Coed for 
many generations, and they intermarried and mixed with the 
people of the district. Moreover, many a fierce fight took place 
in later times at the Gwyl Mabsants of Dolbenmaen and Pen- 
morfa, because the men of Eifionydd had a habit of annoying 
the people of Pennant by calling them Bellisians. In a note, 
Glasynys remarks that this tale is located in many districts 
without much variation, except in the names of the places ; 
this, however, could not apply to the latter part, which suits 
11)01 y Dywarchen alone. Now I return to another tale sent 
me by Mr. Jones ; unless I am mistaken it has not hitherto 
been published, so I give the Welsh as well as a free trans- 
lation of it. 

"Yr oedd ystori am fab Braich y Dinas a adroddai y 
diweddar hybarch Elis Owen o Gefn y Meusydd yn lied 
debyg i chwedl mab yr Ystrad gan Glasynys, sef iddo hudo 
un ferched y Tylwyth Teg i lawr o Foel Hebog a'i chipio 1 
mewn i'r ty drwy orthrech ; ac wedi hyny efe a*i perswadiodd 
i ymbriodi ag ef ar yr un telerau ag y gwnaeth mab yr Ys- 
trad. Ond clywais hen foneddiges o'r enw Mrs. Eoberts, un 
o ferched yr Isallt, a'r hon oedd lawer hyn na Mr. Owen, yn 
ei hadrodd yn wahanol. Yr oedd yr hen wreigan hon yn 
credu yn nilysrwydd y chwedl, oblegid yr oedd hi * yn cofio 
rhai o'r teulu, waeth be' ddeudo neb.' Dirwynai ei hedau 
yn debyg i hyn : — Yn yr amser gynt— ond o ran hyny pan 
oedd hi yn ferch ifangc — ^yr oedd Uawer iawn o Dylwyth Teg 
yn trigo mewn rhyw ogofau yn y Foel o Gwm Ystradllyn 
hyd i flaen y Pennant Yr oedd y Tylwyth hwn yn Uawer 
iawn harddach na dim a welid mewn un rhan araU o'r wlad. 
Yr oeddynt o ran maint yn fwy o lawer na'r rhai cyfiredin, yn 
Ian eu pryd tu hwnt i bawb, eu gwallt yn oleu fel Uin, eu 
llygaid yn loyw leision. Yr oeddynt yn ymddangos mewn 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 67 

rhyw le neu gilydd yn chwareu, canu ac ymddifyru bob nos 
deg a goleu ; a byddai swn eu canu yn denu y Uangcîau a'r 
merched ifaingc i fyned i'w gweled; ac os byddentyn digwydd 
bod o bryd goleu hwy a ymgomient a hwynt, ond ni adawent 
i un person o liw tywyll ddod yn agos atynt, eithr cilient 
ymaith o fifordd y cyfryw un. Yrwan yr oedd mab Braich y 
Dinas yn llangc hardd, heini, bywiog ac o bryd glan, goleu a 
seTcbiadol. Yr oedd hwn yn hofifiawn o edrych ar y Tylwyth, 
a byddai yn cael ymgom a rhai o honynt yn ami, ond yn 
benaf ag un o'r merched yr hon oedd yn rhagori amynt oil 
mewn glendid a synwyr; ac o fynych gyfarfod syrthiodd y 
ddau mewn cariad a*u gilydd, eithr ni fynai hi ymbriodi ag 
ef, ond addawodd fyned iV wasanaeth, a chydunodd, i'w 
gyfarfod yn Mhant-nid wyf yn cofio yr enw i gyd-ẁan- 
oeth, oblegid nid oedd wiw iddi geisio myned gyd ag ef yn 
ngwydd y lleilL Felly tranoeth aeth i fynu i*r Foel, a chy- 
farfyddodd y rhian ef yn ol ei haddewid, ac aeth gydag ef 
adref, ac ymgymerodd a'r swydd o laethwraig, a buan y dech- 
reuodd pobpeth Iwyddo o dan ei Haw : yr oedd yr ymenyn 
a'r caws yn cynyddu beunydd. Hir a thaer y bu y llangc 
yn ceisio ganddi briodi. A hi a addawodd, os medrai ef 
gael allan ei henw. M wyddai Mrs. Eoberts drwy ba ystry w 
y llwyddodd i gael hwnw, ond hyny a fu, a daeth ef i'r ty un 
noswaith a galwodd ar ' Sibi*, a phan gly wodd hi ei henw, hi 
a aeth i lewygfa ; ond pan ddaeth atti ei hun, hi a ymfodd- 
lonodd i briodi ar yr amod nad oedd ef i gyffwrdd a hi a 
haiam ac nad oedd bollt haiam i fod ar y drws na chlo 
ychwaith, a hyny a fa ; priodwyd hwynt, a buont fy w yn 
gysurus am lawer o flynyddoedd, a ganwyd iddynt amry w 
blani T diwedd a fu fel hyn : yr oedd ef wedi myned un 
diwmod i dori baich o frwyn at doi, a tharawodd y cryman 
yn y baich i fyned adref ; fel yr oedd yn nesu at y gadlas, 
rhedodd Sibi i*w gyfarfod, a thaflodd ynteu y baich brwyn 
yn ddîreidus tu ag atti, a rhag iddo ddyfod ar ei thraws ceisiodd 

f2 



68 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

ei atal a'i Haw, yr hon a gyffyrddodd a'r cryman ; a hi a 
ddiflanodd o'r golwg yn y fan yn nghysgod y baich brwyii : 
ni welwyd ac ni chlywyd dim oddiwrthi mwyach." 

" There was a story respecting the son of the farmer of 
Braich y Dinas, which used to be related by the late Mr. 
Ellis Owen of Cefn y Meusj'dd, somewhat in the same way 
as that about the Ystrad youth, as told by Glas)mys ; that is 
to say, he enticed one of the damsels of the Fair Family to 
come down from Moel Hebog, and then he carried her by force 
into the house, and afterwards persuaded her to wed on the 
same conditions as the young man of Ystrad did. But I 
have heard an old lady called Mrs. Eoberts, who had been 
brought up at Isallt, and who was older than Mr. Owen, re- 
lating it difierently. This old woman believed in the truth 
of the story, as ' she remembered some of the famUy, what- 
ever any body might say.' She used to spin her yarn some- 
what as follows : — In old times — but, for the matter of that, 
when she was a young woman — there were a great many of 
the Fair Family living in certain caves in the Foel from 
Cwm Ystradllyn down to the upper part of Pennant. This 
family was much handsomer than any seen in any other 
part of the country. In point of stature they were much 
bigger than the ordinary ones, fair of complexion beyond 
everybody, with hair that was as light as flax, and eyes that 
were of a clear blue colour. They showed themselves in one 
spot or another, engaged in playing, singing, and jollifying 
every light night. The sound of their singing used to draw 
the lads and the young women to look at them; and, 
should they be of clear complexion, they would chat with 
them ; but they would let no person of dark colour come near 
them, and they moved away from such a ona Now the young 
man of Braich y Dinas was a handsome, vigorous, and lively 
stripling, of fair, clear, and attractive complexion. He was 
very fond of looking at the Fair Family, and had a chat 



WELSH FAIKY TALES. 69 

with some of them often, but chiefly with one of the dam- 
sels, who surpassed all the rest in beauty and good sense. 
The result of frequently meeting was that they fell in love 
with one another, but she would not marry him. She pro- 
mised, however, to go to service to him, and agreed to meet 
him at Pant y — I have forgotten the rest of the name — the 
day after, as it would not do for her to go with him while 
the others happened to be looking on. So he went up the 
next day to the Foel, and the damsel met him according to 
her promise, and went with him home, where she took to the 
duties of dairymaid. Soon everything began to prosper 
under her hand ; the butter and the cheese were daily grow- 
ing in quantity. Long and importunately did the youth try 
to get her to marry him. She promised to do so provided 
he could find out her name. Mrs. Eoberts did not know by 
what manoeuvre he succeeded in getting it, but it was done, 
and he came into the house one night and called to ' Sibi', 
and when she heard her name she fainted away. When, 
however, she recovered her consciousness, she consented to 
marry on the condition that he was not to touch her with 
iron, and that there was not to be a bolt of iron on the door, 
or a lock either. It was agreed, and they were n^rried; 
they lived together comfortably many years, and had children 
bom to them. The end came thus : he had gone one day to 
cut a bundle of rushes for thatching, and planted the reaping* 
hook in the bundle to go home. As he drew towards the 
haggart, Sibi ran out to meet him, and he mischievously 
threw the bundle of rushes towards her, when she, to pre- 
vent its hitting her, tried to stop it with her hand, which 
touched the reaping-hook. She vanished on the spot out 
of sight behind the bundle of rushes, and nothing more 
was seen or heard of her." 

Mr. Ellis Owen, alluded to above, was a highly respected 
gentleman, well known in Wales, for his literary and anti- 



70 WELSH FAIKY TALES. 

quafian tastes. He was bom in 1789 at Cefn y Meusydd, 
near Tremadoc, where he continued to live till the day of his 
death, which was the 27th of January 1868. His literary 
remains, preceded by a short biography, were published in 
1877 by Mr. Eobert Isaac Jones of Tremadoc ; but it con- 
tains no fairy tales so far as I have been able to find. A 
tale which reminds one of that given me by Mr. D. E. 
Davies respecting the Corwrion midwife, referred to at page 
210 of the previous volume, was published by Mr. W. Jones 
in the fourth volume of the Brythan, page 251; freely rendered 
into English, it runs thus : — 

" Once on a time, when a midwife from Nanhwynan had 
newly got to the Hafodydd Brithion to pursue her calling, a 
gentleman came to the door on a fine grey steed and bade 
her come with him at once. Such was the authority with 
which he spoke, that the poor midwife durst not refuse to 
go, however much it was her duty to stay where she was. 
So she mounted behind him, and off they went, like the 
flight of a swallow, through Cwmllan, over the Bwlch, down 
Nant yr Aran, and over the Gadair to Cwm Hafod Ruffydd 
before the poor woman had time even to say Oh! When 
they had got there, she saw before her a magnificent man- 
sion, splendidly lit up with such lamps as she had never be- 
fore seen. They entered the court, and a crowd of servants 
in expensive liveries came to meet them, and she was at once 
led through the great hall into a bed-chamber, the like of 
which she had never seen. There the mistress of the house, 
to whom she had been fetched, was awaiting her. She got 
through her duties successfully, and stayed there until 
the lady had completely recovered, nor had she spent any 
part of her life so merrily ; there was there nought but fes- 
tivity day and night : dancing, singing, and endless rejoicing 
reigned there. But merry as it was, she found she must go, 
and the nobleman gave her a large purse, with the order not 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 71 

to open it until she had got into her own house ; then he 
bade one of his servants escort her the same way she had 
coma When she reached home she opened the purse, and, 
to her great joy, it was full of money, and she lived happily 
on those earnings to the end of her Ufa" 

With regard to Mr. D. E. Davies's tale of the Corwrion 
midwife, and the reference wanting to Mr. Sikes's book, I 
may now mention in passing, that it should be to pp. 86-8, 
where Mr. Sikes gives a tale differing from both Davies's 
and Jones's, in that the Fairies are there made to ap- 
pear as devils to the nurse, who had accidentally used a 
certain ointment which she was not to place near her own 
eyes. Instead of being rewarded for her services she was 
only too glad to be deposited anyhow near her home ; " but", 
as the story goes on to relate, " very many years afterwards, 
being at a fair, she saw a man stealing something from a 
stall, and, with one corner of her eye, beheld her old master 
pushing the man's elbow. Unthinkingly she said, 'How 
are you, master ? how are the children V He said, * How 
did you see me V She answered, ' With the corner of my 
left eye.* From that moment she was blind of her left eye, 
and lived many years with only her right." Such is the end 
of the tale which Mr. Sikes quotes from a rare book called 
Cambrian /Superstitions, published by W. Howells at Tipton 
in 1831. 

" But the Fair Fainily did not", Mr. Jones goes on to say, 
" always give mortals the means of good living ; sometimes 
they made a good deal of fun of them. Once on a time, the 
Drws y Coed man was going home, rather merry than sad, 
along the old road over the Gader, from Beddgelert fair, when 
he saw, on coming near the top of the Gader, a fine handsome 
house near the road, in which there was a rare merrymaking. 
He knew perfectly well that there was no such a building to 
be anywhere on his way, and that made him think that he 



72 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

had lost his way and gone astray; so he resolved to turn into 
the house to ask for lodgings, which were given him. At 
once, when he entered, he took it to be a nuptial feast 
(neithior) by reason of the jollity, the singing, and the dancing; 
the house was full of young men, young women, and children, 
all merry and exerting themselves to the utmost. The com- 
pany began to disappear one by one, and he asked if he 
might go to bed, when he was led to a splendid chambw, 
where there was a bed of the softest down with snow-white 
clothes on it. He stripped at once, went into it, and slept 
quietly enough till the morning. The first thing to come to 
his mind when he lay half asleep, half awake, was the 
jollity of the night before, and the fact of his sleeping in a 
splendid chamber in the strange house. He opened his eyes 
to survey it, but it was too wide ; he was sleeping on the 
naked swamp, with a clump of rushes as his pillow, and tlie 
blue sky as his coverlet." 

Mr. Jones mentions that, within his memory, there were 
still people in his neighbourhood who believed that the fairies 
stole unbaptized children and placed their own in their 
stead : he gives the following story about the farmer's wife of 
Dyfiryn Mymbyr, near Capel Curig, and her infant : — 

" Tr oedd y wraig hon wedi rhoddi genedigaeth i blentjm 
iach a heinif yn nechreu y cynhauaf ryw haf blin a thymhest- 
log : ac herwydd fod y tyddyn getyn o flfordd oddiwrth Ian 
na chapel, a'r hin mor hynod a wlawiog, esgeuluswyd bed- 
yddio y plentyn yn yr amser arferol, sef cyn ei fod yn wyth 
niwmod oed. Eyw ddi\^Tnod teg yn nghanol y cynhauaf 
blin aeth y wraig allan i'r maes gyda'r rhelyw o'r teulu i 
geisio achub y cynhauaf, a gadawodd y baban yn cysgu yn ei 
gryd dan ofal ei nain, yr hon oedd hen a methiantus, ac yn 
analluog i fyned lawer o gwmpas. Syrthiodd yr hen wreigan 
i gysgu, a thra yr oedd hi felly, daeth y Tylwyth i fewn, a 
chymerasant y baban o'r cryd, a dodasant un arall yn ei le. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 73 

Yn mhen enyd dechreuodd hwn erain a chwyno nes deffro y 

nain, ac aeth at y cryd, lie y gwelodd gleiriach hen eiddil 

crebacUyd yn ymstwyrian yn flin. ' O'r wchw !* ebai hi, * y 

mac yr hen Dylwyth wedi bod yma ;' ac yn ddioed chwyth- 

odd yn y com i alw y fam, yr hon a ddaeth yno yn ddiatreg; 

a phan gly wodd y crio yn y cryd, rhedodd ato, a chododd y 

bychan i fynu heb sylwi amo, a hi a'i cofleidiodd, a'i suodd ac 

a'i swcrodd at eu bronnau, ond nid oedd dim yn tycio, par- 

hau i nadu yn ddidor yr oedd nes bron a hollti ei chalon ; ac 

ni wyddai pa beth i wneud iV ddistewi. 0*r diwedd hi a 

edrychodd amo, a gwelodd nad oedd yn debyg i*w mhebyn 

hi, ac aeth yn loes iV chalon : edrychodd amo drachefn, ond 

po fwyaf yr edrychai amo, hyllaf yn y byd oedd hi yn ei 

weled ; anfonodd am ei gwr o'r cae, a gyrodd ef i ymholi am 

wr cyfarwydd yn rhywle er mwyn cael ei gynghor ; ac ar ol 

hir holi dywedodd rhywun wrtho fod person Trawsfynydd yn 

gyfarwydd yn nghyfrinion yr ysprydion ; ac efe a aeth ato, 

ac archodd hwnw iddo gymeryd rhaw a'i gorchuddio a halen, 

a thori llun croes yn yr halen ; yna ei chymeryd i r ystafell 

lie yr oedd mab y Tylwyth, ac ar ol agor y flfenestr, ei rhoddi 

ar y tan hyd nes y llosgai yr halen ; a hwy a wnaethant 

felly, a phan aeth yr halen yn eiriasboeth fe aeth yr erthyl 

croes ymaith yn anweledig iddynt hwy, ac ar drothwy y 

drws hwy a gawsant y baban arall yn iach a dianaf." 

" This woman had given birth to a healthy and vigorous 
child at the beginning of the harvest, one wretched and in- 
clement summer. As the homestead was a considerable dis- 
tance from church or chapel, and the weather so very rainy, 
it was neglected to baptize the child at the usual^ time, that 
is to say, before it was eight days old. One fine day, in the 
middle of this wretched harvest, the mother went to the 
field with the rest of the family to try to secure the harvest, 

^ So Mr. Jones puts it : I am not acquainted with any other part 
of the Principality where the children are baptized eight days M. 



74 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

and left her baby sleeping in bis cradle in bis grandmother's 
charge, who was aged and so decrepit as to be unable to go 
much about. The old woman fell asleep, and, while she was 
in that state, the Tyhjoyih Teg came in and took away the 
baby, placing another in its stead. Very shortly the latter 
began to whine and groan, so that the grandmother woke up ; 
she went to the cradle, where she saw a slender wizened old 
man moving restlessly and peevishly about. 'Alas! alas!' 
said she, 'the old Tylwyth have been here;' and she at once 
blew in the horn to call the mother home, who came without 
delay. As she heard the crying in the cradle, she ran to- 
wards it, and lifted the little one without looking at him ; 
she hugged him, put him to her breast, and sang lullaby to him, 
but nothing was of any avail, as he continued, without stop- 
ping, to scream enough to break her heart ; and she knew not 
what to do to calm him. At last she looked at him : she 
saw that he was not like her dear little boy, and her heart 
was pierced with agony. She looked at him again, and the 
more she examined him the uglier he seemed to her. She 
sent for her husband home from the field, and told him 
to search for a skilled man somewhere or other ; and, after a 
long search, he was told by somebody that the parson of 
Trawsfynydd was skilled in the secrets of the spirits; so he 
went to him. The latter bade him take a shovel and cover 
it with salt, and make the figure of the cross in the salt ; then 
to take it to the chamber where the fairy child was, and, 
after taking care to open the window, to place the shovel on 
the fire until the salt was burnt. This was done, and when 
the salt had got white hot, the peevish abortion went away, 
seen of no one, and they found the other baby whole and 
unscathed at the doorstep." 

In answer to a question of mine with regard to gossamer, 
wliich is called in North Wales edafedd gwavm or gwavm 
yarn, Mr. Jones tells me in a letter, dated April 1881, that it 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 75 

used to be called Ehaffau V Tylv^yth Teg, that is to say, the 
Bopes of the Fair Family, which were associated with the 
diminutive, mischievous, and wanton kind of Fairies, that 
dwelt in marshy and rushy places, or among the fern and the 
heather. It used to be said that, if a man should lie down 
and fall asleep in any such a spot^ the Fairies would come 
and bind him with their ropes so that he could not move, 
and that then they would cover him with a sheet made of 
their ropes, which would make him invisible. This was 
illustrated by him by the following tale he had heard from 
his mother : — 

" Cly wais fy mam yn adrodd chwedl am fab y Ffridd, yr 
hwn wrth ddychwelyd adref o flfair Beddgelert yn rhywle 
oddeutu Pen Cae'r Gors a welodd beth afrifed o*r Tylwyth 
Bach yn neidio a phrangcio ar benau y grug. £fe a eis- 
teddodd i lawr i edrych arnynt, a daeth hun drosto : ymoU- 
yngodd i lawr a chysgodd yn drwm. A phan oedd felly, 
ymosododd yr holl lu amo a rhwymasant ef mor dyn fel na 
allasai symud : yna hwy a'i cuddiasant ef a'r tudded gwawn 
fel na allai neb ei weled os digwyddai iddo lefain am help. 
Yr oedd ei deulu yn ei ddisgwyl adref yn gynar y nos bono, 
ac wrth ei weled yn oedi yn hwyr, aethant yn anesmwyth am 
dano ac aethpwyd i*w gyfarfod, eithr ni welent ddim oddiwr- 
tho, ac aed gan belled a'r pentref, lie eu hyspyswyd ei fod 
wedi myned tu ag adref yn gynar gyda gwr Hafod EuiFydd. 
Felly aed tua'r Hafod i edrych a oedd yno ; ond dy wedodd 
gwr yr Hafod eu bod wedi ymwahanu ar Bont Glan 
y Gors, pawb tua'i fan ei hun. Yna chwiliwyd yn fanwl 
bob ochr i'r ffordd oddiyno i'r Ffridd heb weled dim oddi- 
wrtho. Buwyd yn chwilio yr holl ardal drwy y dydd dran- 
oeth ond yn ofer. Fodd bynag oddeutu yr un amser nos 
dranoeth daeth y Tylwyth ac a'i rhyddhasant, ac yn fuan efe 
a ddeflfrodd wedi cysgu o bono drwy y nos a'r dydd blaenorol. 
Ar ol iddo ddeffro ni wyddai ainean daear yn mha le yr 



76 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

oedd, a chrwydro y bu hyd ochrau y Gader a'r Gors Fawr 
hyd nes y canodd y ceiliog, pryd yr adnabu yn mha le yr 
oedd, sef o fewn Uai na chwarter milltir i*w gartref." 

" I have heard my mother relating a tale about the son of the 
farmer of Ffridd, who, while on his way home from Beddge- 
lert Fair, somewhere near Pen Cae'r Gors, saw an endless 
number of the diminutive Family leaping and capering on 
the tops of the heather. He sat him down to look at them, 
and sleep came over him ; he let himself down on the ground, 
and slept heavily. When he was so, the whole host attacked 
him, and they bound him so tightly that he could not have 
stirred ; then they covered him with the gossamer sheet, so 
that nobody could see him in case he called for help. His 
people expected him home early that evening, and, as they 
saw him delaying till late, they got uneasy about hiuL So 
one went to meet him, but no trace of him was seen, and 
they went so far as the village, where they were informed 
that he had started home in good time with the farmer of 
Hafod BufTydd. So they went to the Hafod to see if he was 
there ; but the farmer told them that they had parted on the 
Glan y Gors Bridge to go to their respective homes. A 
minute search was then made on both sides of the road from 
there to the Ffridd, but without seeing any trace of him. 
They kept searching the whole neighbourhood during the 
whole of the next day, but in vain. However, about the 
same time the following night, the Family came and liberated 
him, and he shortly woke up, after sleeping through the pre- 
vious night and day. When he woke he had no idea where 
on earth he was ; so he wandered about on the slopes of the 
Gader and near the Gors Fawr, until the cock crew, when he 
became aware where he was, namely, less than a quarter of a 
mile from his home." 

The late Mr. Owen of Cefn Meusydd has already been 
alluded to.' I have not been able to get at much of the folk- 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 77 

lore with which he was familiar, but, in reply to some ques- 
tions of mine, Mr. R J. Jones of Tremadoc, his biographer, 
and the publisher of the Brython, so long as it existed, has 
kindly ransacked his memory. He writes to me in Welsh 
to the following effect : — 

"I will tell you what I heard from Mr. Owen and my 
mother when I was a lad, about fifty-seven years ago. The 
former used to say that the people of Pennant in Eifionydd 
had a nickname, namely, that of Belsiaid y Pennant, or 
the Belsians of the Pennant ; that, when he was a boy, if 
anybody called out Belsiaid y Pennant at the Penmorfa 
Fair, every man jack of them would come out, and fighting 
always ensued The antiquary used to explain it thus- 
*Some two or three hundred years ago. Sir Eobert of the 
Nant, one of Sir Richard Bulkeley's ancestors, had a son 
and heir who was extravagant and wild. He married a 
gipsy, and they had children bom to them; but, as the family 
regarded this marriage a disgrace to their ancient stem, it is 
said that the father, the next time the vagabonds came 
round, gave a large sum of money to the father of the girl 
for taking her away with him. This having been done, the 
rumour was spread abroad that it was one of the Fairies the 
youth had married, and that she had gone with him to catch 
a pony, when he threw the bridle at it to prevent it passing, 
and the iron of the bridle touched the wife ; then that she at 
once disappeared, as the Fairies always do so when touched 
with iron. However, the two children were put out to 
nurse, and the one of them, who was a girl, was brought up 
at Plas y Pennant, and her name was Pelisha ; her descend- 
ants remain to this day in the Nant, and are called Bellis, 
who are believed there, to this day, to be derived from 
the Tylwyth Teg, Nothing offends them more than to be 
reminded of this.'" 

Mr. E. J. Jones goes on to relate another tale as follows : — 



78 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

"Dywedir fod He a elwir yr Hafod Rugog mewn cwm 
anial yn y mynydd lie y byddai y Tylwyth Teg yn arferol a 
mynychu ; ac y byddent yn trwblio'r hen wraig am fenthyg 
rhywbeth neu gilydd. Dywedodd hithau : ' Cewch os cania- 
tewch ddau beth cyntaf — i*r peth cyntaf y cyffpddaf ag ef 
wrth y drws dori, a'r peth cyntaf y rhof fy Haw amo yn y 
ty estyn hanerllath.' Tr oedd careg afael, fel ei gelwir, yn y 
mur wrth y drws ar ei ffordd, ac yr oedd ganddi ddefnydd 
syrcyn gwlanen yn rhy fyr o haner llath. Ond yn anffodus 
wrth ddod a'i chawellad mawn i'r ty bu agos iddi a syrthio : 
rhoes ei Uaw ar ben ei chlun i ymarbed a thorodd hono, a 
chan faint y boen cyffyrddodd yny ty a'i thrwyn yr hwn a 
estynodd haner llath." 

" It is said that there was a place called Hafod Rugog in a 
wild hollow among the mountains, where the Fair Family 
were in the habit of resorting, and that they used to trouble 
the old woman of Hafod for the loan of one thing or another. 
So she said, one day, ' You shall have it, if you wul grant me 
first two things — that the first thing I touch at the door 
break, and that the first thing I put my hand on in the house 
be lengthened half a yard.' There was a binding stone, carreg 
afdd, as it is called, in the wall near the door, which was in 
her way, and she had flannel for a jerkin which was half a 
yard too short. But, unfortunately, as she came, with her 
basket full of turf on her back to the house, she nearly fell 
down : she put her hand, in order to save herself, to her knee- 
joint, when that broke ; and, owing to the pain, when she had 
got into the house, she touched her nose with her hand, when 
the former grew half a yard longer." 

Mr. Jones goes on to notice how the old folks used to be- 
lieve that the Fairies were wont to appear in the marshes near 
Cwellyn Lake, not far from Rhyd Ddu, to sing and dance, 
and that it was considered daugerous to approach them on 
those occasions lest one should be fascinated. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 79 

The next four stones are to be found in Cymru Fu at 
pages 1 75-9, whence I have taken the liberty of translating 
them into English. They were contributed by Glasjmys, 
whose name has already occurred so often in connection 
with these Welsh legends, that the reader ought to know 
more about him; but I have been disappointed in my attempt 
to get a short account of his life to insert here. All I 
can say is, that I made his acquaintance in 1865 in 
Anglesey, where he had a curacy near Holyhead. His name 
was Owen Wyn Jones, he was in the prime of life, and an 
enthusiast for Welsh antiquities ; he was bom and bred, I 
believe, in the neighbourhood of Snowdon, and his death 
took place about ten years ago. He certainly deserves a 
biography, and the student of Welsh folk-lore must needs 
feel the want of it ; so let us hope that the editor of the 
Cÿmmrodor may be able to procure one for publication ere 
long. 

(1.) " When the people of the Gors Goch one evening had 
just gone to bed, lo! they heard a great row and disturbance 
around the house. One could not at all comprehend what it 
might be that made a noise that time of night. Both the 
husband and the wife had waked up, quite unable to make 
out what there might be there. The children also woke, but 
no one could utter a word ; their tongues had all stuck to the 
roof of their mouths. The husband, however, at last ma- 
naged to move, and to ask, * Who is there ? What do you 
want?' Then he was answered from without by a small 
silvery voice, *It is room we want to dress our children.' 
The door was opened, a dozen small beings came in, and 
began to search for an earthen pitcher with water; there 
they remained for some hours, washing and titivating them- 
selves. As the day was breaking, they went away, leaving 
behind them a fine present for the kindness they had re- 
ceived. Often afterwards did the Gors Goch folks have the 



80 WELSH FAIBY TALES. 

company of this Family. But once there happened to be 
there a fine roll of a pretty baby in his cradle. The 
Fair Family came, and, as the baby had not been baptized, 
they took the liberty of changing him for one of their own. 
They left behind in his stead an abominable creature that 
would do nothing but cry and scream every day of the week. 
The mother was nearly breaking her heart on accoimt of the 
misfortune, and greatly afraid of telling anybody about it. 
But everybody got to see that there was something wrong at 
the Gors Goch, which was proved before long by the mother 
dpng of longing for her child. The other children died 
broken-hearted after their mother, and the husband was left 
alone with the little elf without any one to comfort them. 
But shortly after, one began to resort again to the hearth of the 
Gors Goch to dress children, and the gift, which had for- 
merly been silver money, became henceforth pure gold. In 
the course of a few years the elf became the heir of «a large 
farm in North Wales, and that is why the old people used to 
say 'Shoe the elf with gold and he will grow' (Fe ddaw 
gvnddon ynfawr ond ei hedoli ag aur). That is the legend of 
the Gors Goch." 

f 2.) " Once, when William Ellis of the Gilwem was fishing 
on the bank of the Cwm Silin Lake, on a dark misty day, he 
had seen no Hving Christian from the time when he left 
Nantlle. But as he was in a happy mood, throwing his line, 
he beheld over against him in a clump of rushes a large crowd 
of people, or things in the shape of people about a foot in 
stature, and engaged in leaping and 'dancing. He looked on 
for hours, and he never heard, as he said, such music in his 
life before. But William went too near them, when they 
threw a kind of dust into his eyes, and, while he was wiping 
it away, the little Family took the opportunity of betaking 
themselves somewhere out of his sight, so that he neither 
saw nor heard anything more of them." 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 81 

(3.) "There is a similar stxjry respecting a place called 
Llyn y Ffynonau. There was no end of jollifying there, of 
dancing, harping, and fiddUng, with the servant-man of GeUi 
Ffrydan and his two dogs in the midst of the crowd, leaping 
and capering as nimbly as anybody else. At it they were for 
three days and three nights, without stopping; and had it 
not been for a skilled man, who lived not far off, and got ta 
know how things were going on, the poor fellow would, 
without doubt, have danced himself to death. But he was 
rescued that time." 

(4.) " The fourth story is one, which he says he heard from 
his mother ; but he has elaborated it in his usual fashion, and 
the proper names are undoubtedly his own: — 'Once on a time, 
a shepherd-boy had gone up the mountain. That day, like 
many a day before and after, was exceedingly misty. Now, 
though he was well acquainted with the place, he lost his 
way, and walked backwards and forwards for many a long 
hour. At last he got into a low rushy spot, where he saw 
before him many circular rings. He at once recalled the 
place, and began to fear the worst He had heard, many 
hundreds of times, of the bitter experiences in those rings of 
many a shepherd who had happened to chance on the 
dancing-place or the circles of the Fair Family. He hast- 
ened away as fast as ever he could, lest he should be ruined 
Uke the rest ; but, though he exerted himself to the point of 
perspiring and losing his breath, there he was, and there he 
continued to be, a long time. At last he was met by a little 
fat old man, with merry blue eyes, who asked him what he 
was doing. He answered that it was trying to find his way 
homewards he was. ' Oh,' said he, * come after me, and 
do not utter a word until I bid thee.* This he did, following 
him on and on until they came to an oval stone ; and the little 
old fat man lifted it, after tapping the middle of it three times 
with his walking-stick. There was there a narrow path with 

VOL. v. Ü 



82 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

stairs to be seen here and there ; and a sort of wMtish light, 
inclining to grey and blue, was to be seen radiating from the 
stones. ' Follow me fearlessly,' said the fat man ; ' no harm 
will be done thee.* So on the poor youth went, as reluctantly 
as a dog to be hanged. But presently a fine, wooded, fertile 
country spread itself out before them, with well-arranged 
mansions dotting it over, while every kind of apparent mag- 
nificence met the eye and seemed to smile in its landscape ; 
the bright waters of its rivers meandered in twisted streams, 
and its hills were covered with the luxuriant verdure of their 
grajssy growth, and the mountains with a glossy fleece of 
smooth pasture. By the time they had reached the stout 
gentleman's mansion, the young man's senses had been be- 
wildered by the sweet cadence of the music which the birds 
poured forth from the groves ; then there was gold there to 
dazzle his eyes, and silver flashing on his sight. He saw 
there all kinds of musical instruments and all sorts of things 
for playing ; but he could discern no inhabitant in the whole 
place ; and, when he sat down to eat, the dishes on the table 
came to their places of themselves, and disappeared when 
one had done with them. This puzzled him beyond measure ; 
moreover, he heard people talking together around him, but 
for the life of him he could see no one but his old friend. At 
length the fat man said to him : ' Thou canst now talk as 
much as it may please thee ;* but, when he attempted to 
move his tongue it would no more stir than if it had been a 
lump of ice, which greatly frightened him. At this point, a 
fine old lady, with health and benevolence beaming in her 
face, came to them and slightly smiled at the shepherd ; the 
mother was foUowed by her three daughters, who were re- 
markably beautiful. They gazed with somewhat play- 
ful looks at him, and at length began to talk to him ; but 
his tongue would not wag. Then one of the girls came to 
him, and, playing with his yellow and curly locks, gave him 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 83 

a smart kiss on his ruddy lips. This loosened the string that 
bound his tongue, and he began to talk freely and eloquently. 
There he was, under the charm of that kiss, in the bliss of 
happiness ; and there he remained a year and a day without 
knowing that he had passed more than a day among them ; 
for he had got into a country where there was no reckoning 
of time. But by and by he began to feel somewhat of a long- 
ing to visit his old home, and asked the stout man if he might 
go. * Stay a little yet,' said he, ' and thou shalt go for a 
while.' That passed : he stayed on ; but 01 wen, for that was 
the name of the damsel that had kissed him, was very un- 
willing that he should depart. She looked sad every time he 
talked of going away ; nor was he himself without feeling a 
sort of a cold thrill passing through him at the thought of 
leaving her. On condition, however, of returning, he obtained 
leave to go, provided with plenty of gold and silver, of 
trinkets and gems. When he reached home, nobody knew 
who he was ; it had been the belief that he had been killed 
by another shepherd, who found it necessary to betake him- 
self hastily far away to America, lest he should be hanged 
without delay. But here is Enion Las at home, and every- 
body wonders especially to see that the shepherd had got to 
look like a wealthy man : his manners, his dress, his lan- 
guage, and the treasure he had with him, aU conspired to 
give him the air of a gentleman. He went back one Thurs- 
day night, the first of the moon that month, as suddenly as he 
had left the first time, and nobody knew whither. There was 
great joy in the country below when Einion returned thither, 
and nobody was more rejoiced at it than Olwen, his beloved. 
The two were right impatient to get married ; but it was 
necessary to do that quietly, for the Family below hated 
nothing more than fuss and noise; so, in a sort of a half 
secret fashion, they were wedded. Einion was very desirous 
to go once more among his own people, accompanied, to be 

g2 



84 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

sure, by his wife. After he had been long entreating the old 
man for leave, they set out on two white ponies, that were, 
in fact, more like snow than anything else in point of colour, 
So he arrived with his consort in his old home, and it was 
the opinion of all that Einion's wife was the handsomest 
person they had anywhere seen. Whust at home, a son 
was bom to them, to whom they gave the name of Taliesin. 
Einion was now in the enjoyment of high repute, and his 
wife received proper respect. Their wealth was immense, 
and soon they acquired a large estate; but it was not 
long till people began to inquire after the pedigree of 
Einion's wife — ^the country was of opinion that it was not 
the right thing to be without a pedigree. Einion was ques- 
tioned about it, without his giving any satisfactory answer, and 
one came to the conclusion that she was one of the Fair 
Family {Tylwyth Teg). 'Certainly,' replied Einion, 'there 
can be no doubt that she comes from a very fídr family ; for 
she has two sisters who are as fair as she, and, if you saw 
them together, you would admit that name to be a capital 
one.' This, then, is the reason why the remarkable family in 
the land of Charm and Phantasy {Hvd a Zledrith) are called 
the Fair Family." 

The two next tales of Glasynys's appear in Cymru Fu, 
at pp. 478-9 ; the first of them is to be compared with 
one already related, while the other is unlike anything that 
I can now recall : — 

(5.) " Cwmllan was the principal resort of the Fair Family, 
and the shepherds of Hafod Han used to see them daily in 
the ages of faith gone by. Once, on a misty afternoon, one 
of them had been searching for sheep towards Nant y Bettws. 
When he had crossed Bwlch Cwmllan, and was hastening 
laboriously down, he saw an endless number of little folks 
singing and dancing in a lively and light-footed fashion, 
while the handsomest girls he had ever seen anywhere were 
at it preparing a banquet. He went to them and had a share 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 85 

of their dainties, and it seemed to him that he had never in 
his life tasted anything approaching their dishes. When the 
twilight came, they spread their tents, and the man never 
before saw such beauty and ingenuity. They gave him a 
soft bed of yielding down, with sheets of the finest linen, 
and he went to rest as proud as if he had been a prince. 
But, alas ! next morning, after all the jollity and sham-splen- 
dour, the poor man, when he opened his eyes, found that his 
bed was but a clump of bulrushes, and his pillow a lump of 
moss. Nevertheless, he found silver money in his shoes, and 
afterwards he continued for along time to find, every week, a 
piece of coined money between two stones near the spot where 
he had slept. One day, however, he told a friend of his the secret 
respecting the money, and he never found any after that." 

(6.) " Another of these shepherds was one day urging his 
dog at the sheep in Gwmllan, when he heard a kind of low 
noise in the cleft of a rock. He turned to look, when he found 
there some kind of a creature weeping plenteously. He ap- 
proached, and drew out a wee lass ; very shortly afterwards, 
behold ! two middle-aged men came to him to thank him for 
his kindness, and, when about to part, one of them gave him 
a walking-stick, as a souvenir of his good deed. The year 
after this, every sheep in his possession had two ewe-lambs ; 
and so his sheep continued to breed for some years. But one 
night he had stayed in the village until it was rather late, 
and there hardly ever was a more tempestuous night than 
that : the wind howled, and the clouds shed their contents in 
sheets of rain, while the darkness was such that next to no- 
thing could be seen. As he was crossing the river that comes 
down from Cwmllan, when its flood was sweeping all before it 
in a terrible current, he somehow let go the walking-stick from 
his hand ; and when one went next morning up the Gwm, 
one found that nearly all the sheep had been swept away by 
the flood, and that the farmer's wealth had gone almost as it 
came — ^with the walking-stick." 



86 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

The shorter versions given by Glasynys are probably more 
nearly given as he heard them, than the longer ones, which 
may be suspected of having been a good deal spun out by 
him ; but there is probably very little in any of them of 
his own invention, though the question may be difficult 
to answer whence he got his materials in each instance. 
In one this is quite clear, though he does not state it, 
namely, the story of the sojourn of Elfod the Shepherd 
in Fairyland, as given in Cymru Fu, page 477 ; it is no other 
than a second or third-hand reproduction of that recorded 
about the South Wales priest, Eliodorus, by Giraldus, in his 
Itinerarium KamJmm, i, 8, where it should be consulted by 
any one who has doubts about the antiquity of tales of this 
kind. But the longest tale published by Glasynys is the 
one about the mermaid in Cymru Fu, pp. 43 1 411 ; where he 
got this from I have not been able to find out, but it has 
probably been pieced together from various sources. I feel 
sure that some of the materials at least were Welsh, besides 
the characters known in Welsh mythology as Nefydd "SeS 
Neifion, Gwyn ab Nudd, Gwydion ab Don, Dylan and 
Ceridwen, who have been recklessly introduced into it. He 
locates it, apparently, somewhere on the coast of Carnar- 
vonshire, the leading place being called Ogof Deio, or 
David's Gave, which so far as I know is not an actual name, 
but one suggested by ''David Jones", as sailors' slang for 
the sea. In hopes that somebody will communicate to the 
Editor of the Cymmrodor any bits of this tale which may 
still be current on points of the coast of Wales, I here give 
an abstract of it 

"Once upon a time, a poor fisherman made the ac- 
quaintance of a mermaid in a cave on the sea-coast; 
at first she screeched wildly, but, when she got a little 
calmer, she told him to go off out of the way of her 
brother, and to return betimes the day after. In getting 



WELSH FAIBY TALES. 87 

away, lie was tossed into the sea, and tossed out on the land 
with a rope, which had got wound about his waist, on pull- 
ing at this he got ashore a coffer full of treasure^ which he 
occupied the night in carrying home. He was somewhat 
late in revisiting the cave the next day, and saw no mermaid 
come there to meet him according to her promise. But the 
following night he was roused out of his sleep by a visit 
from her to his home, when she told him to come in time 
next day. On his way thither, he learnt from some fisher- 
men that they had been labouring in vain during the night, 
as a great big mermaid had opened their nets in order to 
pick the best fish, while she let the rest escape. Wlien he 
reached the cave he foimd the mermaid there combing her 
liair ; she surprised him by telling him that she had come 
to live among the inhabitants of the land, though she was, 
according to her own account, a king's daughter. She was 
no longer stark naked, but dressed like a lady ; in one hand 
she held a diadem of pure gold, and in the other a cap of 
wonderful workmanship, the former of which she placed on 
her head while she handed the latter to Ifan Morgan, with 
the order that he should keep it. Then she related to him 
how she had noticed him when he was a ruddy boy, out 
fishing in his father's white boat, and heard him sing a song 
which made her love him, and how she had tried to repeat 
this song at her father's court, where everybody wanted to 
get it. Many a time, she said^ she had been anxiously 
listening if she might hear it again, but all in vain. So 
she had obtained permission from her family to come with 
treasures and see if he would not teach it her ; but she soon 
saw that she would not succeed without appearing in the 
form in which she now was. After saying that her name 
was Nefyn, daughter of Nefydd Naf Neifion, and niece to 
Gwyn son of Nudd, and Gwydion son of Don, she calmed 
his feelings on the subject of the humble cottage in which 



88 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

he lived. Presently he asked her to be his wife, and she 
consented on the condition that he should always keep the 
cap she had given him out of her sight and teach her the 
song. They were married and lived happy together, and 
had children bom them five times, a son and a daughter 
each time ; they frequently went to the cave, and no one 
knew what treasures they had got there ; but once on a 
time they went out in a boat pleasuring, as was their wont, 
with six or seven of the children accompanying them, and 
when they were far from the land a great storm arose ; 
besides the usual accompaniments of a storm at sea, 
most unearthly screeches and noises were heard, which 
frightened the children and made their mother look uncom- 
fortable ; but presently she bent her head over the side 
of the boat, and whispered something they did not catch ; 
to their surprise the sea was instantly calm. They got 
home comfortably, but the elder children were puzzled 
greatly by their mother's influence over the sea; it was not 
long after this tiU they so teased some ill-natured old 
women that they told them all about the uncanny origin 
of their mother. The eldest boy was vexed at this, and 
remembered how his mother had spoken to somebody near 
the boat at sea, and that he was never allowed to go with 
his parents to Ogof Deio ; he recalled, also, his mother's 
account of the strange countries she had seen. Once there 
came also to Ifan Morgan's home, which was now a mansion, 
a visitor the children were not even allowed to see, and one 
night, when the young moon had sunk behind the western 
horizon, Ifan and his wife went quietly out of the house, 
telling a servant that they would not return for three weeks 
or a month, which was overheard by the eldest son. So he 
followed them very quietly until he saw them on the strand, 
where he beheld his mother casting a sort of leather mantle 
round herself and his father, and throwing themselves into 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 89 

the hollow of a billow that came to fetch them. The son 
went home, broke his heart, and died in nine days at finding 
out that his mother was a mermaid ; on seeing her brother 
dead his twin sister went and threw herself into the sea, 
but, instead of being drowned, she was taken up on his 
steed by a fine looking knight, who then galloped away 
over the waves as if they had been dry and level land. 
The servants were in doubt what to do, now that Nefydd 
Morgan was dead and Eilonwy had thrown herself into the 
sea ; but Tegid, the second son, who feared nothing, said 
that Nefydd's body should be taken to the strand, as some- 
body was likely to come to fetch it for burial among his 
mother's family. At midnight a knight arrived, who 
said the funeral was to be at three that morning, and told 
them that their brother would come back to them, as 
Gwydion ab Don was going to give him a heart that no 
weight could break, that Eilonwy was soon to be wedded 
to one of the finest and bravest of the knights of Gwerddonau 
Llion, and that their parents were with Gwyn ab Nudd in 
the Gwaelodion. The body was accordingly taken to the 
beach, and, as soon as the wave touched it, out of Ins cofi^ 
leaped Nefydd Uke a porpoise. He was seen then to walk 
away arm-in-arm with Gwydion ab Don to a ship that was 
in waiting, and most enchanting music was heard by those 
on shore ; but soon the ship sailed away, hardly touching 
the tops of the billows. After a year and a day had elapsed 
Ifan Morgan, the father, came home, looking much better 
and more gentlemanly than he had ever done before; he 
had never spoken of Nefyn, his wife, until Tegid one day 
asked him what about his mother ; she had gone, he said, in 
search of Eilonwy, who had run away from her husband in 
Gwerddonau Llion, with Glanfryd ab Gloywfraint. She 
would be back soon, he thought, and describe to them all 
the wonders they had seen. Ifan Morgan went to bed that 



90 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

night, and was found dead in it in the morning ; it was 
thought that his death had been caused by a black knight, 
who had been seen haunting the place at midnight for some 
time, and always disappearing, when pursued, into a well that 
bubbled forth in a dark recess near at hand. The day of 
If an Morgan's funeral, Nefyn, his wife, returned, and be- 
wailed him with many tears ; she was never more seen on 
the dry land. Tegid had now the charge of the family, 
and he conducted himself in all things as behove a man 
and a gentleman of high principles and great generosity. 
He was very wealthy, but often grieved by the thought 
of his father's murder. One day, when he and two of 
his brothers were out in a boat fishing in the neigh- 
bouring bay, they were driven by the wind to the most 
wonderful place they had ever seen. The sea there was 
as smooth as glass, and as bright as the clearest light, while 
beneath it, and not far from them, they saw a most splendid 
country with fertile fields and dales covered with pastures ; 
with flowery hedges, groves clad in their green foliage, and 
forests gently waving their leafy luxuriance, with rivers lazily 
contemplating theii' own tortuous courses, and with mansions 
here and there of the most beautiful and ingenious descrip- 
tion ; and presently they saw that the inhabitants amused 
themselves with all kinds of merriment and frolickiug, and 
that here and there they had music and engaged in the 
most energetic dancing; in fact, the rippling waves seemed to 
have absorbed their full of the music, so that the faint echo 
of it, as gently given forth by the waves, never ceased to 
charm their ears until they reached the shore. That night 
the three brothers had the same dream, namely that the 
black Knight who had throttled their father was in hiding in 
a cave on the coast : so they made for the cave in the morn- 
ing, but the black knight fled from them and galloped off on 
the waves as if he had been riding for amusement over a 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 91 

meadow. That day their sisters on returning home from 
school had to cross a piece of sea, when a tempest arose and 
sunk the vessel, drowning all on board, and the brothers 
ascribed this to the Black Knight. About this time there 
was great consternation among the fishermen on account of a 
sea-serpent that twined itself about the rocks near the caves, 
and nothing would do but that Tegid and his brothers should 
go out to kill it ; but when one day they came near the spot 
frequented by it^ they heard a deep voice saying to them, 
* Do not kill your sister,' so they wondered greatly and sud- 
denly went home. But that night Tegid returned there 
alone, and called his sister by her name, and after waiting a 
long while she crept towards him in the shape of a sea- 
serpent, and said that she must remain some time in that 
form on account of her having run away with one who was 
not her husband ; she went on to say that she had seen their 
sisters walking with their mother, and that their father would 
soon be in the cave. But aU of a sudden there came the 
Black Knight, who unsheathes a sword that looked like a 
flame of fire and begins to cut her into a thousand bits» 
which however united as fast as he cut it, and became as 
whole as before. The end was that she twisted herself in a 
coil round his throat and bit him terribly in his breast. At 
this point a White Knight comes and runs him through with 
his spear, so that he fell instantly, whue the White Knight 
went off hurriedly with the sea-serpent in a coil round his 
neck. Tegid ran away for his life, but not before some 
monster more terrible than anything he had ever seen had 
b^;un to attack him ; it haunted him in all kinds of ways, 
sometimes it would be like a sea, but Tegid was able to swim; 
sometimes it would be a mountain of ice, but Tegid was able 
to climb it; and sometimes it was like a furnace of intense 
fire, but the heat had no effect on him; but it appeared 
mostly as a combination of the beast of prey and the venomous 



92 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

reptile. Suddenly, however, a young man appeared^ taking 
hold of Tegid's arm and encouraging him, when the monster 
fled away screeching, and a host of knights in splendid array 
and on proudly prancing horses came to him ; among them 
he found his brothers, and he went with them to his mother's 
country. He was especially welcome there, and he found all 
happy and present save his father only, whom he thought of 
fetching from the world above, having in fact got leave to do 
so from his grandfather. His mother and his brothers came 
with him to search for his father's body, and with him came 
Gwydion ab Don and Gwyn ab Nudd, but he would not be 
wakened. So Tegid, who loved his father greatly, asked leave 
to remain on his father's grave, where he remains to this day. 
His mother is wont to come there to soothe him, and his 
brothers send him gifts, while he sends his gifts to Nefydd 
Naf Neifion, his grandfather ; it is also said that his twin- 
sister, Ceridwen, has long since come to live near him, to 
make the glad gladder and the pretty prettier, and to main- 
tain her dignity and honour in peace and tranquillity." 

The latter part of this tale, the mention of Ceridwen, and 
of Tegid remaining on his father's grave, is evidently a re- 
ference to Ilyn Tegid or Bala Lake, and to the legend of 
Taliesin ; so the story has undoubtedly been pieced together, 
but it was not all invented, as is proved by the reference to 
the curious cap the husband was to keep out of the wedded 
mermaid's sight — in Irish legends this cap has particular 
importance attached to it, of which Glasynys cannot have 
been aware, for he knew of no use to medce of it. The teach- 
ing of the song to the wife is also not mentioned after the 
marriage ; but the introduction of it at all is remarkable ; 
at any rate I have not noticed anything parallel to it in 
other tales. The incident of the tempest, when the mermaid 
spoke to somebody by the side of the boat, reminds one of 
Undine during the trip on the Danube. But it is, perhaps. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 93 

useless to go into details till one has ascertained how much 
of the story has been based on genuine Welsh folklore. 
But, while I am on this point, I venture to append here an 
Irish tale, which will serve to explain the meaning of the 
mermaid's cap, as necessary to her comfort in the water 
world I am indebted for it to the kindness of Dr. Noi^nan 
Moore, of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, who tells me, in a 
letter dated March the 7th, 1882, that he and the Miss Raynells 
of Killynon, heard it from an old woman named Mrs. Dolan, 
who lives on the property of the late Mr. Cooke, of Cookes- 
borough, in Westmeath ; the following was her tale : " There 
was a man named Mahon had a farm on the edge of Loch 
Owel. He noticed that his corn was trampled, and he sat 
up all night to watch it. He saw horses, colts and fillies 
rather, come up out of the lake and trample it. He chased 
them, and they fled into the lake. The next night he saw 
them again, and among them a beautiful girl and a cap of 
salmon skin off her head, and it shone in the moonlight ; 
and he caught her and embraced her, and carried her off to 
his house and married her, and she was a very good house- 
wife, as all those lake people are, and kept his house beauti- 
fully ; and one day in the harvest, when the men were in 
the fields, she went into the house and there she looked 
on the hurdle for some lard to make colcaunen [Dr. Moore 
explains this to be cabbages and potatoes, pounded and 
mixed with butter or lard] for the men, and she saw her 
old cap of fish skin, and she put it on her head and ran 
straight down into the lake and was never seen any more, 
and Mahon he was terribly grieved, and he died soon after 
of a decline. She had had three children, and I often saw 
them in the Mullingar market. They were farmers, too, on 
Loch Owel." 

Before leaving Carnarvonshire, I may add a reference to 
Pennant's Tours in Wales : in the edition published in 



94 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

London in 1810, we are told, volume iì^ page 335, that 
Mr. Pennant learned " that, in fairy days, those diminutive 
gentry kept their revels" on the margins of the Snowdon 
lake, called Llyn Coch. There is no legend now extant, 
so far as I can ascertain, about the Lljm Coch Fairies. 

Just as these sheets were about to be placed in the 
printer's hands, I was favoured by Mr. Howell Thomas, 
of the Local Government Board, with a legend written out 
by Mr. G. B. Gattie, to which I take the liberty of prefixing 
his letter to Mr. Thomas ; it is dated Walham Grove, 
London, S.W., April 27th, 1882, and runs as follows : — 

" I had quite forgotten the enclosed, which I had jotted 
down during my recent illness, and ought to have sent you 
long ago. Of course, the wording is very rough, as no care 
has been taken on that point. 

"It is interesting, as being another version of a very pretty 
old legend which my mother used to repeat. She was 
descended from a very old north Welsh famuy; indeed, 
I believe my esteemed grandfather went so far as to trace 
his descent from the great patriot Owen Glendower himself ! 

''My mother delighted not only in the ancient folklore, 
legends, and fairy tales of the Principality, with which she 
was perfectly familiar, but especially in the lovely national 
melodies, aU of which she knew by heart; and, being highly 
accomplished, would never tire of playing or singing them. 

"You will see the legend is, in the main, much as related 
by Professor Ehys, though differing somewhat in the singular 
terms of the marriage contract." 

" The scene of the legend, as related by my late mother 
was, of course, a lake, the Welsh name of which I have, 
unfortunately, forgotten, but it was somewhere, I think, 
near Llanberis, and the hero a stalwart young farmer. 
One hot day, riding by the lake^ he took his horse into the 
water to drink, and, whilst looking straight down over 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 95 

his horse's ears into the smooth surface, he became aware 
of a most lovely f&ce, just beneath the tide, looking up 
archly at him. Quite bewildered, he earnestly beck- 
oned, and by degrees the head and shoulders which be- 
longed to the face emerged from the water. Overcome 
with emotion, and nearly maddened by the blaze of 
beauty so suddenly put before him, he leaped from his horse 
and rushed wildly into the lake to tiy to clasp the lovely 
vision to his heart. As this was a clear case of ' love at 
first sight', the poor young man was not, of course, answer- 
able for his actions. But the vision had vanished beneath 
the waves, to instantly reappear, however, a yard or two 
off, with the most provoking of smiles, and holding out her 
beautiful white hands towards her admirer, but slipping 
off into deep water the moment he approached. 

"For many days the young farmer frequented the lake, 
but without again seeing the beautiful Naiad, until one 
day he sat down by the maigin hoping that she would 
appear, and yet dreading her appearance, for this latter to 
him simply meant loss of all peace. Yet he rushed on his 
fate, like the love-sick shepherd in the old Italian romance, 
who watched the sleeping beauty, yet dreaded her awaken- 
ing : — * lo perderò la pace, quando si svegliera !* 

'' The young man had brought the remains of his frugal 
dinner with him, and was quietly munching, by way of 
dessert, an apple of rare and delicious quality, from a tree 
which grew upon a neighbouring estate. Suddenly the lady 
appeared in all her rare beauty almost close to him, and 
begged him to ' throw ' her one of his apples. This was 
altogether too much, and he replied by holding out the 
tempting morsel, exhibiting its beautiful red and green sides, 
saying that, if she really wanted it, she must fetch it herself. 
Upon this she came up quite close, and, as she took the 
apple from his left hand, he dexterously seized tight hold 



96 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

of her with his right, and held her fast. She, however, 
nothing daunted, bawled lustily, at the top of her voice, for 
help, and made such an outrageous noise, that at length a 
most respectable looking old gentlemen appeared suddenly 
out of the midst of the lake. He had a superb white beard, 
and was simply and classically attired merely in a single 
wreath of beautiful water lilies wound round his loins, 
which was possibly his summer costume, the weather being 
hot. He politely requested to know what was the matter, 
and what the young farmer wanted with his daughter. The 
case was thereupon explained, but not without the usual 
amount of nervous trepidation which usually happens to 
love-sick swains when called into the awful presence of 
* Papa ' to * explain their intentions ' ! 

"After a long parley the lady, at length, agreed to become 
the young man's wife, on two conditions which he was to 
solemnly promise to keep. These conditions were that he 
was never to strike her with steel or clay (earth), conditions 
to which the young man very readily assented. As these 
were primitive days, when people were happy and honest, 
there were no lawyers to encumber the Holy Estate with 
lengthy settlements, and to fill their own pockets with 
heavy fees ; matters were therefore soon settled, and the lady 
married to the young farmer on the spot by the very re- 
spectable old lake deity, her papa. 

" The story goes on to say that the union was followed by 
two sons and two daughters. The eldest son became a great 
physician, and all his descendants after him were celebrated 
for their great proficiency in the noble healing art. The 
second son was a mighty craftsman in all works appertaining 
to the manufacture aiid use of iron and metals. Indeed it 
has been hinted that, his little corracle of bull's hide having 
become old and unsafe, he conceived the brilliant idea of 
making one of thin iron. This he actually accomplished. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 97 

and, to the intense amtizement of the wondering populace, 
he constantly used it for fishing, or other purposes, on the 
lake, where he paddled about in perfect security. This im- 
portant fact ought to be more generally known, as it gives 
him a fair claim to the introduction of iron ship-building 
(^paee the shades of Beaufort and Brunei). 

*' Of the two daughters, one is said to have invented the 
small ten-stringed harp, and the other the spinning wheel. 
Thus were introduced the arts of medicine, manufactures, 
music and woollen work. 

''As the old ballad says (applying the quotation to the 
father and mother) : — 

^ They lived for more than forty year 
Right long and happilie I ' 

"One day it happened that the wife expressed a great wish 
for some of those same delicious apples of which she was 
so fond, and of which their neighbour often sent them a 
supply. Ofif went the farmer, like a good husband that he 
was, and brought back, not only some apples, but a beauti- 
ful young sapling, seven or eight feet high, bearing the 
same apple, as a present jfrom their friend. This they at 
once proceeded to set, he digging and she holding ; but the 
hole not being quite deep enough he again set to work, 
with increased energy, with his spade, and stooping very 
low threw out the last shovel-full over his shoulder — alas ! 
without looking — full into the breast of his wife. She 
dropped the sapling and solemnly warned him that one 
of the two conditions of their marriage contract had been 
broken. Accident was pleaded, but in vain, there was the 
unfortunate fact — h£ had stncck her wüh clay! Looking 
upon the sapling as the cause of this great trouble he 
determined to return it forthwith to his kind neighbour. 
Taking a bridle in his hand he proceeded to the field to 
catch his horse, his wife kindly helping him. They both 
VOL. V. H 



98 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

ran up, one on each side, but^ as the unruly steed showed 
no signs of stopping, the husband attempted to throw 
the bridle over his head. Not having visited Mexico in 
his travels, and thereby learned the use of the lasso, he 
missed his horse's head and — ^misfortune of misfortunes — 
struck his wife in the face with the iron bit, thus breaking 
the second condition ! He had struck her with steel ! She 
no sooner received the blow than — ^like Esau — she "cried 
with a great and exceeding bitter cry," and bidding her 
husband a last farewell, fled down the hill with lightning 
speed, dashed into the lake and disappeared beneath the 
smooth and glassy waters ! Thus, it may be said that, if an 
apple — ^indirectly — occasioned the beginning of her married 
life, so an apple brought about its sad termination." 

viL Merioneth. 

The parish of Llanfachraith and its traditions have been 
the subject of some contributions to the first volume of the 
Talie^in (Clarke, Euthin: 1859-60), pages 132-7, by a writer 
who calls himself Cofiadur. It was Glasynys, I believe, for 
the style seems to be his : he pretends to copy from an old 
manuscript of Hugh Bifan's — both the MS. and its owner 
were fictions of Glasynys's, I am told. These jottings con- 
tain two or three items about the fairies which seem to be 
genuine : — 

" The bottom of Uyn Cynnwch is level with the hearth- 
stone of the house of Dol y Clochydd. Its depth was found 
out owing to the sweetheart of one of Siwsi's girls having 
lost his way to her from Nannau, where he was a servant. 
The poor man had fallen into the lake, and gone down and 
down, when he found it becoming clearer the lower he got, 
until at last he alighted on a level spot where everybody 
and everjrthing looked much as he had observed on the dry 
land. When he had reached the bottom of the lake, a short 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 99 

fat old gentleman came to him and asked his business ; he 
told him how it happened that he had come. He met with 
great welcome, and he stayed there a month without know- 
ing that he had been there three days, and when he was 
going to leave, he was led out to his beloved by the inhabi- 
tants of the lake bottom. He asserted that the whole way 
was level except in one place, where they descended about 
a fathom into the ground, but, he added, it was necessary 
to ascend about as much to reach the hearthstone of Dol y 
Clochydd ; but the most wonderful thing was that the stone 
lifted itself as he came up from the subterranean road 
towards it It was thus the sweetheart arrived there one 
evening, when the girl was by the fire weeping for him. 
Siwsi had been out some days before, and she knew all 
about it though she said nothing to anybody. This, then, 
was the way the depth of Ilyn Cynnwch got to be known." 
Then he has a few sentences about an old house called 
Ceimarch : — " Ceimarch was an old mansion of considerable 
name, and in old times it was considered next, in the whole 
district, to Nannau in point of importance. There was a deep 
ditch round it, which was always kept full of water, with the 
view of keeping ofif vagabonds and thieves, as well as other 
lawless folks, that they might not take the inmates by sur- 
prise. But> in distant ages, this place was very noted for 
being visited frequently by the Fair Family. They used to 
come to the ditch to wash themselves, and to cross the water 
in boats made of the bark of the rowan tree, or else birch, and 
they came into the house to pay their rent for trampling the 
ground around the place. They always placed a piece of 
money under a pitcher, and the result was that the family 
living there became remarkably rich. But somehow, after 
the lapse of many years, the owner of the place offended 
them, by showing disrespect for their Diminutive Family : 
soon the world began to go against him, and it was not 

h2 



100 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

long before he got low in life. Eveiything turned against 
him, and everybody formerly believed that all this came to 
his share, because he had incurred the displeasure of the Fait 
Famüy." 

In the fifth volume of the BrytJum, p. 456, in the course of 
an Essay on the history of the Lordship of Mawddwy in 
Merioneth, considered the best in a competition at an 
Eisteddfod, held at Dinas Mawddwy, August 2nd, 1855, 
Glasynys gives the following bit about the Fairies of that 
neighbourhood : " The side of the Aran Fawddwy is a great 
place for the Fair Family ; they are ever at it playing their 
games on the hillsides about this spot. It is said that they 
are numberless likewise about Bwlch y Groes. Once a boy 
crossed over near the approach of night, one summer eve, 
from the Gadfa to Mawddwy, and on his return he saw near 
Aber Rhiwlech a swarm of the Little Family at it dancing at 
full pelt. The boy began to run, with two of the maidens in 
pursuit of him, entreating him to stay ; but Robin, for that 
was his name, kept running, and the two elves failed 
altogether in catching him, otherwise he would have been 
taken a prisoner of love. There are plenty of their dancing- 
rings to be seen on the hillsides between Aber Khiwlech and 
Bwlch y Groes." 

Here I would introduce two short tales, which I have only 
just now received, namely, from Mr. E. S. Roberts, Master of 
the Llantysilio School, near Llangollen. He has learnt them 
from one Abel Evans, who lives at present in the parish of 
Llantysilio ; he is a native of the parish of Uandrillo on the 
slopes of the Berwyn, and of a glen in the same, known as 
Cwiu Pennant, so called from its being drained by the Pen- 
nant, on its way to join the Dee. Now, Cwm Pennant was 
the resort of Fairies, or of a certain family of them, and the 
occurrence, related in the following tale, must have taken 
place no less than seventy years ago : it was well known to 
the late Mrs. Ellen Edwards of LHandrillo : — 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 101 

" Eyw ddiwrnod aeth dau gyfaiU i hela dwfrgwn ar hyd 
lannau afon Pennant, a thra yn cyfeino eu camrau tuagat yr 
afon gwelsant ryw greadur bychan Uiwgoch yn rhedeg yn 
gyflym iawn ar draws nn o'r dolydd yn nghyfeiriad yr afon. 
Ymaeth a nhw ar ei oL Gwelsant ei fod wedi myned odditan 
wiaidd coeden yn ochr yr afon i ymguddio. Yr oedd y ddau 
ddyn yn meddwl mae dwfrgi ydoedd, ond ar yr un pryd yn 
methu a deall paham yr ymddanghosai i'w Uygaid yn lliw- 
goch. Yr oeddynt yn dymuiio ŵ dial yn fy w; ác ymaith yr 
aeth nn o honynt i fifarmdy 'geiulaw i o£yn, aiu sach, yr hon a 
gafwyd, er mwyn rhoi y ŵŵdûp ynddir-'W bèää-'yno ddau 
dwll o tan wraidd y pren, a thra daliai un y sach yn agored 
ar un twU yr oedd y Uall yn hwthio fifon i'r twU arall, ac yn 
y man aeth y creadur i'r sach. Yr oedd y ddau ddyn yn 
meddwl ei bod wedi dal dwfrgi, yr hyn a ystyrient yn orchest 
nid bychan. Cychwynasant gartref yn llawen ond cyn eu 
myned hyd Ued cae, llefarodd lletty wr y sach mewn ton drist 
gan ddywedyd — * Y mae fy mam yn galw am danaf, 0, mae 
fy mam yn gdw am danaf/ yr hyn a roddodd fraw mawr i'r 
ddau heliwr, ac yn y man taflasant y sach i lawr, a mawr 
oedd eu rhyfeddod a*u dychryn pan welsant ddyn bach 
mewn gwisg goch yn rhedeg o'r sach tuagat yr afon. Fe a 
ddiflanodd o'i golwg yn mysg y drysni ar fin yr afon. Yr 
oedd y ddau wedi eu brawychu yn ddirfawr ac yn teimlo mae 
doethach oedd myned gartref yn hytrach nag ymyraeth yn 
mhellach a Thylwyth Teg." 

" One day, two friends went to hunt otters on the banks of 
the Pennant, and when they were directing their steps to- 
wards the river, they beheld some small creature of a red 
colour running fast across the meadows in the direction of 
the river. Off they ran after it, and saw that it went beneath 
the roots of a tree on the brink of the river to hide itsel£ 
The two men thought it was an otter, but, at the same time, 
they could not understand why it seemed to them to be of a 



102 WELSH FAIBT TALES. 

red colour. They wished to take it alive, and ofif one of them 
went to a fann-house that was not far away to ask for a sack, 
which he got, to put the creature into it. Now, there were 
two holes under the roots of the tree, and while one held the 
sack with its mouth open over one of them, the other pushed 
his stick into the other hole, and presently the creature went 
into the sack. The two men thought they had caught an 
otter, which they looked upon as no small feat. They set out 
for home, tŵfìiefore^théÿÄ^d; proceeded the width of one 
field, the. inmate. pf.t^Q ^ack .spoke to them in a sad voice, 
and sai(fì*lMŷ:iilòÂiéfîÌi:&]£iig.{br me; oh, my mother is 
calling for me 1' This gave the two hunters a great fright, 
so that they at once threw down the sack ; and great was 
their surprise to see a little man in a red dress running out 
of the sack towards the river. He disappeared from their 
sight in the bushes by the river. The two men were terrified 
greatly, and felt that it was more prudent to go home than 
meddle any further with the Fair Family." 

The other story, which I now reproduce, was obtained by 
Mr. Boberts from the same Abel Evans. He learnt it from 
Mrs. Ellen Edwards, and it refers to a point in her lifetime, 
which Abel Evans fixes at ninety years ago. Mr. Soberts 
has not succeeded in recovering the name of the cottager of 
whom it speaks ; but he lived on the side of the Berwyu, 
above Cwm Pennant, where till lately a cottage used to 
stand, near which the Fairies had one of their resorts : — 

"Yr oedd perchen y bwthyn wedi amaethu rhyw ran 
fychan o'r mynydd ger Uaw y ty er mwyn plannu pytatws 
ynddo. Felly y gwnaeth. Mewn coeden yn agos i*r fan 
canfyddodd n^th bran. Fe feddyliodd mae doeth fuasai iddo 
ddryllio y nyth cyn amlhau o'r brain. Fe a esgynodd y 
goeden ac a ddrylliodd y njrth, ac wedi disgyn i lawr can- 
fyddodd gylch glas (fairy ring) oddiamgylch y pren, ac ar y 
gylch fe welodd banner coron er ei fawr lawenydd. Wrth 



WELSH FAIBY TALES. 103 

fyned heibio yr un fan y boreu canlynol fe gafodd hanner 
coron yn yr un man ag y cafodd y dydd o'r blaen. Hyna f u 
am amryw ddyddiau. Un diwmod dywedodd wrth gyfaill 
am eu hap dda ac a ddangosodd y fan a'r lie y cawsai yr 
banner coron bob boreu. Wei y boreu canlynol nid oedd 
yno na hanner coron na dim araU iddo ; oherwydd yr oedd 
wedi torri rheolau y Tylwythion trwy wneud eu haelioni yn 
hysbys. Y mae y Tylwjrthion o'r f am na ddylai y llaw aswy 
wybod yr hyn a wna y llaw ddehau." 

" The occupier of the cottage had tuled a small portion of 
the mountain side near his home in order to plant potatoes, 
which he did. He observed that there was a rook's nest on 
a tree which was not far from this spot, and it struck him 
that it would be prudent to break the nest before the rooks 
multiplied. So he climbed the tree and broke the nest, and 
after coming down, he noticed a green circle (a fairy ring) 
round the tree, and on this ring he espied, to his great joy, 
half-a-crown. As he went by the same spot the following 
morning, he had another half-a-crown in the same place as 
before. So it happened for several days; but one day he 
told a friend of his good luck, and showed him the spot 
where he had half-a-crown every morning. Now, the next 
morning there was no half-a-crown there for him, nor any- 
thing else, because he had broken the rule of the Fair Folks, 
by making their liberality known, they being of opinion 
that the left hand should not know what the right hand doe&" 
So runs this short tale, which the old lady, Mrs. Edwards, 
and the people of the neighbourhood explained as an instance 
of the gratitude of the Fairies to a man who had rendered 
them a service, which in this case was supposed to have 
consisted in ridding them of the rooks that disturbed their 
merry-makings in the green ring beneath the branches of the 
tree. 

It would be unpardonable to pass away from Merioneth 



104 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

without alluding to the Stray Cow of Ilyn Barfog. The 
story appears in Welsh in the Brython for 1860, pp. 183-4, 
but the contributor, who closely imitated Glasynys's style, 
says that he got his materials from a paper by the late 
Dr. Pughe of Aberdovey, by which he seems to have meant 
an article contributed by the latter to the ArchsBologia Cam- 
brensis, and published in the volume for 1853, pp. 201-5. 
Dr. Pughe dwells in that article a good deal on the scenery 
of the comer of Merioneth in the rear of Aberdovey ; but the 
chief thing in his paper is the legend connected with Llyn 
Barfog, which he rendered into English as the Bearded Lake. 
It is, however, just possible that it was originally Uyn y 
Barfog, or the Lake of the Bearded One. It is described as a 
mountain lake in a secluded spot in the upland country behind 
Aberdovey; but I shall let Dr. Pughe speak for himself: — 

" The lovers of Cambrian lore are aware that the Triads, 
in their record of the Deluge, afi&rm that it was occasioned 
by a mystic Afanc y Uyn, crocodile of the lake, breaking the 
banks of Llyn Llion, the lake of waters ; and the recurrence 
of that catastrophe was prevented only by Hu Gadam, the 
bold man of power, dragging away the Afanc by aid of his 
Ychain Banawg, or large-horned oxen. Many a lakelet in 
our land has put forward its claim to the location of Uyn 
Llion ; amongst the rest, this lake. Be that as it may, King 
Arthur and his war-horse have the credit amongst the moun- 
taineers here of ridding them of the monster, in place of Hu 
the Mighty, in proof of which is shown an impression on 
a neighbouring rock, bearing a resemblance to those made by 
the shoe or hoof of a horse, as having been left there by his 
charger when our British Hercules was engaged in this re- 
doubtable act of prowess; and this impression has been 
given the name of Cam March Arthur, the hoof of Arthur's 
horse, which it retains to this day. It is believed to be 
very perilous to let the waters out of the lake, and re- 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 105 

cently an aged inhabitant of the district informed the 
imter that she recollected this being done during a period 
of long drought, in order to procure motive power for Ilyn 
Pair Milly and that long continued heavy rains followed. 
No wonder our bold but superstitious progenitors, awe-struck 
by the solitude of the spot — ^the dark sepial tint of its waters, 
unrelieved by the flitting apparition of a single fish, and 
seldom visited by the tenants of the air — should have estab- 
lished it as a canon in their creed of terror, that the lake 
formed one of the many communications between this out- 
ward world of ours and the inner or lower one of Annwn — 
the unknown world^ — ^the dominion of Gwyn ap Nudd, the 
mythic king of the fabled realm, peopled by those children 
of mystery, Plant Annwn ; and the belief is still current 
amongst the inhabitants of our mountains in the occasional 
visitations of the Gwragedd Annwn, or dames of Elfin land, 
to this upper world of ours. A shrewd old hill fanner 
(Thomas Abergraes by name) well skilled in the folk-lore 
of the district, informed me that, in years gone by, though 
when exactly, he was too young to remember, those dames 
were wont to make their appearance, arrayed in green, 
in the neighbourhood of Uyn Barfog, chiefly at eventide, 
accompanied by their kine and hounds, and that, on quiet 
summer nights in particular, these ban-hoimds were often 
to be heard in full cry, pursuing their prey — the souls of 
doomed men dying without baptism and penance — along 
the upland township of Cefnrhosucha. Many a farmer had 
a sight of their comely milk-white kine ; many a swain had 
his soiil turned to romance and poesy by a sudden vision 
of themselves in the guise of damsels arrayed in green, and 
radiant in beauty and grace ; and many a sportsman had his 

^ I should not like to vouch for the accoracy of Dr. Pughe's renderÌDg 
of this and the other Welsh names he has introduced : that involves 
difficult questions. 



106 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

path crossed by their white hounds of supernatural fleetness 
and comeliness, the Cwn Annwn ; but never had any one 
been favoured with more than a passing view of either, till 
an old farmer residing at Dyssymant, in the adjoining valley 
of Dyf&yn Gwyn, became at last the lucky captor of one 
of their milk-white kine. The acquaintance which the 
Gwartheg y Ilyn, the kine of the lake, had formed with the 
former's cattle, like the loves of the angels for the daughters 
of men, became the means of capture ; and the farmer 
was thereby enabled to add the mystic cow to his own herd, 
an event in all cases believed to be most conducive to the 
worldly prosperity of him who should make so fortunate 
an acquisition. Kever was there such a cow, never such 
calves, never such milk and butter, or cheese, and the feme 
of the Fuwch Gyfeiliom, the stray cow, was soon spread 
abroad through that central part of Wales known as the 
district of Ehwng y ddwy Afon, from the banks of the 
Mawddach to those of the Dofwy^ — ^from Aberdiswnwy* to 
Abercorris. The farmer, firom a small beginning, rapidly 
became, like Job, a man of substance, possessed of thriving 
herds of cattle — a very patriarch among the mountains. 
But, alas ! wanting Job's restraining grace, his wealth made 
him proud, his pride made him forget his obligation to the 
Elfin cow, and fearing she might soon become too old to 
be profitable, he fattened her for the butcher, and then 
even she did not fail to distinguish herself, for a more 
monstrously fat beast was never seen. At last the day of 
slaughter came — an eventful day in the annals of a moun- 
tain farm — the killing of a fat cow, and such a monster 
of obesity! No wonder all the neighbours were gathered 
together to see the sight. The old farmer looked upon the 

^ The doctor meant the river known as Dyfi or Dovey; but he would 
seem to have had an etymology in his mind. 
> This involves the name of the river called Disynwy. 



WELSH FÀIBT TALES. 107 

preparations in self-pleased importance ; the butcher felt 
he was about no common feat of his craft, and, baring his 
arm, he struck the blow — ^not now &tal, for before even an 
hair had been injured, his arm was paralysed — the knife 
dropped from his hand, and the whole company was electri- 
fied by a piercing cry, that awakened echo in a dozen hills, 
and made the welkin ring again ; and lo and behold ! the 
whole assemblage saw a female figure clad in green^ with 
uplifted arms, standing on one of the craigs overhanging 
Uyn Barfog, and heard her calling with a voice loud as 

thunder : — 

• Dere di vden Einion, 
Cym Cyveiliom — ^bndth y Uyn, 
AV Toel Dodin, 
Codwch, dewch adre.' 

* Come yellow Anvil, stray homa, 
Speckled one of the lake, and of the homleas Dodin, 
Arise, Come home.'^ 

And no sooner were these words of power uttered, than the 
original lake cow, and all her progeny to the third and fourth 
generations, were in full flight towards the heights of Uyn 
Barfog, as if pursued by the evil one. Self-interest quickly 
roused the farmer, who followed in pursuit, till breathless 
and panting, he gained an eminence overlooking the lake, but 
with no better success than to behold the green-attired dame 
leisurely descending mid-lake, accompanied by the fugitive 
cows, and her calves formed in a circle around her, they 
tossing their tails, she waving her hands in a scorn, as much 
as to say, * You may catch us, my friend, if you can', as they 

^ It would, I think, be a little nearer the mark as follows : — 
** Come Einion's Yellow one, 
The Stray Horns, the Particoloured one of the Lake, 
And the Hornless Dodin 
Arise, oome home." 
However, one would like to know first whether Dodin was not rather 
Dodyn^ to rhyme with Llyn, 



108 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

disappeared beneath the dark waters of the lake, leaving only 
the yellow water-lily to mark the spot where they vanished, 
and to perpetuate the memory of this strange event. Mean- 
while, the farmer looked with rueful countenance upon the 
spot where the elfin herd disappeared, and had ample leisure 
to deplore the effects of his greediness, as with them also de- 
parted the prosperity which had hitherto attended him, and 
he became impoverished to a degree below his original cir- 
cumstances ; and, in his altered circumstances, few felt pity 
for one who, in the noontide flow of prosperity, had shown 
himself so far forgetful of favours received, as to purpose 
slaying his benefactor." 

Dr. Pughe did a very good thing in saving this legend from 
oblivion, but it would be very interesting to know how much 
of it is still current among the inhabitants of the retired dis- 
trict around liyn Barfog. But to flit from the latter to the 
neighbouring watering-place, the question suggests itself to 
me as to the Bells of Aberdovey, with their melodious un, 
dau, tri, pedivar, pump, chivech, whether they were not Fairy 
bells — ^is there anything historical about them ? The readers 
of Mr. Sikes's book need not be told that Welsh music con- 
nects itself in various ways with the belief in Fairies. 

vm. Dyfed. 

There is one kind of Fairy tale of which I think I have 
hitherto not given the reader a specimen: a good one is 
given in the third volume of the Brython, at p. 459, by a 
contributor who calls himself Idnerth ab Gwgan, who, I 
learn from Mr, Silvan Evans, the Editor, was no other than 
the Eev. Benjamin WiUiams, best known to Welsh anti- 
quarians by his bardic name of Gwynionydd. The preface 
to the tale is also interesting, so I am tempted to render the 
whole into English as follows : — 

" The Fair Family were wonderful creatures in the ima- 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 109 

ginaiy world : they encamped, they walked, and they capered 
a great deal in former ages in our country, according to what 
we learn from some of our old people. It may be supposed 
that they were very little folks like the children of Ehys 
Ddwfh ; for the old people used to imagine that they were wont 
to visit their hearths in great numbers in ages gone by. The 
girls at the farm-houses used to make the hearths clean after 
supper, and to place a cauldron full of water near the fire ; 
and so they thought that the Fair Family came there to play 
at night, bringing sweethearts for the young women, and 
leaving pieces of money on the hob for them in the morning. 
Sometimes they might be seen as splendid hosts exercising 
themselves on our hills. They were very fond of the moun- 
tains of Dyfed; travellers between Lampeter and Cardigan 
used to see them on the hill of lianwenog, but, by the time 
they had reached there, the fairies would be far away on the 
hills of Ilandyssul, and when one had got where one expected 
to see the Family together in tidy array, they would be seen 
very busüy engaged on the tops of Crug y Balog ; when one 
got there they would be on Blaen Pant ar Fi, moving on and 
on to Bryn Bwa, and, finally, to some place or other in the 
lower part of Dyfed. like the soldiers of our earthly world, 
they were possessed of terribly fascinating music ; and in the 
autumnal season they had their rings, still named from them, 
in which they sang and danced. The young man of liech y 
Derwydd^ was his father's only son, as well as heir to the 
farm : so he was very dear to his father and his mother, nay, 
he was the light of their eyes. Now, the head servant and 
the son were bosom friends : they were like brothers together, 
or rather twin brothers. As the son and the servant were such 
friends, the farmer's wife used to get exactly the same kind 
of clothes prepared for the servant as for her son. The two 

1 Or, Llech y Deriy aa Mr. Williams tells me in a letter, where he adds 
that he does not know the place, but that he took it to be in the 
Hundred of Cemmes. 



110 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

fell in love with two handsome young women of very 
good reputation in the neighbourhood. The two couples 
were soon joined in honest wedlock, and great was the meny- 
making on the occasion. The servant had a suitable place to 
live on the farm of liech y Derwydd ; but about half a year 
after the son's marriage, he and his friend went out for sport, 
when the servant withdrew to a wild and retired comer to 
look for game. He returned presently for his friend, but 
when he got there he could not see him anywhere : he kept 
looking around for some time for him, shouting and whistling, 
but there was no sign of his friend. By and by, he went 
home to Llech y Derwydd expecting to see him, but no one 
knew anything about him. Great was the sorrow of his 
family through the night ; but next day the anxiety was still 
greater. They went to see the place where his friend had 
seen him last : it was hard to tell whether his mother or his 
wife wept the more bitterly; but the father was a little 
better, though he also looked as if he were half mad with 
grief. The spot was examined, and, to their surprise, they 
saw a Fairy ring close by, and the servant recollected 
that he had heard the sound of very fascinating music 
somewhere or other about the time in question. It was 
at once agreed that the man had been unfortunate enough 
to have got into the ring of the Family, and to have been 
carried away by them, nobody knew whither. Weeks 
and months passed away, and a son was bom to the heir 
of liech y Derwydd, but the young father was not there 
to see his child, which the old people thought very hard. 
However, the little one grew up the very picture of his 
father, and great was his influence over his grandfather 
and grandmother; in fact he was everything with them. 
He grew up to be a man, and he married a good-looking 
girl in that neighbourhood ; but her family did not enjoy 
the reputation of being kind-hearted people. The old folks 



WELSH FAIRT TALES. Ill 

died, and their danghter-in-law also. One windy afternoon, 
in the month of October, the family of Llech y Derwydd 
beheld a tall thin old man, with his beard and hair white 
as snow, coming towards the house, and they thought he 
was a Jew. The servant maids stared at him, and their 
mistress laughed at the ' old Jew', at the same time that 
she lifted the children up to see him one after another. He 
came to the door and entered boldly enough, asking about 
his parents. The mistress answered him in an unusually 
surly and contemptuous tone, wondering why the ' drunken 
old Jew had come there', because they thought he had been 
drinking, and that he would otherwise not have spoken so. 
The old man cast wondering and anxious looks around on 
everything in the house, feeling as he did greatly surprised ; 
but it was the little children about the floor that drew his 
attention most: his looks were full of disappointment and 
sorrow. He related the whole of his account, saying that 
he had been out the day before and that he was now return- 
ing. The mistress of the house told him that she had heard 
a tale about her husband's father, that he had been lost years 
before her birth while out sporting, whilst her father main- 
tained that it was not true, but that he had been killed. 
She became angry, and quite lost her temper at seeing 'the 
old Jew ' not going away. The old man was roused, saying 
that he was the owner of the house, and that he must have 
his rights. He then went out to see his possessions, and pre* 
aently went to the house of the servant, where, to his surprise, 
things had greatly changed ; after conversing with an aged 
man, who sat by the fire, the one began to scrutinize the 
other more and more. The aged man by the fire told him 
what had been the fate of his old friend the heir of Llech 
y Derwydd. They talked deliberately of the events of their 
youth, but it all seemed like a dream ; in short, the old man 
in the comer concluded that his visitor was his old friend 



112 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

the heir of liech y Derwydd letuming from the land of 
the Fair Family, after spending half a hundred years there. 
The other old man, with the snow-white beard, believed in 
his history, and much did they talk together and question 
one another for many hours. The old man by the fire said 
that the master of Llech y Derwydd was away from home 
that day, and he induced his aged visitor to eat some food, 
but, to the horror of all, the eater fell down dead on the 
spot. There is no record that an inquest was held over 
him, but the tale relates that the cause of it was that he 
ate food after having been so long in the world of the Fair 
Family. His old friend insisted on seeing him buried by 
the side of his ancestors ; but the rudeness of the mistress 
of Llech y Derwydd to her father-in-law brought a curse 
on the family that clung to it to distant generations, and 
until the place had been sold nine times.'' 

A tale like this is to be found related of Idwal of Nant- 
clwyd in Cymru Fu, p. 85. I said a tale like this, but, on 
reconsidering the matter, I should say it is the very same tale 
passed through the hands of Glasynys, or some one of his 
imitators. Another of this kind will be found in the Bry- 
thon, ii, p. 170, and several similar ones also in Sikes's book, 
chap, vi, either given at length, or referred to, as in the case 
of that of Uwyn y Nef, or Heaven's* Grove, a place near 
Celynnog Fawr, in the county of Carnarvon. This last ver- 
sion is remarkable as substituting the music and felicity of 
Heaven for the merry dancing and fiddling of the Fairies, 
and the man charmed is no longer a farmer or shepherd, but 
a pious monk of Celynnog. The tale is given by Glasynys in 
Cymru Fu, pp. 183-4, where it was copied from the third 
volume of the Brython,^. Ill, in which he had previously pub- 
lished it. Several versions of it in rhyme come down from 
the eighteenth century, and the Rev. D. Silvan Evans has 
brought together twenty-six of these stanzas in St DavicTs 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 113 

College Magazine for 1881, pp. 191-200, where he has put 
into a few paragraphs all that is known about the song of the 
Hen Wr oV Coed, or the Old Man of the "Wood, in his 
usually clear and critical style. 

A tale from the other end of the district, once occupied by 
Celts- of the same branch as the Kymry, makes the man, and 
not the Fairies, supply the music. I owe it to the kindness 
of Mr. A. Clark, Fellow of Lincoln College, who heard it 
from the late sexton of the parish of Dollar, in Clack- 
mannanshire. The latter died some twelve years ago, aged 
seventy: he had learnt the tale from his father. The fol- 
lowing are Mr. Clark's words : — 

" Glendevon is a parish and village in the Ochils in County 
Perth, about five miles from Dollar as you come up Glen 
Queich and down by Gloomhill. Glen Queich is a narrowish 
glen between two grassy hills — at the top of the glen is a 
round hill of no great height, but very neat shape, the grass 
of which is always short and trim, and the ferns on the 
shoulder of a very marked green. This, as you come up the 
glen, seems entirely to block the way. It is called the 
' Maiden Castle'. Only when you come quite close, do you 
see the path winding round the foot of it. Â little further 
on is a fine spring, bordered with flat stones, in the middle of 
a neat, turfy spot, called the ' Maiden's Well'. 

" This road, till the new toll-road was made on the other 
side of the hills, was the thoroughfare between Dollar and 
Glendevon. 

" The Legend, as told by the ' EethreF. 

" A piper, carrying his pipes, was coming from Glendevon 
to Dollar in the grey of the evening. He crossed the Gar- 
chel (a little stream running into the Queich bum), and 
looked at the * Maiden Castle*, and saw only tlie grey hill- 
side and heard only the wind soughing through the bent. He 

VOL. V. I 



114 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

had got beyond it when he heard a burst of lively music ; 
he turned round and instead of the dark knoll saw a great 
castle, with lights blazing from the windows, and heard the 
noise of dancing issuing from the open door. He went back 
incautiously, and a procession issuing forth at that moment, 
he was caught and taken in to a great hall ablaze with lights, 
and people dancing on the floor. He had to pipe to them for 
a day or two, but he got anxious, because he knew his people 
would be wondering why he didn't come back in the morn- 
ing as he had promised. The fairies seemed to sympathise with 
his anxiety, and promised to let him go if he played a fa- 
vorite tune of his, which they seemed fond of, to their satis- 
faction. He played his very best, the dance went fast and 
furious, and at its close he was greeted with loud applause. 
On his release he found himself alone, in the grey of the 
evening, beside the dark hillock, and no sound was heard save 
the purr of the burn and the soughing of the wind through the 
bent. Instead of completing his journey to Dollar, he walked 
hastily back to Glendevon to relieve his folks' anxiety. He 
entered his father's house and found no kent face there. On 
his protesting that he had gone only a day or two ago, and 
waxing loud in his bewildered talk, a grey old man was 
roused from a doze behind the fire; and told how he had 
heard when a boy from his father that a piper had gone 
away to Dollar in a quiet evening, and had never been heard 
or seen since, nor any trace of him found He had been in 
the ' castle ' for a hundred years." 

The term. Plant Rhys DdwfUy or the children of Rhys the 
Deep, has already been brought before the reader, and the 
following account of them is given by Gwynionydd in the 
first volume of the Brython, p. 130, which deserves being 
cited at length : — " There is a tale current in Dyfed, that 
there is or rather that there has been, a country between 
Cemmaes, the northern Hundred of Pembrokeshire, and 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 115 

i&berdaron in Ueyn. The chief patriarch of the inhabitants 
was Ehys Ddwfn, and his descendants used to be called 
after him the Children of Ehys Ddwfn. They were, it is 
said, a sufficiently handsome race, but remarkably small in 
size. It is stated that certain herbs of a strange nature 
grew in their land, so that they were able to keep their 
country from being seen by even the most sharpsighted of 
invaders. There is no account that these remarkable herbs 
grew in any part of the world excepting in a small spot 
about a square yard in area, in a certain part of Cemmaes. 
If it chanced that a man stood alone on it, he beheld the 
whole of the territory of Plant Rhys Ddwfn; but the 
moment he moved he would lose sight of it altogether, and 
it would have been utterly vain for him to look for his foot- 
prints. The Rhysians had not much land; they lived in 
towns. So they were wont in former times to come to 
market to Cardigan, and to raise the prices of things ter- 
ribly. They were seen of no one coming or going, but only 
Sf»en there in the market When prices happened to be 
high, and the com all sold, however much there might have 
been there in the morning, the poor used to say to one another 
on the way home, ' Oh ! they were there to-day', meaning 
Plant Ehys Ddwfn, So they were dear friends in the esti- 
mation of Sion Phil Hywel the farmer ; but not so high in 
the opinion of Dafydd the labourer. It is said, however, 
that they were very honest and resolute men. A certain 
Gruflydd ab Einon was wont to sell them more corn than 
anybody else, and so he was a great friend of theirs. He 
was honoured by them beyond all his contemporaries in 
being led on a visit to their home. As they were great 
traders like the Phoenicians of old, they had treasures from 
all countries under the sun. Grufifydd, after feasting his 
eyes to satiety on their wonders, was led back by them 
loaded with presents. But before taking leave of them, he 

i2 



116 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

asked them how they succ5eeded in keeping themselves safe 
from invaders, as one of their number might become un- 
faithful, and go beyond the virtue of the herbs that formed 
their safety. ' ! ' replied the little old man of shrewd 
looks, 'just as Ireland has been blessed with a soil on which 
venomous reptiles cannot live, so with our land, no traitor 
can live here. Look at the sand on the seashore, perfect 
unity prevails there, and so among us. Rhys, the father of 
our race, bade us, even to the most distant descendant, 
honour our parents and ancestors ; love our own wives with- 
out looking at those of our neighbours ; and do our best for 
our children and grandchildren. And he said that if they 
did so, no one of them would ever prove unfaithful to another 
or become what you call a traitor. The latter is a wholly 
imaginary character among us ; strange pictures are drawn 
of him with his feet like those of an ass, with a nest of 
snakes in his bosom, with a head like the devil's, with 
hands somewhat like a man's, while one of them holds a large 
knife, and the family lies dead around the figure. Good 
bye !' When Grufifydd looked about him he lost sight of the 
country of PlarU Bhys, and found himself near his home. 
He became very wealthy after this, and continued a great 
friend of Plant Bhys so long as he lived. After Grufifydd's 
death they came to market again^ but such was the greed of 
the farmers, like Grufifydd before them, for riches, and so un- 
reasonable were the prices they asked for their corn, that the 
Bhysians took ofifence and came no more to Cardigan to 
market. The old people used to think that they now went 
to Fishguard market, as very strange people were wont to be 
seen there." 

With this should be compared, pages 9 and 10 of Sikes* 
book, where mention is made of sailors on the coast of Pem- 
brokeshire and Carmarthenshire, " who still talk of the green 
meadows of enchantment lying in the Irish Channel to the 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 117 

west of PembrokeshiTe", and of men who had landed on 
them, or seen them suddenly vanishing. The author then 
goes on without giving any clue to the source on which he 
drew, in the following strain : — ** The fairies inhabiting these 
islands are said to have regularly attended the markets at 
Milford Haven and Laugharne. They made their purchases 
without speaking, laid down their money and departed, 
always leaving the exact sum required, which they seemed 
to know, without asking the price of anything. Sometimes 
they were invisible ; but they were often seen by sharp-eyed 
persons. There was always one special butcher at Milford 
Haven upon whom the fairies bestowed their patronage, in- 
stead of distributing their favours indiscriminately. The 
Milford Haven folk could see the green Fairy Islands dis- 
tinctly, lying out a short distance from land; and the 
general belief was that they were densely peopled with 
fairies. It was also said that the latter went to and fro 
between the islands and the shore, through a subterranean 
gallery tmder the bottom of the sea.'' 

Another tale given in the Brython, vol. ii, p. 20, by a 
writer who gives his name as B. Davies, will serve to show, 
short though it be, that the term Plant Bhys Ddwfn was not 
confined to those honestly dealing Fairies, but was used in a 
sense wholly synonymous with that of Tylwyth Teg, as 
understood in other parts of Wales. It is as follows : — *' One 
hot calm day, when the sun of heaven was brilliantly shining, 
and the hay in the dales was being busily made by lads and 
lasses, and by grown-up people of both sexes, a woman in 
the neighbourhood of Emlyn placed her one-year old infant 
in the gadair or chair, as the cradle is called in these parts, 
and out she went to the field for a while, intending to 
return, when her neighbour, an old woman, overtaken by the 
decrepitude of eighty summers, should call to her that her 
darling was crying. It was not long before she heard the 



118 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

old woman calling to her ; she ran hurriedly, and as soon as 
she set foot on the kitchen floor she took her little one in 
her arms as usual, saying to him, * my little one ! thy 
mother's delight art thou I I would not take the world for 
thee, etc.* But to her surprise he had a very old look about 
him, and the more the tender-hearted mother gazed at his 
face, the stranger it seemed to her, so that at last she placed 
him in the cradle and told her trouble and sorrow to her 
relations and acquaintances. And after this one and the 
other had given his opinion, it was agreed at last that it 
was one of Ehys Ddwfn's children that was in the cradle, 
and not her dearly loved baby. In this distress there was 
nothing to do but to fetch a sorcerer, as fast as the fastest 
horse could gallop. He said, when he saw the child, that he 
had seen his like before, and that it would be a hard job to 
get rid of him, though not such a very hard job this time. 
The shovel was made red hot in the fire by one of the Cef- 
narty boys, and held before the child's face; and in an 
instant the short little old man took to his heels, and neither 
he nor his like was seen afterwards, from Abercuch to Aber- 
bargoed at any rate. The mother, it is said, found her 
darling unscathed the next moment. I remember also 
hearing that the strange son was as old as the grandfather 
of the one that had been lost."* 

As I see no reason to make any great distinction between 
lake-maidens and sea-maidens, I now give Gwynionydd's 
account of the mermaid, who was found by a fisherman 
from St. Dogmers, near Cardigan, Brython, i, p. 82 : — 

1 This is more usually written and pronounced Cenarth, the name of 
a parish on the Tcivi, where the three counties of Cardigan, Pembroke, 
and Carmarthen meet. 

2 B. Davics, that is, Benjamin Dayies, who gives this tale, was, as I 
learn from Gwynionydd, a native of Cenarth. He was a schoolmaster 
for about twelve years, and died in October 1859 at Merthyr, near 
Carmarthen ; he describes him as a good and intelligent man. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 119 

" One fine afternoon in summer, in the beginning of the 
last century, a fisherman, whose name was Pergrin,^ went to 
a recess in the rock, near Pen Cemmaes, where he found a 
sea-maiden doing her hair, and he took the water-lady 
prisoner to his boat. . . . We know not what language is 
used by sea-maidens .... but this one, this time at any 
rate, talked, it is said, very good Welsh ; for when she was 
in despair in Pergrin's custody, weeping copiously, and with 
her tresses all dishevelled, she called out : * Pergrin, if thou 
wilt let me go, I will give thee three shouts in thy time of 
greatest need.' So, in wonder and fear, he let her go to walk 
the streets of the deep, and visit her sweethearts there. 
Days and weeks passed without Pergrin seeing her after this; 
but one hot afternoon, when the sea was pretty cahn, and 
the fisherman had no thought of danger, behold his old ac- 
quaintance showing her head and locks, and shouting out, in 
a loud voice : ' Pergrin ! Pergrin ! Pergrin ! take up thy nets, 
take up the nets, take up the nets !' Pergrin and his com- 
panion instantly obeyed the message, and drew in their nets 
with great haste. In they went, past the bar, and by the 
time they had reached the Pwll Gam, the most terrible storm 
had overspread the sea, while Pergrin and his companion 
were safe on land. Twice nine others had gone out with 
them, but they were all drowned without having the chance 
of obeying the warning of the water-lady." 

A writer in the fourth volume of the Brython, p. 194, 
states that the people of Nefyn in Lleyn claim the story of 
Pergrin and the Mermaid as belonging to them, which proves 
that a similar legend has been current there ; add to this the 
fact mentioned in the Brython, iii, p. 336, that a red mermaid, 
with yellow hair, on a white field, figures in the coat of arms 

1 This name which may have come from Little England below WaleSÿ 
was once not uncommon in South Cardiganshire, as Mr. Williams 
informs me, bat it i& now changed as a surname into Davies and Jones \ 



120 WELSH FAIRY TAXES. 

of one branch of a family derived from Glasfiyn, in the 
parish of Uangybi, in Eifionydd — perhaps it would not be 
too much to expect some member of this family to give our 
readers the history of this device. We have already suggested 
that Glasynys's story was made up, to a certain extent, of 
materials found on the coasts of Carnarvonshire. A small 
batch of stories about South Wales Mermaids, is given by a 
writer, who calls himself Ab Nadol,^ in the Brython, iv, p. 310, 
as follows : — 

"A few rockmen are said to have been working, about 
eighty years ago, in a quarry near Forth y Ehaw, when the 
day was calm and clear, with nature, as it were, feasting, the 
flowers shedding sweet scent around, and the hot sunshine 
beaming into the jagged rocks. Though an occasional wave 
rose to strike the romantic clififs, the pea was like a placid 
lake, with its light coverlet of blue attractive enough to entice 
one of the ladies of JRhys Ddwfn forth from the town, seen 
by Daniel Huws off Trefin, as he was journeying between 
Fishguard and St. Davids, in the year 1858, to make her way 
to the top of a stone and to sit on it to disentangle her flow- 
ing silvery hair. Whilst she was cleaning herself, the rock- 
men went down, and when they got near her they perceived 
that, from her waist upwards, she was like the lasses of 
Wales, but that, from her waist downwards, she had the body 
of a fish. And, when they began to talk to her, they found 
she spoke Welsh, though she only uttered the following 
few words to them : ' Eeaping in Pembrokeshire and weeding 
in Carmarthenshire.' Off she then went to walk in the depth 
of the sea towards her home. Another tale is repeated about 
a mermaid, said to have been caught by men below the land 
of Uanwuda, near the spot, if not on the spot, where the 
French made their landing afterwards, and three miles to the 
west of Fishguard. It then goes on to say that they carried 

^ Perhaps some one of the Cymmrodorion will tell us who he was. 



WEI.SH FAJUY TALES. 121 

her to their home, and kept her in a secure place for some 
time ; before long, she begged to be allowed to return to the 
Brine Land, and gave the people of the house three bits of 
advice ; " but I only remember one of them", he writes, " and 
this is it : ' Skim the surface of the pottage before adding 
sweet milk to it : it will be whiter and sweeter, and less of 
it will do/ I was told that this family follow the three 
advices to this day/' 

After putting the foregoing bits together, I was favoured by 
Mr. Benjamin Williams, though he was at the time in the 
bitterness of domestic bereavement, with notes on the tales 
and the persons from whom he heard them. Mr. Williams 
is better known to Welsh antiquaries by his bardic name of 
Gwyuionydd, and his conununications form the contents of 
two or three letters, mostly answers to queries of mine. The 
following is the substance of them: — ^Mr. Williams is a native 
of the valley of Troed yr Aur in the Cardiganshire parish of 
Penbryn or lianfihangel Fenbryn, where I had once the 
pleasure of examining the ancient monument of CorbalengL 
He spent a part of his youth at Yerwig, in the parish of that 
name, in the angle between the northern bank of the Teivi 
and the Cardigan Bay. He heard of Bhys Ddwfn's Children 
first fix>m a distant relative of his father's, a Catherine 
Thomas, who came to visit her daughter, who lived not far 
from his father's house : that would now be irom forty-eight 
to fifty years ago. He was very young at the time, and 
formed a wonderful idea of those creatures, which was partly 
due also to the talk of one James Davies or Siams Mocyn, 
who was very well up in folk-lore^ and was one of his father's 
next-door neighbours. He' was an old man, and nephew to 
the musician, David Jenkin Morgan. The only spot near 
Mr. Williams's home, that used to be frequented by the 
Fairies, was Cefn y Ceirw, or the Stags' Bidge, a large farm, 
80 called from having been kept as a park for their deer by 



122 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

the Lewises of Abemant Bychan. He adds that the late 
Mr. Philipps of Aberglasney was very fond of talking of 
things in his native neighbourhood, and of mentioning the 
Fairies at Cefn y Ceirw. It was after moving to Verwig 
that Mr. "Williams began to put the tales he heard on paper: 
then he came in contact with three brothers, whose names 
were John, Owen, and Thomas Evans. They were well to 
do and respectable bachelors, living together on the large 
farm of Hafod Euflfydd. Thomas was a man of very strong 
common sense, and worth consulting on any subject : he was 
a good arithmetician, and a constant reader of Seren Gomer 
from its first appearance. He thoroughly understood the 
bardic metres, and had a fair knowledge of music. He was 
well versed in Scripture, and filled the office of deacon at the 
Baptist ChapeL His death took place in the year 1S64. 
Now, the eldest of the three brothers, the one named John, 
or Sion, was then about seventy-five years of age, and he tho- 
roughly believed in the tales about the Fairies, as wiU be seen 
from the following short dialogue : — 

Sion : " Williams bach, ma'n rhaid i bod nhw'i gal : yr w 
i*n cofio yn amser Bone fod marchnad Aberteifi yn Uawn o 
lafir yn y bore — digon yno am fis — ond cin pen banner awr 
yr odd y cwbwl wedi darfod. Nid odd possib i gweld nhwi : 
ma gida nhwi faint a fynnon nhwi o arian." 

Williams : " Siwt na fyse dynion yn i gweld nhwi ynte, 

Sion r 

Sion: "0 ma gida nhwi ddynion fel ninne yn pr3mi drostyn 
nhwi ; ag y ma nhwi fel yr hen siowmin yna yn gelli gneid 
pob trie." 

Sion: "My dear Williams, it must be that they exist: I 
remember Cardigan market, in the time of Bonaparte, full of 
corn in the morning — enough for a month — ^but in less than 
half an hour it was aU gone. It was impossible to see them : 
they have as much money as they like." 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 123 

Williams: *' How is it, then, that men did not see them, 
Sion r 

Siân: "0, they have men like us to do the buying for 
them ; and they can, like those old showmen, do every kind 
of trick." 

At this kind of display of simplicity on the part of his 
brother, Thomas used to smile and say : " My brother Sion 
believes such things as those"; for he had no belief in them 
Limself. Still it is from his mouth that Mr. Williams pub- 
lished the tales in the Brython, which have been re- 
produced here, that of " Pergrin and the Mermaid", and all 
that of the " Heir of Uech y Derwydd", not to mention the 
ethical element in the account of Bhys Ddwfh's country and 
its people, probably the product of his mind. Thomas Evans, 
or as he was really called, Tommos Ifan, was given rather to 
grappling with the question of the origin of such beliefs ; so 
one day he called Mr. Williams out, and led him to a spot, 
about four hundred yards from Bol y Fron, where the latter 
then lived: he pointed to the setting sun, and asked Mr. 
Williams what he thought of the glorious sunset before 
them. "It is all produced", he then observed, "by the 
reflection of the sun's rays on the mist : one might think", 
he went on to say, " that there was there a paradise of 
a country full of fields, forests, and everything that is de- 
sirable." And before they had moved away the grand scene 
had disappeared, when Tommos suggested that the idea of 
the existence of the country of Ehys Ddwfn*s Children arose 
from the contemplation of that phenomenon. I have many 
a time viewed the same sort of scene, and never without its 
suggesting to my mind the same idea, that of a resplendent 
paradise in the west It is the waking dream of a Celt no 
doubt, but it forms a key to a good deal of Celtic legend, 
which I cannot now stay to make use of. Suffice it to say 
that Tommos Ifan was probably far ahead of all the Welsh 



124 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

historians who try to extract history from the story of 
CarUre V Gvxidod, or the Bottom Hundred, beneath the 
waves of the Cardigan Bay. Lastly, besides Mr. Williams' 
contributions to the Brython, and a small volume of poetry, 
entitled Briallen glan Ceri, some tales of his were published 
by Uallawg in Bygones some years ago, and he had the prize 
at the Cardigan Eisteddfod of 1866 for the best collection in 
Welsh of the folklore of Dyfed : he thinks that it contained 
in all thirty-six tales of all kinds, but since the manuscript, 
as the property of the Committee of that Eisteddfod, was 
sold, he cannot now consult it : in fact he is not certain as to 
who the owner of it may now be, though he has an idea that 
it is either the Rev. Eees WDliams, Vicar of Whitchurch, 
Solva, Pembrokeshire ; or R. D. Jenkins, Esq., of Cilbronaii, 
Cardiganshire. Whoever the owner may be, he would pro- 
bably be only too glad to have it published, and I mention 
this merely to call the attention of the Cymmrodorion 
and our Editor to it. The Eisteddfod is to be praised 
for encouraging local research, and sometimes also for bury- 
ing the results in obscurity, but not always. 

IX. Glamorgan. 

Mr. Craigfryn Hughes, the author of a Welsh novellette,* 
with its scene laid in Glamorgan, having induced me to take 
a copy, I read it and found it full of local colouring. Then 
I ventured to sound the author on the question of Fairy 
Tales, and the reader of the Cymmrodor will be able to judge 
how hearty the response has been. Before reproducing the 
tale which Mr. Hughes has sent me, I will briefly put 
into English his account of himself and his authorities. Mr. 
Hughes lives at the Quakers' Yard, in the neighbourhood of 
Pontypridd, in Glamorgan. His father was not a believer 

1 Y Ferch o Gefn Ydfa^ by Isaac Craigfryn Hughes, and published 
by Measra. Daniel, Owen, Howell and Co., Cardiff. 1881. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 125 

in tales about Fairies or the like, and he learned all he 
knows of the traditions about them, in his father's absence, 
from hisfgrandmother and other old people. This old lady's 
name, was Eachel Hughes. She was bom at Pandy Pont y 
Cymmer, near Pontypool, in the year 1773 ; but she came to 
live in the parish of Llanfabon, near the Quakers' Yard, 
when she was only twelve years of age. There she con- 
tinued to live to the day of her death, which took place in 
1864, so that she was about 91 years of age at the time. 
Mr. Hughes adds that he remembers many of the old in- 
habitants besides his grandmother, who were perfectly 
familiar with the story he has put on record ; but only two 
of them are still alive, and those are both over 90 years 
old, with their minds overtaken by the childishness of old 
age, though it is only a short time since the death of 
another, who was, as he says, a walking library of tales 
about Corpse Candles, Ghosts, and Bendith y Mamau, or 
The Mothers' Blessing, as the Fairies are usually called in 
Glamorgan. Mr. Hughes's father tried to prevent his chil- 
dren being taught any tales about ghosts, corpse candles, or 
Fairies ; but the grandmother found opportunities of telling 
them plenty, and Mr. Hughes vividly describes the effect on 
his mind when he was a boy ; how frightened he used to 
feel ; how he pulled the clothes over his head in bed ; and 
how he half suffocated himself thereby under the effects of 
the fear the tales used to fill him with. Then, as to the 
locality, he makes the following remarks : — " There are few 
people who have not heard something or other about the old 
graveyard of the Quakers, which was made by Lydia Phil, a 
lady who lived at a neighbouring farmhouse, called Cefn y 
Fforest. This old graveyard lies in the eastern corner of 
the parish of Merthyr Tydfil, on land called Pantannas, as to 
the meaning of which there is much controversy. Some will 
have it that it is properly Pant yr Aros, or the Hollow of 



126 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

the Staying^ because travellers were sometimes stopped there 
over night by the swelling of the neighbouring river ; others 
treat it as Pant yr Hanes, the Hollow of the Legend, in allu- 
sion to the following story. But before the graveyard was 
made, the spot was called Ehyd y Grug, or the Ford of the 
Heather, which grows thereabouts in abundance. In front 
of the old graveyard towards the south the rivers Taff and 
Bargoed, which some would make into Byrgoed or Short- 
Wood, meet with each other, and thence rush in one over 
terrible cliffs of the rock, in the recesses of which lie huge 
cenvyni or cauldron-like pools, called respectively the Gerwyn 
Fach, the Gerwyn Fawr, and the Gerwyn Ganol, where 
many a drowning has taken place. As one walks up over 
Tarren y Crynwyr or the Quakers' Rift, until Pantannas is 
reached, and proceeds northwards for about a mile and a 
half, one arrives at a farmhouse called Pen Craig DaP, which 
means the top of the TafF Rock. The path between the two 
houses leads through fertue fields, in which may be seen, if 
one has eyes to observe, small rings which are greener than 
the rest of the ground. They are, in fact, green even as 
compared with the greenness around them — these are the 

^ On Fen Craig Bâf Mr. Hughes gives the following note: — It 
was the residence of Dafydd Morgan or *' Counsellor Morgan", who, 
he says, was executed on Kensington Common for taking the side of 
the Pretender. He had retreated to Pen j Graig, where his abode was, 
in order to conceal himself ; but he was discovered and carried away 
at night. Here follows a verse from an old ballad about him : — 

^' Dafydd Morgan ffel a ffol, 
Fe aeth yn ol ei hyder : 
Fe neidodd naid at rebel haid, 
Pan drodd o blaid Pretender." 

TafiFy Morgan, shrewd and daft. 
He did his bent go after — 
He leaps a leap to rebel swarms, 
And arms for the Pretender. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 127 

rings in which Bendith y Mamau used to meet to sing and 
dance all night. If a man happened to get inside one of 
these circles when the Fairies were there, he could not be 
got out in a hurry, as they would charm him and lead him 
into some of their caves, where they would keep him for 
ages, unawares to him, listening to their music. The rings 
Tary greatly in size, but in point of form they are all either 
round or oval. I have heard my grandmother", says Mr. 
Hughes, " reciting and singing several of the songs the Fairies 
sang in these rings. One of them began thus : — 

" • Canu, canu, drwy y nos, 

Dawnsio, dawnsio, ar waen y rhoe 
Yn Dgoleuni 'r lleoad dlos : 

Hapus ydym ni ! 

" * Pawb ohonom sydd yn Hon 
Heb an gofid dan ei iron : 
Canu, dawnsio, ar y ton^ — 

Dedwydd ydym ni ! ' 

Singing, singing through the night, 
Dancing, dancing with our might, 
Where the moon the moor doth light, 

Happy ever we ! 

One and all of merry mien, 
Without sorrow are we seen, 
Singing, dancing on the green : 

Gladsome ever we ! 

Here follows the story of Bevdith y Mamau's revenge in 
Mr. Hughes's own Welsh : — 

" Yn un o*r canrifoedd a aethant heibio, preswyliaS amaeth- 
wr yn nhyddyn Pantannas, a*T amser hwnw yr oedd bendith y 
mamau yn ymwelwyr ami ag amryw gaeau perthynol iddo ef, 

^ A /on is any green field that is used for grazing, and not meant to 
be mown, land which has, as it were, its skin of grassy turf unbroken 
for years by the plough. 



128 WELSH FAIRT TALES. 

a theimlai jntau gryn gasineb yn ei fynwes at jt 'atras 
fwstrog, Ueiaiog, a chynllwynig,' fel y galwai hwynt, a 
mynych yr hiraethai am aUu dyfod o hyd i ryw Iwybr er 
cael eu gwared oddiyno. O'r diwedd hysbyswyd ef gan hen 
reibwraig, fod y flfiordd i gael eu gwared yn ddigon hawdd, ac 
ond iddo ef roddi godro un hwyr a boreu iddi hi, 3rr hysbysai 
y fifordd iddo gyrhaedd yr hyn a fawr ddymunai. Bodd- 
lonodd i'w thelerau, a derbyniodd yntau y cyfarwyddyd, yr 
hyn ydoedd fel y canlyn : — Ei fod i aredig yr hoU gaeau i ba 
rai yr oedd eu hoflf ymgyrchfan, ac ond iddynt hwy unwaith 
golli y ton glas, y digient, ac na ddeuent byth mwy i*w boeni 
drwy eu hymweliadau a'r Ue. 

" Dilynodd yr amaethwr ei chyfarwyddyd i'r llyth3rren, a 
choronwyd ei waith a llwyddiant Nid oedd yr un o honynt 
i'w weled oddeutu y caeau yn awr ; ac yn lie sain eu caniadau 
soniarus, a glywid bob amser yn dyrchu o Waen y Rhos, nid 
oedd dim ond y dystawrwydd trylwyraf yn teymasu o gylch 
eu hen a'u hofT ymgyrchfan. 

" Hauodd yr amaethwr wenith, Ac. yn y caeau, ac yr oedd 
y gwanwyn gwyrddlas wedi gwthio y gauaf oddiar ei sedd, ac 
ymddangosai y maesydd yn ardderchog, yn eu llifrai gwyrdd- 
leision a gwanwyuoL 

" Ond un prydnawn, ar ol i'r haul ymgilio i ystafelloedd y 
gorllewin, tra yr oedd amaethwr Pantanas yn dychwelyd tua 
ei gartref, cyfarfyddwyd ag ef gan fod bychan ar ffurf dyn, 
yn gwisgo hugan goch ; a phan ddaeth gyferbyn ag ef dad- 
weiniodd ei gledd bychan, gan gyfeirio ei flaen at yr amaeth- 
wr, a dy wedyd, 

Dial a ddaw 
Y mae gerllaw. 

"Ceisiodd yr amaethwr chwerthin, ond yr oedd rhywbeth 
yn edrychiad sarug a llym y gwr bychan, ag a barodd iddo 
deimlo yn hynod o annymunol. 

" Ychydig o nosweithiau yn ddiweddarach, pan oedd y teulu 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 129 

ar jmDeuIlduo i'w gorphwysleoedd, dychrynwyd hwy yn 
fawr iawn gan drwst, fel pe byddai y ty yn syrthio î lawr 
bendramwnwgl, ac yn union ar ol i'r twrf beidio, clywent y 
geiriau bygythiol a ganlyn yn cael eu parablu yn uchel, 

Daw dial 
a dim jm rhagor. 

" Pan oedd yr yd wedi cael ei fedi ac yn barod i gael ei 
gywain i'r ysgubor, yn sydyn ryw noswaith llosgwyd ef 
fel nad oedd yr un dy wysen na gwellt yn i'w gael yn un man 
o'r caeau, ac nis gallasai neb fod wedi gosod yr yd ar dan ond 
Bendith y Maman. 

"Fel ag y mae yn naturiol i ni feddwl teimlodd yr 
amaethwr yn fawr oherwydd y tro, ac edifarhaodd yn ei galon 
ddarfod iddo erioed wrando a gwneuthur yn ol cyfarwyddyd 
yr hen reibwraig, ac felly ddwyn amo ddigofaint a chasineb 
Bendith y Mamau. 

" Dranoeth i*r noswaith y llosgwyd p yd fel yr oedd yn 
arolygu y difrod achoswyd gan y tan, weleV gwr bychan ag 
ydoedd wedi ei gyfarfod ychydig o ddiwruodau yn flaenorol 
yn ei gyfarfod eilwaith a chyda threm herfeiddiol pwyntiodd 
ei gleddyf ato gan ddywedyd, 

Nid yw ond dechreu. 

Trodd gwyneb yr amaethwr cyn wyned a'r manner, a safodd 
gan alw y gwr bychan yn ol, ond bu y cor yn hynod o wydn 
ac anewyllysgar i droi ato, ond ar ol hir erfyn amo trodd yn ei 
ol gan ofyn yn sarug beth yr oedd yr amaethwr yn ei geisio, 
yr hwn a hysbysodd iddo ei fod yn berffaith foddlon i adael 
y caeau Ue yr oedd eu hoflf ymgyrchfan i dyfu yn don 
eilwaith, a rhoddi caniatad iddynt i ddyfod iddynt pryd y 
dewisont, ond yn unig iddynt beidio dial eu Uid yn mhellach 
amo ef. 

" * Na', oedd yr atebiad penderfynol, ' y mae gair y brenhin 
wedi ei roi y bydd iddo jrmddial araat hyd eithaf ei allu ac 
nid oes dim un gallu ar wyneb y greadigaeth a bair iddo gael ei 
dynu yn ol.' 

VOL. V. K 



130 WELSH FAIBT TALES. 

" Dechreuodd yr amaethwr wylo ar hyn, ond jm mhen 
ycliydig hysbysodd y gwr bychan y bydded iddo ef siarad a'i 
benaeth ar y mater, ac y cawsai efe wybod y canl3niiad ond 
iddo ddyfod i'w gyfarfod ef yn y fan bono amser machlud- 
iad haul drennydd. 

" Addawodd yr amaethwr ddyfod iV gyfarfod,a phan ddaeth 
yr amser appwyntiedig o amgylch iddo i gyfarfod a*r bychan 
cafodd ef yno yn ei aros, ac hysbysodd iddo fod y penaeth 
wedi y8t}TÌed ei gais yn ddifrifol, ond gan fod ei air bob 
amser yn anghyfnewidiol y buasai y dialedd bygythiedig yn 
rhwym o gymeryd lie ar y teulu, ond ar gyfrif ei edifeirwch 
ef na chawsai ddigwydd yn ei amser ef nac eiddo ei blant 

"Llonyddodd hyny gryn lawer ar feddwl terfysglyd yr 
amaethwr, a dechreuodd Bendith y Mamau dalu eu hym- 
weliadau a'r lie eüwaith a mynych y clywid sain eu cerdd- 
oriaeth felusber yn codi o*r caeau amgylchynol yn ystod y 
nos. 

^^m ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

" Pasiodd canrif heibio heb i'r dialedd bygythiedig gael ei 
gyflawnu, ac er fod teulu Pantannas yn cael eu hadgofio yn 
awr ac eilwaith,y buasai yn sicr o ddigwydd hwyr neuhwyrach, 
eto wrth hir glywed y waedd, 

Daw dial 

ymgynnefinasant a hi nes eu bod yn barod i gredu na fuasai 
dim yn dyfod o'r bygythiad byth. 

" Yr oedd etif edd Pantannas yn cam a merch i dirfeddianydd 
cymydogaethol a breswyliai mewn tyddyn o'r enw Pen Craig 
Daf. Yr oedd priodas y par dedwydd i gymeryd Ue ym mhen 
ychydig wythnosau ac ymddangosai rhieni y cwpl ieuangc 
yn hynod o foddlon i'r ymuniad teuluol ag oedd ar gymeryd 
Ue. 

" Yr oedd yn amser y Nadolig — a thalodd y ddarpar wraig 
ieuangc ymweliad a theulu ei darpar wr, ac yr oedd yno wledd 
o wydd rostiedig yn baratoedig gogyfer a*r achlysur. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 131 

" Eisteddai y cwmni oddeufcu y tan i adrodd rhyw chwedlau 
difyrus er mwyn pasio yr amser, pryd y cawsant eu 
dychrynu yn fawr gan lais treiddgar yn derchafu megis o 
wely yr afon yn gwaeddi 

Daeth amser ymddiaL 

"Aethant oil allan i wrando a glywent y Ueferydd 
eilwaith, ond nid oedd dim i'w glywed ond brochus drwst y 
dwfr wrth raiadru dros glogwyni aruthrol y cerwynL Ond ni 
chawsant aros i wrando yn hir iawn cyn iddynt glywed yr 
nn Ueferydd eilwaith yn dyrchafu i fyny yn uwch na swn 
y dwfr pan yn bwrlymu dros ysgwyddau y graig, ac yn 
gTi'aeddi, Daeth yr amser. 

"Nis gallent ddyfalu beth yr oedd yn ei arwyddo,a chymaint 
ydoedd eu braw a*u syndod fel nad allent lefaru yr un gair 
a'u gilydd. Yn mhen enyd dychwelasant iV ty a chyn iddynt 
eistedd credent yn ddios fod yr adeilad yn cael ei ysgwyd 
idd ei sylfeini gan ryw dwrf y tuallan. Pan yr oedd yr oil 
wedi cael eu parlysio gan fraw, wele fenyw fechan yn 
gwneuthur ei hymddangosiad ar y bwrdd o'u blaen, yr hwn 
oedd yn sefyll yn agos i'r fifenestr, 

" * Beth yr wyt yn ei geisio yma, y peth bychan hagr V 
holai un o'r gwyddfodolion. 

" * Nid oes gennyf unrhyw neges a thi, y gwr hir dafod', 
oedd atebiad y fenyw fechan. * Ond yr wyf wedi cael fy anfon 
yma i adrodd rhyw bethau ag sydd ar ddigwydd i'r teulu hwn, a 
theulu arall o'r gymmydogaeth ag a ddichon fod o ddyddordeb 
iddynt, ond gan i mi dderbyn y fath sarhad oddiar law y gwr 
du ag sydd yn eistedd yn y cornel, ni fydd i mi godi y Uen ag 
oedd yn cuddio y dyfodol allan o'u golwg.' 

"*Atolwg OS oes yn dy feddiant ryw wybodaeth parth 
dyfodol rhai o honom, ag a fyddai yn ddyddorol i ni gael ei 
glywed dwg hi allan,' ebai un arall o'r gwyddfodolion. 

" * Na wnaf, ond yn unig hysbysu, fod calon gwyryt fel 

k2 



132 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

Hong ar y traeth yn methu cyrhaedd y porthladd o herwydd 
digalondid y Pilot! 

" A cliyda ei bod yn Uefaru y gair diweddaf diflanodd o'u 
gwydd, na wyddai neb i ba le na pha fodd ! 

" Drwy ystod ei hymweliad hi, peidiodd y waedd a godasai 
o'r afon, ond yn fuan ar ol iddi ddiflanu, dechrenodd eilwaith a 
chyhoeddi, 'Daeth amser dial' — ac ni pheidiodd am hir 
amser. Yr oedd y cjTiulliad wedi cael eu meddianu a gonnod 
o fraw i fedru Uefaru yr un gair, ac yr oedd lien o brudd-der 
yn daenedig dros wyneb pob un o honynt. Daeth amser 
iddynt i ymwahanu, ac aeth Ehydderch y mab i hebrwng 
Gwenfrewi ei gariadferch tua Phen Craig Daf, o ba siwmai 
ni ddychwelodd byth. 

" Cyn ymadael a'i fun dywedir iddynt dyngu bythol ffydd- 
londeb i'w gilydd, pe heb weled y naill y Hall byth ond hyny, 
ac nad oedd dim a allai beri iddynt anghofio eu gilydd. 

" Mae yn debygol i'r llangc Ehydderch pan yn dychwelyd 
gartref gael ei hun oddifewn i un o gylchoedd Bendith 
y Mamau, ac yna iddynt ei hud-ddenu i mewn i un o'u 
hogofau yn Nharren y Cigfrain, ac yno y bu. 

* ♦ * * * 

*'Ymae ynllawn brydini droi ein gwynebau yn ol tua Phant- 
annas a Phen Craig Daf. Yr oedd rhieni y bachgen anffodus yn 
mron gwallgofi. Nid oedd ganddyntyr un drychfeddwl i ba le i 
fyned i chwilio amdano, ac er chwilio yn mhob man a phob He 
metliwyd yn glir a dyfod o hyd iddo, na chael gair o' i hanes. 

•'Ychydig i fyny yn y cwm mewn ogof danddaearol trig- 
fanai hen feudwy oedranus, yr h wn hefyd a ystyrid yn ddewin, 
o'r enw Gwerfyl. Aethant yn mhen ychydig wythnosau i 
ofyn iddo ef, a fedrai roddi iddynt ryw wybodaeth parthed 
i'w mab colledig — ond i ychydig bwrpas. Ni wnaeth yr hyn 
a adroddodd Gwerfyl wrthynt ond dyfnhau y clwyf a rhoi 
golwg fwy anobeithiol fyth ar yr amgylchiad. Ar ol 
iddynt hysbysu ynghylch ymddangosiad y fenyw fechan 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 133 

ynghyd a'r llais wylofus a glywsent yn derchafu o'r afon y 
nos yr aeth ar goll, hysbysodd Gwerfyl iddynt mai y fam 
fygythiedig ar y teulu gan Fendith y Mamau, oedd wedi 
goddiweddid y Uangc, ac nad oedd o un diben iddynt 
feddwl cael ei weled byth mwyach ! Ond feallai y gwnelai 
ei ymddangosiad yn mhen oesau, ond ddim yn eu hamser 
hwy. 

" Pasiai yr amsnr heibio, a chwyddodd yr wythnosau i 
fisoedd, a'r misoedd i flyuyddoedd, a chasglwyd tad a mam 
Ehydderch at eu tadau. Yr oedd y Ue o hyd yn parhau yr 
un, ond y preswylwyr yn newid yn barhaus, ac yr oedd yr 
adgofion am ei golledigaeth yn darfod yn gyflym, ond er 
liyny yr oedd un yn disgwyl ei ddychweliad yn ol yn barhaus, 
ac yn gobeithio megis yn erbyn gobaith am gael ei weled 
eilwaith. Bob boreu gyda bod dorau y wawr yn ymagor 
dros gaerog fynyddoedd y dwyrain gwelid hi bob ty wydd yn 
rhedeg i ben bryn bychan, a chyda llygaid yn orlawn o 
ddagrau hiraethlon syllai i bob cyfeiriad i edrych a gan- 
fyddai ryw argoel fod ei hanwylyd yn dychwelyd; ond 
i ddim pwrpas. Canol dydd gwelid hi eilwaith yn yr un 
man a phan ymgollai yr haul, fel pelen eirietsgoch o dan dros y 
terfyngylch, yr oedd hi yno. 

" Edrychai nes yn agos bod yn ddall, ac wylai ei heuaid 
allan o ddydd i ddydd ar ol anwylddyn ei chalon. 0*r diwedd 
aeth y rhai sydd yn edrjxh drwy y ffenestri i omedd eu 
gwasanaeth iddi, ac yr oedd y pren almon yn coroni ei phen 
al flagur gwyryfol, ond parhai hi i edrych ond nid oedd yn 
dod. Yn llawn o ddyddiau ac yn aeddfed i'r bedd rhodd- 
wyd terfyn ar ei hoU obeithion al disgwyliadau gan angeu, 
a chludwyd ei gweddillion marwol i fynwent hen Gapel y 
Fan. 

"Pasiai blynyddoedd heibio fel mwg, ac oesau fel cysgodion 
y boreu, ac nid oedd neb yn fy w ag oedd yn cofio Rhydderch, 
ond adroddid ei golliad disymwyth yn ami. Dylasem 



134 WELSH FAIKY TALES. 

fynegu na welwyd yr un o Fendith y Mamau, oddeutu y 
gymydogaeth wedi ei golliad, a pheidiodd sain eu cerddor- 
iaeth o'r nos bono allan. 

" Yr oedd Rhydderch wedi cael ei hud-ddenu i fyned gyda 
Bendith y Mamau — ac aethant ag ef i ffwrdd i*w hpgof. Ar 
ol iddo aros yno dros ychydig o ddiwmodau fel y tybiai, 
gofynodd am ganiatad i ddycLwelyd, yr hyn a rwydd gania- 
tawyd iddo gan y brenhin. Daeth aUan o'r ogof, ac yr oedd 
yn ganol dydd braf, a'r haul yn llewyrchu oddiar fynwes 
fifurfafea ddigwmwl. Cerddodd yn mlaen o Darren y Cigfrain 
byd nes iddo ddyfod i olwg Capel y Fan, ond gymaint oedd 
ei syndod pan y gwelodd nad oedd yr un Capel yno ! Pa le 
yr oedd wedi bod, a pba faint o amser ? Gyda tbeimladau 
cymysgedig cyfeiriodd ei gamrau tua Pben Craig Daf, cartref- 
le ei anwylyd, ond nid oedd hi yno, ac nid oedd yn adwaen 
yr un dyn ag oedd yno chwaith. Ni fedrai gael gair o banes 
ei gariad a chymerodd y rhai a breswylient yno mai gwall- 
gofddyn ydoedd. 

"Prysurodd eilwaitb tua Phantannas, ac yr oedd ei syndod 
yn fwy fyth yno ! Nid oedd yn adwaen yr un o hon)mt, ac 
ni wyddent hwythau ddini am dano yntau. O'r diwedd 
daeth gwr y tŷ i fewn, ac yr oedd hwnw yn cofio clywed 
ei dad cu yn adrodd am langc ag oedd wedi myned yn ddi- 
symwyth i goll er ys petb canoedd o flynyddoedd yn ol, ond 
na wyddai neb i ba le. Eywfodd neu gilydd tarawodd gwr 
y tŷ ei fifon yn erbyn Rhydderch, pa un a ddiflanodd mewn 
cawod Iwch, ac ni chly wyd air o son beth ddaeth o bono 
mwyach !" 

" In one of the centuries gone by, there lived a husband- 
man on the farm of Pantannas, and at that time Bendith y 
Mamau used to pay frequent visits to several of the fields 
which belonged to him. He cherished in his bosom a con- 
siderable hatred for the * noisy, boisterous, and pernicious race*, 
as he called them, and often did he long to be able to dis- 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 135 

cover some way to rid the place of them. At last he was 
told by an old witch that the way to get rid of them was 
easy enough, and that she would tell him how to attain what 
he so greatly wished, if he gave her one evening's milking^ 
and one morning's on his fann. He agreed to her conditions, 
and received from her advice, which was to the effect that 
he was to plough all the fields where they had their favourite 
resorts, and that, if they found the green pasture ground 
gone, they would take offence, and never return to trouble 
him with their visits to the spot. The husbandman followed 
the advice to the letter, and his work was crowned with suc- 
cess. Not a single one of them was now to be seen about 
the fields^ and, instead of the sound of their sweet music, 
which used to be always heard rising from the meadow land, 
the most complete silence now reigned over their favourite 
resort He sowed his land with wheat and other grain ; the 
verdant spring had now thrust winter off his throne, and 
the fields appeared splendid in their vernal and green livery. 
But one evening, when the sun had retired to the chambers 
of the West, and when the good man of Pantannas was re- 
turning home, he was met by a diminutive being in the shape 
of a man, with a red coat oa When he had come right up 
to him, he unsheathed his little sword, and, directing the 
point towards the farmer, he said : — 

Punishment cometh, 
Fast it approacheth. 

The farmer tried to laugh, but there was something in the 
surly and stem looks of the little fellow which made him feel 
exceedingly uncomfortable. A few nights afterwards, as the 
family were retiring to rest, they were very greatly frightened 

^ On this Mr. Hughes has a note to the effect that the whole of the 
milking used to be given in Glamorgan to workmen for assistance at 
the harvest, etc., and that it was not unfrequently enough for the 
making of two cheeses. 



136 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

by a noise, as though the house was falling to pieces ; and, 
immediately after the noise, they heard a voice uttering loudly 
the threatening words : — 

Punishment cometh. 

But nothing more was heard. When, however, the com was 
reaped and ready to be canied to the bam, it was, all of a 
sudden, burnt up one night, so that neither an ear nor a 
straw of it could be found anywhere in the fields ; and now 
nobody could have set the com on fire but Bendith y Mamau. 
As one may naturally suppose, the farmer felt very much on 
account of this event, and he regretted in his heart having 
done according to the witch's direction, and so brought upon 
him the anger and hatred of Bendith y Mamau, The day 
after the night of the burning of the corn, as he was survey- 
ing the destmction caused by the fire, behold the little fellow, 
who had met him a few days before, meeting him again, and, 
with a challenging glance, he pointed his sword towards him, 

saying : — 

It but beginneth. 

The farmer's face turned as white as marble, and he stood 
calling the little fellow to come back ; but the dwarf proved 
very unyielding and reluctant to turn to him ; but, after long 
entreaty, he turned back, asking the farmer, in a surly tone, 
what he wanted, when he was told by the latter that he was 
quite willing to let the fields, in which their favourite resorts 
had been, grow again into green pasture ground, and to let 
them frequent them as often as they wished, provided they 
would no further wreak their anger on hiuL * No,' was the 
determined reply, ' the word of the king has been given, that 
he will avenge himself on thee to the utmost of his power ; 
and there is no power on the face of creation that will cause 
it to be withdrawn.' The farmer began to weep at this, and, 
after a while, the little fellow said that he would speak to his 
lord on the matter, and that he would let him know the re- 
sult, if he would come there to meet him at the hoiu* of sun- 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 137 

set on the third day after. The farmer promised to meet 
him ; and, when the time appointed for meeting the little 
one came, he found him awaiting him, and he was told by 
him that his lord and he had seriously considered his request, 
but that, as the king's word was ever unchangeable, the 
threatened vengeance was bound to take effect on the family ; 
but that, on account of his repentance, it would not be 
allowed to happen in his time or that of his children. This 
calmed the disturbed mind of the farmer a good deal. Beiir- 
dith y Mamau began again to pay frequent visits to the place, 
and their melodious singing was again heard at night in the 
fields around. 

■ . • . . 

" A century passed by without seeing the threatened ven- 
geance carried into effect ; and, though the Pantannas family 
were reminded now and again that it was certain, sooner or 
later, to come, nevertheless, by long hearing the voice that 
said, — 

Punishment cometh, 
they got so used to it, that they were ready to believe that 
nothing would ever come of the threat. The heir of Pant- 
annas paid his addresses to the daughter of a neighbouring 
landowner who lived at the farmhouse called Pen Craig Daf, 
and the wedding of the happy pair was to take place in a 
few weeks, and their parents on both sides appeared exceed- 
ingly content with the union of the two families that was 
about to take place. It was Christmas time, and the^Twŵ 
paid a visit to the family of her would-be husband. There was 
a feast there of roast goose prepared for the occasion. Then 
the company sat round the fire to relate amusing tales to pass 
the time, when they were greatly frightened by a piercing voice, 
rising, as it were, from the bed of the river, and shrieking : — 

The time is come. 
They all went out to listen if they could hear the voice a 
second time, but nothing was to be heard save the angry noise 



138 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

of the water as it cascaded over the dread cliffs of the cer^ 
wyni ; they had not long, however, to wait till they heard 
again the same voice, rising above the noise of the river as it 
boiled over the shoulders of the rock. The words were re- 
peated aloud : — 

The time la come. 

" They could not guess what it meant, and so great was 
their fright and astonishment, that no one could utter a word 
to another. Shortly they returned to the house, when they 
believed, that beyond doubt the building was being shaken 
to its foundations by some noise outside. When all were 
thus paralysed by fear, behold a little woman making her 
appearance on the table, which stood near the window. 
' What dost thou, little ugly thing, want here V asked one of 
those present. * I have nothing to do with thee, man of 
the long tongue,' said the little woman, *but I have been sent 
here to recount some things that are about to happen to 
this family and another family in the neighbourhood, things 
that might be of interest to them ; but, as I have received 
such an insult from the black man that sits in the comer, the 
veil that hides them from their sight shall not be lifted by 
me.' ' Pray,' said another of those present, ' if thou hast in 
thy possession any knowledge with regard to the future of 
any one of us that would interest us to hear, bring it forth.' 
'No, I will but merely tell you that a certain maiden's 
heart is like a ship on the coast, unable to reach the har- 
bour because the pilot has lost his courage.' As soon as she 
had cried out the last word, she vanished, no one knew 
whither or how. During her visit, the cry rising from the 
river had stopped, but soon afterwards it began again to pro- 
claim that the time of vengeance was come; nor did it 
cease for a long while. The company had been possessed by 
too much terror for one to be able to address another, and a 
sheet of gloom had, as it were, been spread over the face of 



WELSH FAIKY TALES. 139 

escL The time for parting came, and Ehydderch, the heir, 
went to escort Gwenfrewi, his lady-love, home towards Pen 
Craig Dâf, a journey from which he never returned. But before 
bidding one another * Good-bye', they are said to have sworn 
to each other eternal fidelity, even though they should never 
see one another from that moment forth, and that nothin<r 
should make the one forget the other. It is thought probable 
that the young man Ehydderch, on his way back towards 
home, got into one of the rings of Bendith y Mamau, that 
they allured him into one of their caves in Tarren y Cigfrain, 
and that there he remained. 

" It is high time for us now to turn back towards Pant- 
annas and Pen Craig Dâf. The parents of the unlucky 
youth were almost beside themselves ; they had no idea 
where to go to look for him, and, though they searched every 
spot in the place, they failed completely to find him or to 
have a word of his history. A little higher up the country, 
there dwelt, in a cave underground, an aged hermit, called 
Gwerfyl, who was also regarded as a sorcerer. They went, a 
few weeks afterwards, to ask him whether he could give them 
any information about their lost son ; but it was of little 
avail What Gwerfyl told them did but deepen the wound 
and give the event a still more hopeless aspect. When they 
had told him of the appearance of the little woman, and the 
doleful cry heard rising from the river the night he was lost, 
he informed them that it was the judgment threatened to the 
family by Bendith y Mamau that had overtaken the youth, 
and that it was useless for them to think of ever seeing him 
ai;ain : possibly he might make his appearance after genera- 
tions had gone by, but not in their age 

*' Time passed, weeks grew into months, and months into 
years, while Ehydderch's father and mother were gathered to 
their fathers. The place continued the same, but the inhabi- 
tants constantly changed, so that the memory of Ehydderch*s 
disappearance was fast dying away. Nevertheless, there 



140 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

was one who expected his return all the while, and hoped, 
as it were against hope, to see him once more. Every mom, 
as the gates of the dawn opened beyond the castellated 
heights of the east, she might be seen, in all weathers, has- 
tening to the top of a small hill, and, with eyes fall of the tears 
of longing, gazing in every direction to see if she could behold 
any sign of her beloved's return ; but in vain. At noon, she 
might be seen on the same spot again ; she was also there at 
the hour when the sun was wont to hide himself, like a red- 
hot ball of fire, below the horizon. She gazed until she was 
nearly blind, and she wept forth her soul from day to day for 
the darling of her heart. At last they that look out at the 
windows began to decline their service and the almond 
tree commenced to crown her head with its virgin bloom. 
She continued to gaze, but he came not. Full of days, 
and ripe for the grave, death put an end to all her hopes 
and all her expectations. Her mortal remains were buried 
in the grave-yard of the old Chapel of the Fan.^ 

" Years passed away like smoke or morning shadows, and 
there was no longer anybody alive who remembered Rhy- 
dderch, but the tale of his suddenly missing was frequently 
in people's mouths. And we ought to have said that after the 
event no one of Bendith y Mamau was seen about the neigh- 
bourhood, and the sound of their music had ceased from that 
night. Rhydderch had been allured by them, and they took 
him into their cave. When he had stayed there only a few 
days, as he thought, he asked for permission to return, which 
was readily granted him by the king. He issued from the 
cave when it was a fine noon, with the sun beaming from the 
bosom of a cloudless firmament. He walked on from Tarren 
y Cigfrain until he came near the site of the Fan Chapel ; 

^ The Fan is the highest mountain in the parish of Merthyr Tydfil, 
Mr. Hughes tell me ; he adds that there was on its side once a chapel 
with a burial-ground. Its history seems to be lost, but human bones 
have, as he states, been frequently found there. 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 141 

and what was his astonishment to find no chapel there ! 
Where, he wondered, had he been, and how long away ; so 
with mixed feelings he directed his steps towards Pen Craig 
Dâf, the home of his beloved one, but she was not there nor 
any one he knew either. He could get no word of the history 
of his sweetheart, and those who dwelt on the spot took him 
for a madman. He hastened then to Pantannas, where his 
astonishment was still greater. He knew nobody there and 
nobody knew anything about him. At last the man of the 
house came in, and- he remembered hearing his grandfather 
relating how a youth had suddenly disappeared, nobody knew 
whither, some hundreds of years previously. Somehow or 
other the man of the house chanced to knock his walking- 
stick against Shydderch, when the latter vanished in a 
shower of dust Nothing more was ever heard as to what 
became of him." 

Before leaving Glamorgan, I may add that Mr. Sikes 
associates Fairy Ladies with Crumlyn Lake near Briton 
Ferry in Glamorgan ; but, as frequently happens with him, 
he does not deign to teU us where he got the legend from. 
" It is also believed", he says at p. 35, " that a large town 
lies swallowed up there, and that the Gwragedd Annvm 
have turned the submerged walls to use as the superstruc- 
ture of their Fairy Palaces. Some claim to have seen the 
towers of beautiful castles lifting their battlements beneath 
the surface of the dark waters, and Fairy bells are at times 
heard ringing from the towers." 

X. — GWENT. 

I have no intention to go at length into the folk-lore of 
Gwent, but merely point out where the reader may find a 
good deal about it. In the first place, a credulous old 
Christian of the name of Edmund Jones of the Tranch, pub- 
lished at Trevecka, in the year 1779, a small volume en- 
titled, A Geographical, Historical, and Religious Account of 



142 WELSH FAIRY TALES. 

tJu Parish of Aherydruth in the CourUy of Monm/nUh, to 
which are added Memoirs of several Persons of Note who 
lived in the said Parish, In 1813, by which time he seems 
to have left this world for another, where he expected to 
understand all about the Fairies and their mysterious life, a 
small volume of his was published at Newport, bearing the 
title, A Relation of Apparitions of Spirits in the CourUy of 
Monmovth and the Principality of Wales, with other notable 
relations from England, together with Observations about them, 
and Instruction's from them, designed to confute and to prevent 
the Infidelity of denying the Being and Apparition of Spirits, 
which tends to Irreligion and Atheism, By the late Bev. Ed- 
mund Jones of the Tranch. These volumes have already 
been laid under contribution by Mr. Sikes, and the tales 
about apparitions in them are frequently of a ghastly nature, 
and sometimes loathsome: on the whole, they remind me 
more than anything else I have ever read, of the Breton 
tales, breathing fire and brimstone, which are beginning to 
be old-fashioned in Protestant countries. I shall at present 
only quote a passage of quite a different nature from the 
earlier volume, page 72 ; it is an important one, and runs 
thus : " It was the general opinion in times past, when these 
things were very frequent, that the fairies knew whatever 
was spoken in the air without the houses, not so much what 
was spoken in the houses. I suppose they chiefly knew 
what was spoken in the air at night. It was also said that 
they rather appeared to an uneven number of persons, to one, 
three, five, etc.; and oftener to men than to women. Thomas 
William Edmund of Havodavel, an honest pious man, who 
often saw them, declared that they appeared with one bigger 
than the rest goiag before them in the company." 

The other day I chanced to be in the Golden Valley in 
Herefordshire, where the names in the churchyards seem 
nearly all to bespeak a Welsh population, though the Welsh 
language has not been heard there for ages. Among others 



WELSH FAIRY TALES. 143 

I noticed Joneses and Williamses in abundance at Abbey 
Dore, Evanses and Bevans, Prossers, Morgans and Prices, not 
to mention the Sayces — that is to say, Welshmen of English 
extraction or education, a name which may also be met 
with in Little England in Pembrokeshire, and probably on 
other English-Welsh borders. Happening to have to wait 
for a train at the Abbey Dore station, I got into conversation 
with the tenants of a cottage close by, and introduced the 
subject of the Fairies. The old man knew nothing about them, 
but his wife, Elizabeth Williams, had been a servant-girl at 
a place called Pen Poch, which she pronounced in the Welsh 
fashion; she said that it is near Llandeilo Cressenny in 
Monmouthshire. It is about forty years ago that she served 
at Pen Poch, and her mistress's name was Mrs. Evans, who 
was tlien about fifty years of age. Now Mrs. Evans was in 
the habit of impressing on her servant-girls' minds that, 
unless they made the house tidy before going to bed, and 
put everything in its place over night, the little people — the 
Fairies, slie thinks she called them — would leave them no 
rest in bed at night, but they would come and pinch them 
like. If they put everything in its place, and left the house 
tidy like, it would be all right, and nobody would do any- 
thing to them like. That is all I could get from her without 
prompting her, which I did at length by suggesting to her 
that the Fairies might leave the tidy servants presents, a 
shilling on the hearth or the hob like. Yes, she thought 
there was something of that sort, and her way of answering 
me suggested that this was not the first time she heard of 
the shilling. She had never been lucky enough to have had 
one herself, nor did she know of anybody else that had got 
it like. 

I need hardly say that I am unable this time also to put 
an end to these jottings, and that I quite expect that those 
wlio want more lively reading will wish me and my Fairies 
with Gwyn ab Nudd and his henchmen. 



144 



MORWYNION GLAN MEIRIONYDD. 



Gan lewis MORYS, Ysw., 



(Llewelyn Ddu o Fan.) 



i 



^63 




Er a we-lais dan y Ser lawn-derglew-dergwle-dydd O 




gw-Tw da a gwyr i'w drin A gwin ar fin a-fonydd, 




Go-reu bir a go-reu bwyd A ran-wyd i Feir-ion-ydd 



Er a welais dan y Ser, 

lawnder, glewder gwledydd, 
gwrw da, a gwyr i'w drîn, 

A gwîn, ar fin afonydd, 
Goreu bîr, a goreu bwyd 

A ranwyd i Feirionydd. 



Da ydyw'r gwaith, rhaid d'weud y gwîr, 

At fryniau Sir Feirionydd, 
Golwg oer o'r gwaela' gawn, 

Mae hi etto 'n llawn llawenydd ; 
Pwy ddisgwyliai canai 'r Gog, 

Mewn mawnog yn y mynydd ? 



145 



MEIRION'S MAIDENS FAIR. 



TRANSLATED BY 



HOWEL WILLIAM LLOYD, M.A. 




Mwyn yw tdyn o f ewn ty Lie bydd o teulu dedwydd 




Fawb a'i ben-niU yn ei gwrs, Heb son am bwrs y cyb-ydd : 




Mwyn yv can o-ddeutu'r tan Mor-wyn-ion glân Meir-ion-ydd. 

Two last bars. 




Of all I've seen, beneath the stars, 
Of plenteous, glorious lands, 

Of mighty ale, of men to till. 
And wine on river strands. 

For best of beer, of food the best. 
Full foremost Meirion stands. 

Well fares the work, 'tis sooth to say. 

On Meirion's every hill ; 
Though bleak and bare the prospect be. 

With mirth she's brimming still ; 
Who'd look to hear, on mountain-soak. 

The cuckoo's springtide- trill 1 



VOL. V. 



146 MORWYNION GLAN MEIRIONYDD. 

Pwy sydd Ian o bryd a gwedd, 

Ond rhyfedd mewn pentrefydd ? 
Pwy sy' mhob hyswiaeth dda, 

Yn gwlwm gydâ'u gilydd ? 
Pwy sy*n ymyl dwyn fy nglio*? 

Morwynion bro Meirionydd. 

Glan yw'r gleisiad yn y Uyn, 
. Nid ydy w hyn ddim newydd ; 
Glan y w'r fronfraith yn ei thy, 

Dan danu ei hadenydd : 
Cnanach yw, os d'wedir gwîr, 

Morwynion tir Meirionydd. 

Anwyl yw gan adar byd 

Eu rhyddid hyd y gwledydd ; 
Anwyl yw gan faban laeth 

Ei fammaeth, odiaeth ddedwydd ; 
! ni ddywedwn, yn fy my w, 

Mor anwyl yw Meirionydd ! 

Mwyn yw telyn o fewn tŷ, 

Lie byddo teulu dedwydd, 
Pawb a'i benill yn ei gwrs, 

Heb son am bwrs y cybydd : 
Mwyn y can, oddeutu'r tan, 

Morwynion glan Meirionydd. 

Er bod fy nghorph mewn liufen byd, 

Yn rhodio ar hyd y gwledydd, 
Yii cael pleser mor a thîr, 

Xi chaf yn wir nio'r llonydd ; 
Myned adre 'i mi sy raid, 

Mae'r Enaid ym Meirionydd. 

[" Caniad y Gog í Feirionydd" yw yr enw a geir uwch ben y gan Hon 
yii y Diddanwch Ttulnaidd. Yuo hefyd ceir cjiieithiad Saesneg, at- 
tempted by a Member of the Society. Gol. Y C.] 



meibion's maidens fair. 147 

Who are — the marvel of her towns — 

So bright of form and face ? 
In harmony united close, 

All housewives give them place ; 
Who all but steal my wits away ? 

The maids of Meirion's race. 

The salmon's lovely in the lake, 

— These are no novel things : 
The thrush is lovely in her nest, 

Outspreading both her wings ; 
But lovelier far — the truth to tell — 

The maidens Meirion brings. 

To all the birds in forest- world 

How dear 'tis to be free ! 
Dear to the babe his mother's milk^ — 

Supremely happy he ! 
How dear I cannot for my life 

Say, Meirion is to me ! 

A harp within a house is sweet, 

When each recites his verse ; 
Where happy is the social throng, 

And scom'd the miser's purse : 
Aroimd the hearth how sw^eet the song 

That Meirion's maids rehearse ! 

What though the cream of life I sip, 

While o'er the world I roam ! 
On land no pleasure brings me rest, 

Nor where the waters foam ; 
I needs must go — my heart is there — 

For Meirion is my home. 



L 2 



148 



PROFESSOR RHYS ON WELSH ANTIQUITIES 

AND FAIRY TALES. 



The following address was delivered by Professor Ehys in 
the afternoon meeting of the Eisteddvod, held at Llanael- 
haiarn, Friday, the 18th of August. The remarks on the 
value of traditional literature, and on the connection be- 
tween our Welsh tales and those of other Aryan peoples, 
are so interesting, and the Professor's manner of treating 
the subject is so happy, that we feel sure our readers will 
thank us for giving the address a place hei*e. 

" Tebyg genyf mai y peth cyntaf i chwi ofyn wrth fy ngweled i yn 
aefyll yn y fan hon ydyw — yn enw pob daioni o ba 1e y daetLoch chwi ? 
Gan nad moesau da i neb son Uawer am dano ei hun, cewch ateb yn 
ddioed heb amgylchu na môr na mynydd : y Tylwyth Teg a ddaeth a 
mi yma o Bwllheli. Chwerthwch chwi neu beidio, dyna'r gwir ; ni 
buasai na pherson na phregethwr yn medra fy arwain i yma, mwy na 
bwch i odyn, chwedl yr hen bobl, oni buasai am y Tylwyth Teg. lë, 
medd rhywun, yr oeddym ni yn medwl eich bod chwi cyn galled aV 
cyffredin, ond ymddengys eich bod yn dechreu penwanu. Hwyrach 
hyny : myn rhai fod rhy w lecyn gwan ar ben pob dyn, a'm penwendid i 
yw pwnc yr hynafiaethau yma. Y mae genym ninau, medd rhywun 
drachefn, feddwl mawr o hynafiaethau ein gwiad ; ond peidiwch son am 
y Tylwyth Teg fel yn perthyn i hynafiaethau un wlad yn y byd : nid 
oes y fath bethau yn bod. Punon, ond meddyliwch fod un ohonoch 
chwi am wneyd allan hanes ei hendaid neu lywun arall ol hynafiaid, pa 
un fuasai yn fwyaf, yn eich tyb chwi, o gaffaeliad hanesyddol, cael allan 
pa aawl pryd o uwd oedd yr hendaid hwnw wedi fwyta yn ei 
oes, a pha sawl cot gochddu oedd wedi drenlio o*i febyd iV fedd, 
neu ynte wneyd allan pa beth oedd ei gred am y byd yr oedd yn 
by w ynddo ? ^i waeth beth a haero neb, un ran bwysig o hanes yr 
oeaoedd a aethant hebio ydyw pa beth a goeliai pobl yr oesoedd hyny ; 
ac yu mhlith pethau eraill yr oeddynt o'r fam yr ymwelid a*u cartrefydd 
yn awr ac eilwaith gan greaduriaid bychain a elwid yn Dylwyth Teg. 
Nid hawdd cysoni y crediniaethau cyffredin am danynt à'u gilydd, ond 



PROFESSOR RHYS ON WKLSH ANTIQUITIES AND FAIRY TALES. 149 

coeliai pawb am danynt y byddent yn dyfod allan ar brydian i 
ddawDBÌo a chanu, ac os ai neb yn rhy agos Vt cylch yr oedd perygl 
iddo gael ea hudo i mewn i ymuno yn y llawenydd a'r difyrwch. Dyna 
yn union a ddarfn i mi ; cefais un diwmod sachaid o chwedlaa am y 
Tylwyth Teg gan un o hen drigolion caredig Llanaelhaiarn, a phender- 
fynaia ddyfod yma am ychwaneg, ond wrth glywed llais c&n a 
pheroriaeth, hudwyd fi o gam i gam yn nes i gylch y swyn nes 6't 
diwedd fy nghipio i mewn iV gauol, a dyma y lie yr ydwyf yn cael fy 
bun gydaV tenia difyr yn cynal eisteddfod. Byddai y Tylwyth Teg yn 
arfer cadw y llandau a hudent yn canu a dawnsio am un dydd a 
blwyddyn o leiaf heb iddynt hwy wybod eu bod wedi aros ond rhyw 
ychydig eiliadau, ac nid oedd modd darbwyllo un ohonynt ei fod wedi 
bod flwyddyn gyda'r Tylwyth Teg nes dangoB iddo fod ei draed wedi 
myned drwy yr esgidiau newyddion oedd ganddo yn myned allan o'i 
gartref i edrych am wartheg ei dad. Nib gwn yn y byd pa faint o'r 
gloch yw hi yma bellach, ond y mae genyf le cryf i obeithio y bydd i'r 
tylwyth hwn yn Uanaelhaiarn roddi gollyngdod i mi cyn i mi fyned yn 
hollol droednoeth, gan nad oes ar gof a chadw yn hoU haneeyddiaeth y 
Tylwyth Teg eu bod erioed wedi cadw neb yn hir ob byddai ei wraig yn 
ei ganlyn. Ond i ddyfod at y pwnc — ac y mae genyf fi bwnc hefyd — 
dymunwn yn fawr Iwyddo i argraphu ar feddyliau pobl yr eisteddfod 
hon y pwysigrwydd o ddodi ar gof a chadw yr hyn sydd hyd yn hyn ar 
gael o Len Gwerin Cymru, pa un bynag ai chwedlaa am y Tylwyth 
Teg neu ryw chwedlau eraill a fyddont. Dyna chwi, meddych, wedi 
gafael ynddi fel pregethwr o'r diwedd, ond rhaid i chwi fod un ai yn 
fwy ymarferol neu yn fwy athrawiaethol, os mynwch gael gafael ar 
galon y gynuUeidfa. Wei, buaswn yn ymdrecha bod yn bob un o'r 
ddau pe buaswn wedi cael diwmod i ddwyn fy nhipyn meddwl i drefn. 
Y pwnc ymarferol yn gyntaf, sef pa fodd i roddi gweddillion yr 
hynafiaethau Cymreig ar gof a chadw. Hawdd iawn ateb hyn o 
ofyniad. Nid oes eidau dim ond i'r neb sydd yn gwybod unrhyw ben 
chwedl alw i mewn, os na bydd ei hun yn ysgrifenwr, ryw un oV 
Uandau yma sydd yn fedrus gyda^r ysgrifell, aU wahodd i*w hysgrifenu 
a'i gyru i rai o'r newyddiaduron Cymreig : nid tebyg y caifF ddim ond 
pob croesaw gauddynt. Os meddyliwch hyny yn ormod o drafferth, 
bydd yn bleser mawr genyf i ei derbyn a^i dodi mewn trefn a'i chyboeddi 
yn y Cymmrodor, sef cylchgrawn pwrpasol at y gwaith, a argrephir yn 
Llundain, ac a ddygir yn mlaen dan olygiaeth yr ysgolhaig a*r hen- 
afiaethwr, Thomas Powell, Yswain, Bootle College, Liverpool ; ac mi 
a ddeuaf yn nes atoch eto : ymrwymaf i dderbyn chwedlau gan y neb a 
fyno ar ddiwedd y cyfarfod hwn. Rhaid i chwi ddeall hefyd na bydd 
dim i chwi i'w dalu am gyhoeddi y chwedlau ; ac os byddwch yn foddlon, 
caifF y sawl a roddo i mi chwedl dda weled ei enw mewn argraph wedi 



150 PROFESSOR RHYS ON WELSH 

ei anfarwoli yn rhad ac am ddim. Na fydded ar neb ofo rhoddi 
trafferth i mi yn hyn o beth, efrydu ieithoedd a henafiaethau y Cymry 
aV cenhedloedd perthynasol yw fy ngwaith, i hyny yr wyf yii 
gyflogedig, ac at y felin bono y byddaf yn troi pob fFrwd. Yn yr ail le, 
ymdrechaf ddyweyd gair yn atbrawiaetbol, chwedl chwithau, ar y 
pwnc: Yn gyntaf, nid oes amaer fel yr amser predenol i gasglu 
gweddillion Hen gwerin Cymru, a hyny am eu bod yn myned yn gyflym 
ar ddifanooU. Yr oedd yr hen bobl gynt yn eu credu i gyd, n llawer o 
drafferth a Uafur a gafodd hen wladgarwyr twymgalon ein gwlad i 
ddiddyf nn eu oydgenedl oddiwrth eu crediniaethau haner paganaidd — 
pob parch iddynt am eu hymdrechion. Ond erbyn hyu y mae y cyfan 
wedi peidio a bod o unrhyw bwys fel pwnc ymarferol, gan nad oea neb 
bellach yn credu yn y Tylwyth Teg a'r cyffelyb ; ond cyn gynted ag y 
paid pethau o*r fath ddylanwadu ar feddyliau a dychymyg y genedl, 
bydd i'r genedl eu hanghofio am byth. Ond nid oes y fath air ag 
anghofio yn ngeirlechres yr banesydd, a gelyn diysgog hanegyddiaeth 
ydyw angol. Y mae o gryn bwysigrwydd, fel yr awgrymais eiaoes, i 
hanesyddiaeth y Cymry gael ar gôf a chadw hen grediniaethau y bobl. 
** Hwyrach hyny", medd rhwyun, **ond pa bwys aydd mewn hanee- 
yddineth ei hun ? Mi fedraf fl weitbio ceryg yn chwareli yr £iâ yuia 
yn llawn mor ddeheuig heb wybod na cheisio gwybod pa un ai dyn ai 
epa oedd tad cyntaf dynolryw, ac nk gwaeth genyf chwaith beth oedd 
helyntion a hanes y Cymry mewn oesoedd diwe^idar ; fy mhwnc i yw 
ennill fy mara." Fnrion,ymaehwnw yn bwnc gan bawb ohonom ; ond 
yr ydych oil wedi clywed mai nid drwy fara yn unig y bydd byw dyn. 
Y mae pethau eraill yn deilwng o sylw dyn, ac yn cael t^i sylw yn 
mhlith pob oenedl wareiddiedig dan yr haul. Ystyrir, o amser yr hen 
Kufeiniaid hyd heddyw, mai un o nodweddion cenedl anwareiddiedig 
ydyw bod heb ddyddordeb yn ei hanes ei hun aU dechreuad, peth Vw 
ddisgwyl yn unig gan bobl yn byw ar safle yr anifail direswm, pobl o 
ddefaid neu loi deudroed a diddimadaeth ar tun dynion. Cymeraf yn 
ganiataol gan hyny fod Cymry Llanaelhaiarn a chymydogaeth yr £ifl 
oil yn teimlo neu yn, barod i deimlo dyddordeb mewn pobpeth 
cysylltiedig ft hanes y genedl. Ond hwyrach nad ydyw yn amlwg i rai 
ohonoch pa fodd y mae lien gwerin o bwys i'r hanesydd. I ivneyd hyn 
yn eglur, rhaid i mi ddyweyd gair wrthych am rai oV gwyddouau 
cymhariaethol, ao yn mlaenaf un am ieithyddiaeth gymhariaethol : 
drwy efrydiaeth ofalus o wahanol ieithoedd caed allan fod rhai ohonynt 
yn perthyn yn agosach i'w gilydd na'r lleill, a thrwy hyny profwyd, er 
engraipht, fod y Cymry yn hanu o^r un cyff a'r hen Rufdniaid, yr hen 
Roegiaid, y Saeson a*r Ellmyn, y Sclafoniaid, yr hen Bersiaid, a 
phrif genhedloedd India'r Dwyrain. Nid yn unig dangoswyd eu bod 
yn perthyn i*w gilydd, ond o gam i gam gwnaed allan pa ciriau a pha 



ANTIQUITIES AND FAIRY TALES. 151 

feddylddrychaa oedd yn dddo cy£fredin yn y cynfyd i^r hen genedl y 
deilliodd y cenhedloedd hyny oil ohoni. O'r diwedd dangosodd esiampi 
yr ieithyddwr i efrydwyr eraill mai nid geiriau y cenhedloedd hyny 
oedd yr tinig bethau iV cymham a^u gilydd, ond fod ganddynt 
chwedlau i*w trin yn yr nn modd, ooelion cyffelyb, ac arferion henafol 
a phaganaidd y byddai raid i'r neb a fyno astudio eu hanea eu cymeryd 
i ystyriaeth. Casglu defnyddiau yw y peth cyntaf , fel y gwyddoch ; 
ond y mae y defynyddiaa yn weddol gyfleus wrth law yr ieithydd, 
mewn geiriadoron, ac yn Ilenyddiaeth y cenhedloedd dan sylw : nid 
felly gy<la golwg ar chwedlau rhai ohonynt, megys y Cymry. Ni bydd 
rhy w lawer oV defnyddiau hyn ar gael ob na chesglir hwy ar frys, fel y 
sylwaia eisoes ; ac y mae eu casglu o fwy pwys na*u deall ar hyn o 
bryd. Ond cael digon ohonynt at eu gilydd, hwy a eaboniant y naill 
y llall i raddau niawr ; byddaf fi bob dydd yn cael chwedlau nad wyf 
yn eu deall nac yn gweled un math o reswm ynddynt gan mor ffol a 
digroen yr ymddangoeant, ond yn awr ac eilwaith byddaf yn cael 
goleuni amynt o rai eraill. Y dydd o'r blaen ar fy ffordd i Ynys £nlli 
cefaia ddam o hen chwedl ddigon disynwyr ar ryw olwg, gan of yn 
ymyl Aberdaron, ond yr oedd yn cynwyg yr agoriad i chwjsdl oeddwn 
wedi gael o gymydogaeth Llandegai, mewn dull ag oedd wedi fy 
nhrechu yn lÀn loeyw i wneyd na phen na chynffon ohonL I^id dyna'r 
cwbl : dychwelais i BwUheli ac adroddais y chwedl wrth fy Myfanwy 
fechan, wyth oed. ^* O '*, meddai bono, ** chwedl fel a'r fel yw honyna 
ydwyf fi wedi ddarllen lawer gwaith yn Uyfr chwedlau Germanaidd 
Grinun." Dyna i chwi un engraipht o hen ystori o Aberdaron a 
Uandegai, yn feddiant cy£fredin Tr Brython a'r Ellmyn. Dyma i 
chwi un arall : Yr oedd gan yr hen Boegiaid draddodiad am dywyaog 
ag iddo glustiau asyn. Y mae y chwedl mor hyabys na raid Vhwanegu, 
ond y mae yr un chwedl iV chael yn mhlith cenedloedd eraill, megya 
y Gwyddelod, y rhai a ddywedant fod brenhin gynt ar yr Iwerddon ag 
iddo glustiau ceffyl ; ac y byddai gorchymyn i ladd pob un a geiad i 
drin d wallt ac i don ei fárf , rhag iddo ollwng allan y gyfrinach am 
glnstiauV brenhin. Cleddid yr eillwyr mewn Ue penodol, a thyfodd 
yno goeden helyg, a daeth bardd y Uys un diwmod i dori cangen o'r 
gwydd i wneyd telyn o honi : h'yny a f u, a'r peth cyntaf a siflialodd y 
delyn pan ogleiaiwyd hi gan fya y bardd ar ddiwedd gwledd yn y Uys : — 

Glustiau march, clustiau sythion, 

Greir dan goron 

Brenhin balch Iwerddon. 

Wei, yr oeddwn wedi dyfalu er's talm y dylasai yr un chwedl fod ar 
gael yn Nghymm, a buaswn bron yn cymeryd fy llw mai March ab 
Meirchion oedd enwV brenhin k chlustiau march yn mhlith y Gymry. 
Ond ychydig iawn sydd ar gael yn Ilenyddiaeth Gymru am March ab 



152 PROFESSOR RHYS ON WELSH 

MeirchioD, dim ond rhyw air neu ddaa am rywbeth heblaw ei glustian 
yn rhai o'r Trioedd. Pa fodd bynag i chwi, wrth rodio Lleyn y dydd 
oV blaen, dywanais ar y f an y mae pobl Gwynedd wedi lleoli y gwr 
marchaidd. Gelwir ef yn Gastellmarch, hen balaady pwysig yn y 
dyddian gynt, a Bail rhwng Llanbedrog ac Abersoch. Cyn gynted 
ag y clywais am Gastellmarch, meddyliais am March ab Mdrchion 
a'rhen chwedl Wyddelig, a dechreuais ofyn Vt brodonon pa beth oedd 
ystyr yr enw. Atebent yn hynod o gall a ej'nwyrol, mai castell wedi 
ei wneyd neu ei ddefnyddio i gadw meirch oedd, a chefais gan un 
ohonynt gryn lawer o eon am ryw f archog sirol oedd wedi bod yn byw 
yno ; ond gan mai ychydig o werth a f aaswn i yn roddi ar lonaid cwd o 
farchogion y sir, meddyliais mai gwell cymeryd fiFordd arall i hoU y 
bobl, a gofynais i un hen frawd a oedd efe ry wbryd wedi clywed rhyw 
hen chwedl wirionach na chyffredin am berchenog cyntaf Gastellmarch. 
*'0'r anwyll do'^meddai; ** rhyw ddyn rhyfedd oedd, meddai yr 
hen bobl : clustiau march oedd ganddo, ond y mae peth felly yn rhy 
wirion iV adrodd i ddyn dyeithr." Dyna i chwi engraipht o'r 
anhawsdra sydd ar ffordd pobl o bell i gael gafael ar chwedlan lleol. 
£rbyn i mi holi yn mhellach, yr oedd pawb yn yr ardal bron yn 
wybyddus am yr ystori, ond ystyrid hi yn rhy wirion i'w hadrodd. 
Gresyn na buasent rywfaint yn Uai boneddigaidd y tro hwn. Ond cly waf 
lane yn y pen draw acw yn gofyn pa peth yr ydwyf fi yn wneyd efo 
chwedl Gastellmarch. Wei, os rhaid ateb, dim : ond y pwnc yw cael 
chwedlan o'r fath ar gael a chadw, ac yna byw mewn ffydd y daw 
rhywbeth i'r golwg rywdro a deifl oleuni amynt. Y mae llawer lawn, 
fel y crybwyllais eisoes» o'r chwedlan mwyaf cyffredin am y Tylwyth 
Teg yn hoUol dywyll i mi hyd yn hyn, a rhai o honynt yn ymddangos 
yn hynod anghyson a disynwyr; ond o'u cymeryd at eu gilydd y 
maent iV cysylltu &V Mabinogion neu chwedlau Cymreig y Canol 
Oesoedd; ac yn y rhai hyny drachefn y mae cael hyd i hen chwedl- 
oniaeth y Gymry fel cangen oV teulu Geltaidd; ac wrth gymharu 
y Mabinogion aV chwedlau Gymreig diweddarach ft chwedlau hynaf 
y Gwyddelod, a dyfod a'r cwbl dan lewyrch goleuni hen awduron 
Groeg a Rhufain, bydd yn bosibl yn y man gwneyd allan pa fath oedd 
y gyfundrefn o dduwiau paganaidd a addolai yr hen Geltiaid ar, a 
chyn, eu dyfodiad i'r ynysoedd Prydeinig. Pan dderbyniodd ein 
hynafiaid ni y grefydd Gristionogol, aeth eu hen dduwiau i gael eu 
hystyried yn ellyllon a Thylwyth Teg, ac o'r pentwr yna y rhaid cloddio 
allan lawer o hanesyddiaeth foreuol ein cenedl Byddai yn dda genyf 
allu tanio meddwl a dychymyg llauciau y rhan hon o Arfon ag awydd- 
fryd diddifPodd i gynorthwyo yn y gwaith. Fel y byddwch chwi 
weithiau yn y chwarclau yma yn taro ar ddam o hanes y cynfyd wedi ei 
argraphu yn ddwfn yn niynwes ocsol y graig, felly hefyd y gellir cael 



ANTIQUITIES AND FAIRY TALES. 153 

hyd i faih arall o banes yr ainaer gynt yn y iraddodiadau o'ch cylch a'r 

enwaa arwyddocaol sydd ar y bryniati, y moelydd a'r tyddynod ar 

bob llaw. Cymeraf engraipht neu ddwy o^r Mabinogion. Un o> 

cymeriadau hynotaf ynddynt yw Gwydion ab Don, sydd wedi gadael 

ei enw i Fiyn Gwydion, heb fod yn nepell oddiyma. Dyna hefyd y 

Uew LIawgy£fe8, oedd fab i Gwydion, ag sydd wedi gadael ei enw i 

Ddinas Dinlleu ac i ddyfroedd Nanille. Ond nid oedd dnwiau heb 

dduwiesau, ac ft Uecyn heb fod yn mhell oddiyma y cysylltir Gwener y 

Cymiy, aef oedd h<mo Arianrhod aU chaer ar Ian y mAr, neu yn hytrach 

yn y weilgi. Adwaenir hi wrth yr enw Tregaer Ánrheg a esbonir 

yn Dre Gaer Arianrhod. Byddai rhoddi hanes y rhai hyn yn rhy 

faith ar hyn o bryd, ond ob mynwch ddyfod i ry w le yn neB i ororan 

hanedaeth, dyna Nant Gwrtheym gerllaw aV holl chwedlau cysyUtiedig 

à'r Nant bono. Wedi hyny, dyna Dre'r Ceiri, a*i phigynau yn edrych 

i lawr amom fel cynrychiolwyr oeeol y cewri a^i hadeiladodd yn dwr y 

cedym gynt. Rhag eich blino ft meithder, gadawaf i chwi, fechgyn yr 

£ifl, sydd wedi eich niagn megys ar liniau awen chwedlonol a hen- 

afiaethol Cymru, y gofyniad, pa beth ydych chwi yn foddlon wneyd i 

gadw henafiaethau eich hardal rhag difancoll, ac i helaethti ystyr y gair 

hwDw, * Tra môr tra Brython I ' " 



154 



DINAS PENMAEN OR PENMAENMAWR, 

A DRUIDICAL TEMPLE BEFORE BEING A BRITISH FORTRESS. 



The present theory, that Dinas Penmaen (Penmaenmawr), 
was originally a Druidical place of worship before becoming 
a British fortress, is based upon the ancient authorities col- 
lected and quoted by Borlase (in his account of the Druid 
Worship), to prove that Kambre in Cornwall was first a 
temple, and afterwards a British fortress. 

If, therefore, Borlase's conjectures about Kambre are cor- 
rect, his reasonings will serve to prove that Dinas Penmaen 
was likewise a place of Druid worship, and then afterwards 
converted into a British fortress. 

Borlase says : " In this hill of Kambre we find rock basins, 
circles, stones erect, remains of Cromlechs, karns, a grove of 
oaks, a cave, and an enclosure, not of military, but religious 
structure; and these are evidences sufiScient of its having 
been a place of Druid worship." 

• • ■ • • 

Now, the few positive facts about Dinas Penmaen are 
these : — 

Ä Hill. — ^A hill, 1,553 feet high, which is half surrounded 
by a habitable and cultivated mountain district ; and from 
this side the ascent is so easy that the most aged Druid could, 
without difficulty, gain the summit. The other side was a 
fertile valley, not covered by the sea until about a.d. 560. 
From the summit of the mountain, the Isle of Anglesea and 
Holy Island are seen. 



DINAS PENMAEN OR PENMAENMAWR. 155 

TIte Wood and Grove. — The tourist laughs at the idea of 
trees growing on Penmaenmawr, but it is a fact, easily proved 
by land title-deeds, that, until Cromweirs time, the trees 
grew thickly on the mountain down to the water's edge; and 
even after 1800 it remained well wooded ; but owing to the 
working of stone quarries, of which there are now three 
working quarries, the woods have entirely disappeared. 
About half a mile from the summit there is a place still 
called Blaen Llwyn, the extremity, or top, of the wood. It 
might be thought that Borlase was rather too positive 
about the Druid groves being composed entirely of oak 
trees, for the Welsh consider that, although the oak tree 
was most venerated by the Druids, still other trees grew 
in their groves. A place, half a mile from Blaen llwyn, 
is now called Tyn y Ilwyfan, near or under the elm tree. 
Other idolatrous nations used various trees, for we find in 
liosea iv, 13, "Tliey sacrifice upon the tops of the moun- 
tains, and bum incense upon the hills, under oaks, aiid 
poplars, and elms, because the shadow thereof is good." At 
a distance of about three miles from Dinas Penmaen, in a 
sheltered spot of ground, almost screened from observation 
by the surrounding hills, is a circle of raised earth and 
stones, at the entrance of which is a large stone, called 
" Llwyn-pen-du", Grove of the Black Head. Thus tlie stone 
tells its own tale. Through this circle runs a little mountain 
rivulet of purest water. 

Tfie Oucraeh^ Stream, — ^A mile from Uwyn-pen-du, and two 
miles from Dinas Penmaen, rises a mountain stream, called 
the Gwrach, the water of which the Welsh people will never 
drink. After ten years' careful inquiry, the information ob- 
tained was the tradition that the Gwrach was connected 
with " a hideous old hag", called Andrasta, who could fly in 
the air. They thought she had a daughter as frightful as 

^ Gwrach, a withered old woman^ a hag. 



156 DINAS PENMAEN OR PENMAENMAWR. 

herself, and that they had something to do with a cauldron. 
Also that, " years ago", the people of a " bad religion" killed 
men and women, to please her, " up on the mountain". 

Bryn Dii (Bryn, a low mound or hillock ; du, black, dark, 
gloomy). — Near the source of the Gwrach stream, the moun- 
tain shepherds have often pointed out to me "Bryn Du", 
where people were killed to please " false gods". " Bryn Du" 
is not marked on the Ordnance map. 

Bryniau (low mounds, or hillocks). — After crossing the 
Gwrach, about a mile towards the Meini Hirion (long 
stones), we pass by the Bryniau, low mounds, or "Bryn 
dyoddef", the hill of suffering, or place of execution. A 
shepherd, when pointing out the mounds, said : " People of 
the bad religion used to kill and burn people here." These 
moimds were on the south, and close by the Moelfre, a 
high hill, very round at the top, and upon which, until about 
1800, there were three erect stones, which have now been 
thrown down. Near the mounds is a stream called "Afon 
Maes y Bryn", the Hill-field river. 

Circles. — Leaving the mounds, and passing up on the 
eastern side of the "Moelfre", we come to the remains of 
tliree circles. From the centre of one, tradition asserts a 
Cromlech was removed a few years since. I knew well an 
old man who boasted that he had taken one of the erect 
stones, from the largest circle, for a gate-post. 

Clip yr Orsedd, — Clip, an overhanging rock ; yr orsedd, or 
gorsedd, a supreme seat, a tribunal or court of judicature. 

Cam, and Carneddau, are marked on the Ordnance map. 

Cave, or Caves. — Thus we come back to Dinas Penmaen, 
on the north side of which, situated among the trees, was a 
cave, without any artificial work about it The quarrymen 
destroyed the cave between the years 1870 and 1879, 

Pen-y-Cafn. — On the south-east side of Dinas Penmaen, a 
i)lace on Braich y Dinas, is called Pen-y-Cafn, head of 



DINAS PENMAEN OK PENMAENMAWR. 157 

the cave, or hollow. About 1872, I was told about a cave 
that either was there or had been there. 

Braich y Dinas terminates in a British fortress, in which is 
a well of spring water. This Dinas is one mile from Dinas 
Penmaen, and commands a view of Ánglesea, and what is now 
called " The Lavan Sands". 

Gerlan, — Not quite a mile from Pen-y-Cafn, and formerly 
in the wood, is a place called Gerlan, the translation being, 
Ger, utterance, a cry; Llan, a clear place, area, a spot of 
ground to deposit anything, a church, a church village. 

Hock Basins, — Among the loose stones on Dinas Penmaen, 
are often found pieces of rock, hollowed out, and made quite 
smooth, to form a basin. They appear to have been broken 
for making the walls. 

Well. — There is also a well, three or four feet deep, for 
rain water. Had there been a spring, the water must, at some 
time or other, have overflowed, the well being so shallow ; but 
there is no trace of the water ever having done so. 

JValL — There is still a piece of wall remaining, more 
suitable to enclose sacred ground than for a military defence. 

Bwlch y Ddeufaen, — Two miles and a half from Dinas Pen- 
maen is the entrance to the " Bwlch y ddeufaen" — pass of the 
two stones. One stone is still erect, the other was thrown 
down by quarrymen between the years 1835 and 1845. A 
mountain path crosses the road. The Welsh people think 
the stones were placed there by a giantess. Could they have 
been used for divination ? " For the king of Babylon stood 
at the parting of the way, at the head of two ways, to use 
divinations: he made his arrows bright, he consulted with 
images, he looked in the liver." — Hzekid xxi, 21. As land- 
marks they are of little use ; the ground rising behind them 
prevents them being conspicuous. 

It might, perhaps, be mentioned here that, in early British 
mythology, Andras, or Andrasta, was regarded as an " old 



158 DINAS PENMAEN OR PENMAENMAWR. 

liag", to whom human victims were sacrificed Also, Canon 
Williams mentions that at Caergyfylchi, near Penmaen- 
mawr (Dwygyfylchi), through which parish the Gwrach 
flows, there was a temple to ** Ceridwen", who is described as 
"a fury", "a botanist", etc.; and "Pair Ceridwen", the 
cauldron of Ceridwen, is frequently alluded to by ancient 
poets. 

Clara P. 



159 



NAMES OF PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS 

OF WELSH BOOKS. 

By BERNARD QUARITCH. 



A POINT of much interest in connection with Welsh Biblio- 
graphy, is the series of printers and publishers by whom, 
before printing presses became common in Wales, the pro- 
duction of books in the Welsh language was undertaken. 
The following list is drawn only from a limited collection of 
Welsh books. The names are arranged in chronological 
order, and to each is appended the title and date of the 
earliest work in which I have found it. I should feel obliged 
if readers of Y Cymmrodor, who may have opportunities of 
amplifying or amending this list, from personal examination 
of Welsh books, would kindly communicate any additional 
names they may meet with, or the titles and dates of any 
earlier works bearing those here given, to me at the subjoined 
address, or through the editor of Y Cymmrodor. 

Bernard Quaritch. 

15, PiccadiUy, W. 

London (Caer Lndd or Uundain). 

1567. Hrnry Denham. Saleabury^s New Testament. 

1588. Robert Barker (Aasignes of). Morgan's First Welsh Bible. 

1592. Thomas Orwin. Rhoosi Cambrobrytannic» lingo» Institu- 

tiones. 
16(>6. Robert Barker. Homilies. 

1620. BoNHAM Norton and John Bill. Parry's Welsh Bible. 
1634. John Bill. Ck>mmon Prayer. 
1658. (Caer Lndd) Sara Griffin for Philip Chetwinde. Prifannau 

Sanctaidd. 
1658. (Caer Ludd) Joa. Streater for Philip Chetwindk. Ymddiffy- 

niad rhag pla o Schism. 



IfiO PRINTEKS AND PUBLISHERS OF WELSH BOOKS. 

1G64. S. Dover. Common Prayer. 

1677. Thomas Dawks. Cyfarwydd-deb Vt Anghyfarwydd. 
1682. Bknnet Griffin. Llwybr hyffordd yn cyfarwyddo yr anghy- 
farwydd Vr nefoedd. 

1688. Laurence Baskerville. Tho. Jones, Wekh-English Diction- 

ary. 

1689. Bill and Newcombe. Bible. 

1693. Tho. Whitledoe and W. Evrrinoham. Alleine (Joseph), 

Hyfiforddwr Cyfarwydd i'r Nefoedd. 
1699. J. R. and S. Makship. Y Rhybnddiwr Ciistnogawl. 
1708. Edm. PowEL-and Robt. Whitledoe. Eglurhaad o Catechism 

yr Eglwys. 
1710. R. Whitlkdge. Cred a Buchedd Gwr o Eglwys Loegr. 
1712. W. BowTER. Cydymaith i Ddyddiaa Gwylion. 

Bruttol (Bristo*). 
1760. John Grabham and William Pine. Traethawd Defnyddiol, 
Eliseus Cole. 

Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin). 

1725. Nicholas Thomas. Golwg ar y Byd. 

1725-6. Isaac Carter. Goodman, Maddeuant i*r Edifeinol. 

1745. Samuel Lewis. Gair o'r Gair, gan Morgan LlwydL 

Caerleon (Caer-Ueon). 
1724. Roger Adams. Ystynaethau, etc. 

Machynlleth (Merionethshire). 
1791. T. Evans. Marw i'r Ddeddf , gan R. Erskine. 

Oxford (Rhydychain). 
1 685. Clarendon Press. Griffith, GweddiV Arglwydd. 

Shrewsbury (Mwythig). 
(1699.) Richard Lathrop. Cydymaith yr Eglwyswr. 

1710. T. Jones for D. Lewys. Flores Poetanim Britannicorom. 

1711. Thomas Durston. Common Prayer. 
. Canwyll y Cymru. 

Ca. 1720. . Traethawd, etc., gan G. Bull, n. d, 

. Drych y Dyn Maleisos, gan T. Evans, n. d. 

1721. John Rhtdderch. Difyrrwch CrefyddoL 
1758. J. Cotton and J. Eddowes for Evan Ellis. Doll Priodas, 
gan John Bunyan. 

Wres^m (Gwrecsam). 
1777. R. Marsh. Y Psalter. 
1795. J. Ttb. Robinson Crosoe. 



161 



Eebíetoí; of Sooftd. 



Tklynegion, ar destunatj ambywiol. Gan Daniel Silvan 
Evans, S.T.B. Ail Argraffiad, gyda Chwanegion. Aber- 
ystwyth: 1881. 

It gives us great pleasure to call attention to this little 
volume, which is reprinted after an interval of thirty-five 
years. Owing to the length of time it has been out of print, 
its contents will be unknown to a good many of our younger 
readers. It consists of translations and imitations of English, 
German, and Greek authors, with a number of original com- 
positions. It is unneccessary to state that these are all 
written in vigorous and idiomatic Welsh : in perusing them 
we could not help wishing that their scholarly author had 
written very much more both in verse and prose. It is 
refireshing to read the strong and pure Welsh of the author, 
after having been nauseated by the jai^on of what Professor 
Rhys has called the " Newspaper period ", which not unfre- 
quently makes us wish that the old tongue could at once be 
decently and reverently laid in the tomb before it has been 
further debased. 

Though the translations we find here are very faithful and 
very natural, yet we prefer the original songs. Some of these 
remind us very pleasantly of the sweet melody of Gwenffrwd. 
The first piece in the volume, Bwthfy Nhad, is probably the 
best known, and has long been a favourite ; we first met 
it years ago in Y Cyfaül oW Hen Wlad, set to music. 
Cmymp Cynddylan is a not unworthy tribute to the Powysian 
chief, bewailed in such despairing strains by Llywarch Hen 
twelve centuries ago. In the author's rendering of the 

VOL. V. M 



162 KEYIEWS OF BOOKS. 

forty-sixth ode of Anacreon the ring of the old pennillian 
has been most happily caught : 



i( 



Caled ydy w peidio caru, 
Caled hefyd gwneutbur hyny ; 
Ond caletaf o'r calediou 
Galw'r serch yn ol i'r galon.** 

The following verses from a drinking song headed Hob y 

dcri dando, are as thoroughly Cymric in spirit as they are in 

style : 

" Er Uymed yw^r awelon, 

Daw eto baf a hinon ; 

Rhowch danllwyth ar yr aelwyd I&d, 

A dowch a chàn a chofioD. 

Adroddwch cbwedlau difyr 
Am nerthol garopau Artbur : 
Ac am Farchogion y Ford Gron, 
A'u holl orcbestion pybyr. 

Rhowch letty i gardotyn, 
A chroesaw i bob glanddyn ; 
Ac na omeddwch loches Ian 
Yng Dghil y t&n i'r crwydryn. 

Ym mhell bo brad gelynion, 
Ac ystryw cenedl estron ; 
Hir 068 Vn iaitb, a llwydd a Had 
I anwyl wlad y dewrion. 

Rhowch wfft iV cybydd anghor, 
A'i geraint ym mhob goror ; 
Ac aed y gwynt â> bradwr brwnt 
Ym mhell tu hwnt i'r cef nfor. 

Gwladgarwch a ennyno 
Ym mynwes gynhes Cymro ; 
A Uif ed ff rwd yr awen ber ; 
Mae hob y deri dando ! " 

There is indeed " Cyniru Fu " at its very happiest and 
best! We cannot help regretting that a singer, who could 
write such sweet verses, should have been called away from 
so agreeable an occupation even to the altogether necessary 



CORRESPONDENCE. 1 63 

work of compiling a Welsh Dictionary, especially if we are 
never to see it published. 

The last part of the Zeitschrift fv/r Vergleichende Sprach- 
forsckung (Band xxvi, Neue Folge Band vi, fiinftes Heft) is 
a most interesting one to students of Celtic, as it contains 
two papers by the prince of Celtic philologists. Dr. Whitley 
Stokes of Calcutta. The first paper deals with " The Breton 
Glosses at Orleans " ; the other is upon " The Irish Passages 
in the Stowe Missal." To pretend to recommend such 
papers would on our part be impertinence, but may we be 
pardoned for one suggestion ? On page 437 we have this note : 
" hor din dhiUun hi torr * ab ulna usque ad ventrem', Z? 
1060, 691, where torr is mis-rendered * palmam'/' It is not 
improbable that Zeuss was right in rendering torr here by 
" palma." The words describe a certain measure, and " tor 
Haw " is still our common expression for " the palm of the 
hand." 



Corresipantience. 

TO THE EDITOR OF "Y CYMMRODOR*'. 

In M. Gaidoz's article in vol iv, part ii, Y Cymmrodor, it | 

is stated on p. 219 that the word " vierlyn, a little horse", is 

formed " from merl, a pony", by the addition of the] suffix of 

diminution -yn. Is this so ? Is there such a word or root 

in the Welsh language as merly signifying a pony ? I have no 

copy of Owen Pughe's Dictionary at hand to refer to on the 

subject. But I cannot recal ever having seen such a form 

nor do I know of any cognate word. And when discussing 

the probable etymology of merlyn with the late Canon Kobert 

Williams, not long before his too early death, he denied that 

there was such a word as merl, and stated that the introduc- 



164 CORRESPONDENCE. 

tion into Welsh of merlyn, to designate a pony, is due to the 
fact that a certain celebrated stallion, so named after the 
well-known Enchanter, went its rounds in North Wales 
for years, and that its descendants, and in time other ponies 
of the same stamp, came to be called by the sire's name. Of 
the fact that it was so. Canon Williams said he was quite 
sure. Perhaps others of your readers can speak to this 
point It is not in itself improbable or impossible, for there 
are plenty of instances of proper names being adopted in 
languages as common nouns in a similar manner, hvrigham, 
cavendish, badminton, cicerone, etc. And if this is the true 
origin of the word, it is worth putting on record before it is 
lost to sight. This, however, does not in any way affect 
M. Gaidoz's argument 

W. WATKINa 

[We cordially unite with our correspondent in inviting our 
readers to traethu eu Uen on this point Dr. Davies gives 
neither merlyn nor msrl, either in the Welsh part of his Die- 
tionaHum or in the Latin under equibs or equvleus. But in 
Lhuyd's AreJueoloffia Britannica, tit. v, "Welsh words omitted 
in Dr. Davies's IHctionary", we find " Merlyn, a hvbh/, S", 
the " S" signifying that the word is derived from Henry Sales- 
bury's MS. Dictionary, Though there is nothing to show in 
what sense the word hobby is here used, this seems to throw 
some doubt on Canon Williams's statement, but does not 
prove the existence of the word merl. Again, mei'l, m^rlyn^ 
and merlen, appear in a small Geiriadur Oymraeg a Saesoneg^ 
published at Caermarthen in 1832 as a companion volume to 
Dr. William Eichards's Engli^ and Welsh Dictionary ; the 
same forms appear also in Spurrell's Dictionary, and in the 
third edition of Pughe's work published at Denbigh. It would 
be very interesting to have the history and first appearance 
of these words traced. We have searched Villemarque's Le 
Gonidec and O'Reilly in vain for any cognate forms in 
Armoric and Irish. — Ed.] 



165 
EISTEDDFOD PEIZES. 

TO MY FELLOW CYMMRODORION. 

Instead of offering a prize of fifty pounds for the History of 
Welsh Literature from the time of Rhys Goch, etc., would it not 
have been as well to offer an award for supplements to exist- 
ing works, such as Stephens' Literature of the Kymry, Cam- 
huanawc'â History, Williams's Eminent Welshmen, Dr. Pughe's 
Dictionary, eta, and standard works of the kind, instead of 
treading the same ground over and over again, and wasting 
the resources of the society upon reproducing, under new 
titles and by new authors, matter in our possession in too 
great a variety already. Unless the society has a defined 
and consistent plan of the kind, to be followed up from year 
to year in the interest of Welsh literature, there will be no 
practical work done, and no improvement on local and dis- 
united Eistedfod committees will take place. 

Lately, I have noticed a great number of the same sub- 
jects for competition being renewed, and I have last year ad- 
judicated upon three compositions I had read and adjudicated 
on some four, five, and six years ago. My memory greatly 
fails me if about sixty pounds was not awarded to Gwilym 
Teilo, in 1862, for the History of Welsh Literature, embracing 
exactly the time of lolo Goch to the end of the last century. 
Our venerable and veteran lienor, Gweirydd ap Rhys, was 
one of the judges. I do not think that Gwilym Teilo's His- 
tory was ever published, and possibly none of the Histories 
invited to Denbigh will ever see day. 

As I have the honour of being on the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Association, I am anxious that we should cut 
out our work upon principles practical in execution and of 
real service to those who study our history and read our not 
inconsiderable peasant literature. Yours very truly, 

J. Ceiriog Hughes. 



166 THE FOLK-LORE OF WALES. 

[Our correspondent should, perhaps, have addressed his 
well-founded protest to the National Eisteddvod Association, 
quorum 'pars magna est ipse, rather than to the Cymniro- 
dorion. But, as the two bodies are to some extent identical, 
we gladly give his opportune letter a place in the Cymmrodor, 
trusting it may set whomsoever it may concern athinking. 
However, we cannot see that much fault can be foimd with 
the choice of subject in this instance. A History of Welsh 
Litei^at are from Rhys Goch would constitute what our corres- 
pondent in common with many others regards as a desideratum, 
viz., a continuation of Stephens' brilliant work. — Ed. Y C] 



tHift Mk'tovt of aajales. 

BIDDLES. 

The following are said to be current among the peasantry in 
Cardiganshire : — 

8. ** Eisym, deisym drwy goed, 

A gwelais ryfeddod yn y coed, 

Y plant bach yn marw yn eu hoed, 

A'r tad a'r fam yn ifaingc.'^ 

Ateb. Hen ddail ar goed ieuaingc. 

Trans. — ** I went and through a wood I came. 
And wonders eaw I there : 
The children dying in old age 
Of parents young and fair." — H. W. L. 

Ans. Old leaves on young tree&^ 

9. ** Eisym, deisym drwy fynwent, 

A gwelais ryfeddod yn y fynwent, 

^ [We find something like this idea in Llywarch Hen : 

^^ Y deilen honn neus kenniret 
66ynt. g6ae hi oe thynghet : 
Hi hen eleni y ganet."--Fottr And, Bks,, ii, 260. 

This leaf does not the wind harass it ? 

Woe to it its fate I 

It is old, this year was it bom. — Ed.] 



THE FOLK-LORE OF WALES. 167 

Wyth pen, a saith tafod, 

A'r byw yn y marw, yn gofyn died.'* 

Ateb. Nyth aderyn a saith o gywion mewn penglog. 

Trans, — *^ I went and through a churchyard came, 

There wonders saw I seven : 
Seven tongues, and seven, with one more head. 
Strange sight ! the living in the dead 

Beseeching food from Heaven." — H. W. L. 

Am. a bird^s nest, with seven young ones, in a skull. 



THE YELLOW PLAGUE. 

Maelgwn G^NTfNEDD, the king of North Wales, denounced as 
a reprobate by St. Gildas, the historian and bard, is said to 
have fled to the church of Uanrhos, in order to escape death 
from the yellow plague, which ravaged the land in the sixth 
century, of which Taliesin, the bard, had foretold that he 
should die. But the Genius of the Plague, in female form, 
appeared at a window of the church, and fixed her deadly 
gaze upon him, whereupon he sickened instantly, and died. 
The prophecy, ascribed by tradition to Taliesin, is as fol- 
lows : — 



" E ddaw pryf rhyfedd, 

Forla Khianedd, 
I ddial anwiredd, 

Ar Faelgwn Gwynedd ; 
A'i flew, a'i ddannedd, 

A'i lygaid yn euredd, 
A hyn a wna ddiwedd 

Ai Faelgwn Gwynedd." 

Trails,"-*' From the Marsh of Rhianedd 

A monster shall come 
On Maelgwn of Gwynedd 

For ill to strike home. 
All golden her ringlets, 

Uer tooth and her eye, 
And by her King Maelgwn 

Of Gwynedd shall die !"-H. W. L. 



168 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Batts mi} Queried* 

The Eev. David Thomas, Eector of Garsington, Oxford, a 

great mathematician and a warm-hearted Welshman, showed 

me, the other day, an old printed circular of the Cymmro- 

dorion, of which I give you a copy, as it may be of interest 

to the Cymmrodorion of the present day. At the top is a 

peithyneny with the motto Cared doeth yr endlion engraved 

on it in the Coelbren character; then the whole runs as 

follows : — 

" CobnoU. 

" AN EiSTEDDvoD 'will be held at T'welye o^clock on the 22Dd SJay 
next, at the FreemasoDB* BaU, to celebrate the Third Ankivrrsary 
of the Ctmmrodorion, when the Medallions offered for the most ap- 
proved Poem and Essay will be awarded. 

** The Cymmrodorion will dine, in the Hall, at Five o'clock on the 
same day. 

*^ The meetings of this Institution will in future be held at Seven 
o'clock in the evening of the first Saturday in every month, when 
literary communications will be read. 

** Such Members as have not been supplied with the first volume of 
the Society^s Transactions may receive the same on application to Mr. 
Williams, bookseller, No. 11, Strand. 

** By order of the Society, 

" February^ 1823. J. Evans, Coviadur,'' 

The address on the back is written in a neat hand, to the 
following effect : — 

" 3rd Anniv'y Cymmrodorion. 
" revd. Mr. Ingram, 

" Greys Parsonage. 
" with Mr. Prichard's best comp'ta." 



Who were the gentlemen whose names occur here, and 
especially Mr. Prichard ? Somebody has hinted to me that 
he was possibly the great man who wrote on the Eastern 



Origin of the Celtic Nations. Can that be so ? 



J. Ehys. 



Vol. V, Part II. 1882. 



9 



iS&mnii'obQP 



Cmbolrsins tf)e 



Sransarttons 



oC tf)e Jganpnraiile 



$orÌF(g of Opmpoíiopion 



ttç. 



BDITBD BY 

THOMAS POWELL, M,A. (Oxon.) 



PRINTED FOR THE SOaETY 

BY 

WHITING & CO. (LIMITED), 30 & 3a, SARDINIA STREET. 

LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS, W.C. 



CONTEaîTS OF PART 11, (VOL. V.) 

OCTOBEB 1882. 



The Legend of the Oldest Aninuüs. By Professor £. B. Cowell ... 169 

On the Delimitation of the English and Welsh Langttages. By 

Alexander J. Ellis, F.B.S. ... ... ... ... 173 

The Ancient Ethnology of Wales, By Professor W. Boyd Davkins, 

ixL.A.y J:.JlV.O« ... ... ••• ••. ... /rJa 

The Welshman of English Literature. By David Lewis, Esq. ... 224 

The Poem by lolo (îoch on Owidn Glyndwr^s Palace of Sycharth. 

By Howel W. Lloyd, ALA. ,.. ... *.. ... 261 

The ^Traditional Route of the Romans across the Carnarvonshire 

Mountains. By Clara P. ... ... ... ... 274 

The National Eisteddfod of 1882 ... ... ... 280 

The Eisteddfod andJPopular Music in Wales ... ... 285 

Higher Education in Wales and the Proposed Univenity Colleges ... 294 

Reviews of Books:-— 

OrigÌBB of English History. By Charles Elton ... ... 307 

The Making of England. By J. E. Green, H.A., LL.D. ... 307 

Celtio Britain. By J. Bhys, H<A. ... ... ... 807 ^ 

Les Celtes et les Langaes Oeltiqnes. Par H. D'Arhois de 

Juhainville ... ... ... ... 817 

The History of the Princes, etc., of Powys Fadog. By J. Y. W. 

Lloyd, of Clochfaen, Esq., M.A., K.â.G. ... ... 318 

Tgten Sioned : neu T Gronfa Gymmyeg ... ... ... 818 

John Jooes yn yr Ysgol. Gan y Parch.' Eran Jones, B.D. ... 319 

Aeron Bbondda. GanHomoBda ... ... ... 320 

T Geninen. C.vlchgrawn Chwarterol Cenedlaeihol ... ... 320 

Notes and Queiita ... ... ... ... ... 822 



.4— .-_>-... * 




Cgmmrotior. 



OCTOBER, 1882. 



THE LEGEND OF THE OLDEST ANIMALS. 

By Professor E. B. COWELL, Cambridge. 



Readers of the MaMnogion will remember the curious 
legend of the oldest known animals, which is found in the 
story of Kilhwch and Olwen. We read there how Arthur's 
ambassadors went successively in search of tidings about 
Mabon the son of Modron, to the ousel of Cilgwri, the stag 
of Redynvre, the owl of Cwm Cawlwyd, the eagle of Gwem 
Abwy, and, finally, the salmon of Llyn Lly w, and each in turn 
gave some fresh proof of its greater age than its predecessors, 
but still referred the question to some animal of still more 
venerable antiquity than itself.* Ap Gwilym, however, 
alludes to another version of the story, which, I am inclined 
to think, preserves an older form of this wide-spread piece of 
folk-lore. In his poem, Yr Oed, where he describes himself 
as waiting and waiting under the thorn for his faithless mis- 
tress, he says : — 

^^ A thousand persons and more liken me 
To him who dwelt in Gwemabwy ; 
In truth I should not be an eagle at all 

Except for my waiting for my fair lady three generations of men ; 
I am exactly like the stag 
In Cilgwri, for my beloved ; 
Of the same colour, grey to my thinking. 
As my bedfellow (the owl) in Cwm Cawlwyd." 

^ There is a similar legend in the lolo MS. (p. 188), where the six 
oldest creatures in the worid are said to be the eagle of Gwernabwy, the 
stag of Rbedynvre, the salmon of Llyn Llivon, the ousel of Cilgwri, the 
toad of Cors Vochno, and the owl of Cwmcawlwyd. Compare also 
Cymru/Uj p. 172. 

VOL. V. N 



170 THE LEGEND OF THE OLDEST ANIMALS. 

Here we have only three animals instead of the five in the 
Mahiiwgi; and as far as I can trace the story in Eastern 
literature, three is the usual number given, however the 
species of the animals themselves may vary. The legend 
itself, like so many other popular stories, came to Europe 
originally from India, and probably passed together with 
Buddhism into other countries. Its oldest known form is 
found in the CuUa Vagga portion of the Vinayapitaha, one 
of the oldest parts of the Buddhist sacred books ; and 
another version of it is given in the first volume of the 
Jatakas, lately translated by Mr. T. W. Rhys Davids. The 
former version, a translation of which I subjoin, can hardly 
be later than the third century b.c. 

" Long ago there was a great banyan tree on the slope of 
the Himalaya mountains, and three friends dwelt near it — a 
partridge, a monkey, and an elephant. They were disres- 
pectful and discourteous to one another, and did not live 
harmoniously together. Then it occurred to them, * Oh, if 
we could but know which of us is the eldest, we could 
honour him and respect him, and show him duty and rever- 
ence, and abide by his exhortations.' Then the partridge 
and the monkey asked the elephant, ' What is the oldest 
thing, friend, that you remember V ' Friends,' he replied, 
'when I was a child I used to walk over this banyan tree, 
keeping it between my thighs, and its topmost shoot 
touched my belly. This is the oldest thing that I remem- 
ber.' Then the partridge and the elephant asked the 
monkey, 'What is the oldest thing, friend, that you remem- 
ber ?' ' Friends, when I was a child I used to sit on the 
ground and eat the topmost shoot of this banyan. This is 
the oldest thing that I remember.' Then the monkey and 
the elephant asked the partridge, ' What is the oldest thing, 
friend, that you remember ?' ' Friends, in yonder place 
there was once a certain great banyan tree; I ate a fruit 



THE LEGEND OF THE OLDEST ANIMALS. 171 

from it and voided it in this spot, and from it sprang this 
banyan. Therefore, friends, I am older than either of you. 
Then the monkey and the elephant thus addressed the part- 
ridge, ' You, friend, are the oldest of us all ; we will honour 
and respect you, and will show you duty and reverence, and 
will abide by your exhortations.' Then the partridge stirred 
them up in the five moral duties, and also took those duties 
upon himself. They wŵe respectful and courteous to one 
another and lived harmoniously together, and after the dis- 
solution of their bodies they were reborn happily in heaven."^ 

The same apologue occurs in the seventy-seventh of the 
Avadanas or Indian apologues, translated by Julien from the 
Chinese. It is taken from the twelfth chapter of tlie book 
entitled Ta-tchi-tou-lun. 

A curiously distorted version of the Buddhist legend is 
found in the Uttara-kanaa of the Sanskrit BÁmáyana? the 
later book which was added to the JRámáí/ana to explain 
and amplify the brief allusions to earlier events which had 
been left obscure in the original poem. Tliere we read that 
a vulture and an owl, who had lived in a certain wood from 
time immemorial, quarrelled about the possession of a cer- 
tain cave, each claiming it to be his by ancient right. They 
eventually agreed to bring the matter before Eáma for his 
decision. On his asking them how long each claimed to 
have had the cave as a dwelling, the vulture replied, " It has 
been my home ever since this earth was first filled with men 
newly come into being ;" while the owl rejoined, " It has 
been my home ever since this earth was first adorned with 
trees." Báma then decided that the cave properly belonged 
to the owl, as trees and plants were originally produced 
before the creation of mankind from the marrow of two 

* Oldenberg^B ed. of the Culla-vaggaj vi, 6. 

2 Ch. Iziv in the G&udsi recension ; it ìb omitted in the commentaries 
of the Northern recension, and is perhaps a spurious addition to the 
genuine Northern text (see Bombay ed., ch. liv*). 

n2 



172 THE LEGEND OF THE OLDEST ANIMALS. 

demons slain by Vishnu, whence the earth was called 
Medini (from meda, "marrow"). Here we have only two 
animals introduced ; Eáma, however, as the umpire, occu- 
pies the place of the third. But we find the triad of inter- 
locutors reappearing in the version of the story given in the 
Sindibád-námehj a Persian poem written by an unknown 
Persian poet in a.d. 1375, and analysed by Falconer in the 
London Asiatic Journal for 1841. This story reproduces the 
old dialogue, but the animals are changed, and a new point 
is added at the end. 

"An old wolf and fox, intimate friends, were once tra- 
velling together. A short way before them they saw a 
camel, who joined them, and the three together took the road 
to the village of the camel. Their only provision for the 
journey consisted of a pumpkin. They travelled on for a 
long time, up hill and down dale, till, exhausted by the heat 
of the road, their eyes became black with thirst. At length 
they reached a pond full of water, and sat down on its 
brink. The pumpkin was produced, and, after some dis- 
cussion, it was agreed that this prize should belong to him 
who was the eldest among them. First the wolf began : 
'Indian, Tajik, and Turk know that my mother bore me 
one week before God had created heaven and earth, time 
and space ; consequently I have the best right to tliis 
pumpkin.' * Yes,' said the old and crafty fox ; * I have 
nothing to object to tliis account, for on the night your 
mother bore you I was standing by in attendance. That 
morning it was I that lit the taper, and I burned beside 
your pillow like a morning taper.' When the camel had 
heard their speeches to an end, he stalked forward, and, 
bending down his neck, snapped up the pumpkin, observing : 
' It is impossible to conceal a thing so manifest as this, that 
with such a neck, and haunches, and back as mine, it was 
neither yesterday nor last night that my mother bore me.' " 



E. B. COWELL. J 



173 



ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE ENGLISH 
AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 

By ALEXANDER J. ELLIS, F.R.S., 
Vice-President (twice President) of the Philological Society. 



For the last ten or twelve years I have been engaged in the 
laborious and diflScult investigation of the pronunciation of 
English dialects throughout Great Britain. But it is noto- 
rious that all Great Britain does not speak English. A 
large portion of Scotland speaks Gaelic, and most of the 
principality of Wales still speaks Welsh. It was, therefore, 
a necessary point of my inquiry to determine how far the 
English language extended. Some years ago, Dr. Murray, the 
present (1882) President of the Philological Society, and editor 
of its forthcoming great English Dictionary, in his excellent 
little work on the Dialects of the South of Scotland (1873), 
determined with great accuracy the boundary of Gaelic and 
English (in the form of Lowland Scotch, which is, however, 
a true English dialect), and showed, by reference to an older 
determination, that it had receded westward during the pre- 
sent century. 

This is indeed the lot of Celtic as against English. Ita 
boundary is continually receding westwards. After the 
Romans left Great Britain in a.d. 400 the island was all 
Celtic, but it was not peaceful ; and, in their quarrels, the 
Celts called in aid from the Lowlands of Germany. This 
brought English into Britain in the form of Lowland Teuton, 
of which Piatt Deutsch (its popular) and Dutch (its literary 
form) are the modem representatives on the continent 
Whatever the British language was like at that time, it was 
as unlike Lowland Teuton as it was unlike Roman. But 



174 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

these Teutons, who are known as Angles, Saxons, and 
Friesians, treated Britain very differently from the Romans. 
The Romans merely governed. The Teutons conquered and 
exterminated, that is, killed off, or drove beyond their 
borders, all who opposed. They began on the south and east, 
and they gradually drove the British north and west. They 
were also continually fighting each other, and they had 
themselves in turn to succumb to two invasions, first, of the 
Danes, and, secondly, long afterwards, of the Normans. 
These conquests, in the course of time, converted their various 
forms of Lowland Teuton into dialects of English, as they 
themselves called their language. But they did not conquer 
Britain suddenly. Long and vigorous resistance was offered. 
For a long while a Celtic kingdom, that of Strathclyde, ran 
down from Scotland to the south of England, and to the 
east of the present Wales, and, in Devonshire and Cornwall, 
there were other Celtic elements. It was in the days of ex- 
termination that the Mercians (that is, the various Teuton 
tribes who infested the middle of England, beyond the "mark" 
or border of the Saxons) broke through the Strathclyde 
kingdom in the modern Cheshire and Lancashire, and esta- 
blished there their own language almost without any intermix- 
ture.^ A few Welsh words can still be traced in South Lan- 
cashire, but, practically, it is a pure Midland English dialect 

^ It was in A.D. 613, about 170 years after the first landing of the 
Lower Teutons, that Ethelfrith gained the victory of Chester, which 
separated Wales from Cumbria and Strathclyde. As Ethelfrith was 
King of Northumbria, Mr. J. R. Green, in his interesting work on the 
Making of England (MacmiUan, 1881), concludes that Cheshire and 
South Lancashire came under the Northumbrian supremacy, which 
previously ranged on the East of Britain from the Firth of Forth to 
Lincolnshire. And as he has been unable to find any further records 
of the government of Cheshire and South Lancashire till the revolt of 
the Mercians, which wrested the supremacy from Northumbria in a.d. 
659, he concludes that till that time Cheshire remained under Northum- 
brian government. And even then, and subsequently, he makes South 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 175 

It was different with the parts of Strathclyde below 
Cheshire. In Shropshire, and, at least, Western Hereford- 
shire, we have still marks of a dialect descended mainly 
from Welsh people on whom English had been forced. 
That is, we detect in them still habits of speech which point 
to a Celtic rather than a Saxon origin. I may mention the 
conspicuous trilling of r when not before a vowel, which 
marks Shropshire, and, I believe, West Herefordshire ; while 
the r in such positions is very inconspicuous among the Mid- 
landers, and has a totally difíerent character in the neigh- 
bouring southern counties, as Gloucester, Wiltshire, etc. In 
these counties, then, as also in Devonshire and Cornwall 
(which wiU not otherwise enter into consideration here), 
we have English modified by being grafted on a Welsh or 
Celtic population. But in all these counties the change 
happened so long ago, so many generations have been trans- 
mitting their speech naturally from parent to child, that true 
English dialects have been formed, which do not betray to 
the ordinary observer any mark of being English spoken by 
foreigners. We have similar results in the Lowland Scotch 
of the old conquests as contrasted with the Lowland Scotch 
which has more recently supplanted Gaelic. 

Let me begin by mentioning two cases in Wales itself, 
where Welsh was simply driven out, and where we have a 
West-Saxon dialect, certainly much worn out under the influ- 
ence of education, but still purely English without any 

Lancashire Northumbrian. (See his maps on pp. 244, 260, 273, 292, 
305, and 329.) Now this distribution of English rule is directly 
opposed to the present phenomena of English dialects. South Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire hare not only no signs of Northumbrian influence, 
but they furnish the purest and best marked specimens of Mercian or 
Midland English. Hence, it is quite clear that the settlement of these 
districts must have been Mercian, although the conquest was Northum- 
brian. North Lancashire, on the contrary, shows that it was conquered 
by Northumbrians, and is entirely different in dialect from South 
Lancashire. 



176 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

Welsh influence. These are the peninsula of Gowerland, 
in the south of Glamorganshire, west of Swansea, and the 
south-west corner of Pembrokeshire, about Tenby, Pembroke, 
and Haverfordwest. They are merely English settlements 
of the twelfth century. It is indeed stated that Flemings 
were among the English, but Flemish of that period was so 
little different from West Saxon that, even if the statements 
are correct, we must not be surprised at finding no mark of 
Flemish in the present dialect.^ There was a third of these 



' The statements are made by chroniclers, and are, of course, the 
best written evidence we have, but the chroniclers tell so many tales 
which are clearly mere traditions that their statements require corro- 
boration. In this case, the present state of the languages does not 
furnish any. The following are the exact words of the chroniclers, 
whom I have consulted for the purpose : — 

1. Willelmi Malmeshiriensis Monachi Gesta regum anglorum, ed. T. 
Duffus Hardy. Historical Society, ed. 1840. (William of Malmesbuiy 
was bom about 1095, and died 1143.) 

Lib. iv, § 311, p. 493 [a.d. 1091]. "Statimque contra Walenses, 
post in Scottoe, expeditionem movens, nihil magnificentia sua dignum 
exhibuit ; militibus multis desideratls, jumentis interceptis. Nee turn 
solum, Bed multotiens parva illi in Walenses fortuna f uit ; quod cuivis 
mirum videatur, cum ei alias semper alea bellorum felicissime arriserit. 
Sed ego intelligo pro soli ineequalitat^ et coeli inclementia, sicut rebelli- 
onem eorum adjutum, ita ejus virtutem expeditum. Porro rex Henri- 
CUB, excellentis ingenii vir, qui modo regnat, invenit qua commenta 
illorum labefactaret arte, Flandritis in patria illorum coUocatis, qui eis 
pro claustro sint et eos perpetuo coerceant." 

Lib. V, § 401, p. 628 : ^^ Wallenses rex Henricus, semper in rebelli- 
onem surgentes, crebris expeditionibus in deditionem premebat, consi- 
lioque salubri nixus, ut eorum tumorem extenuaret, Flandrenses omnes 
Angliae accolas eo traduxit. Plures enim qui tempore patris pro 
materna cognatione confluxerant, occultabat Auglia, adeo ut ipsi regno 
pro multitudine onerosi viderentur : quapropter cum substantiis et 
necessitudinibus apud Hos, provinciam Wallorum, velut in sentinam 
congessit, ut et regnum defsecaret, et hostium brutam temeritatem retun- 
deret," etc. 

2. Polychronicon Raimlphi Uigdcni Chestrensis de rebus Britannicis 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. . 177 

settlements in the extreme south-east of Ireland, occupying the 
baronies of Forth and Bargy, in the county of Wexford, and this 
settlement kept up its language, quite distinct from its Celtic 



et Hibeniicifi usque ad conquestum. Ed. Th. Gale, Oxford, 1691. 
(Higden died a.d. 1367.) 

Page 210, L 5: "i4 quot^ quandOy et quibus hasc terra itit inhahitata 
gentibus, Sed et Flandreuses tempore Regis Henrici primi [a.d. 1100- 
35], in magna copia juxta Mailroe [Melrose in Roxburghshire, Scot- 
land] ad Orientalem Anglise plagam habitationem pro tempore accipi- 
entes, septimam in Insula gentem fecerunt [1. Britones;. 2. Picti; 
3. Scoti ; 4. Saxones ; 5. Dani ; 6. !Nonnanni ; 7. Flandrenses] jubeiite 
tamen eodem Rege ad Occidentalem Wallise partem apud Uauerford, 
sunt translati. Sicque Britannia modo defìcientibus omnino Danis et 
PictÌB, hifl quinque nationibus habitatur in prsesenti, viz. Scotis in 
Albania, Britonibus in Cambria, Flandrensibus in Westwallia, 
Normannis et Anglis permixtim in tota Insula." 

Page 210 :'*!>€ Incolarum Linguis. Flandrenses vero qui occidua 
Wallise incolunt, dimissa jam barbaria, Saxonice satis proloquuntur.^^ 

Or, as Trevisa (a.d. 1387) translates these last lines : '* Bote the 
Flemynges Mat woneth in the west syde of Wales habbeM yleft here 
straunge speeche and spekeM Saxonlych ynow." 

For the three next citations with the observations in [ ], I am 
indebted to Henry Jenner, Esq., of the British Museum. 

3. Geraldus Camhrtnsis [bom 1147 in Pembrokeshire]. Itinerarium 
CamhriaSy lib. i, ch. xi, De Haverfordia et Ros : 

" £rat autem gens hssc originem a Fkndria ducens, ab Anglorum 
rege Henrico primo ad bos fines inhabit^ndum transmissa.^' [And the 
author then proceeds to describe the character of the people.] 

4. Brut y Tywysogion [under the year 1105, translation sent by Mr. 

Jenner]. ^^ The year after that a certain nation was sent by King 

Henry into the land of Dyfed ; and that nation seized the whole 

cantred of Rhos having driven oflF the people completely. [The 

chronicle then states that they left their own country because the sea 
and sand encroached.] That nation, according to the report, was 
derived from 'Fflandrys', the country nearest to the sea of the Britons." 
[In several of the following years there are frequent mentions of the 
"Flemisswyr" and ^'Flemisseit" as fighting with the Welsh. The 
Brut y Tyun/sogion goes down to 1280, and the early part is probably 
of earlier date.] 

6. Aunales Cambiiit [under the year 1107, Florence of Worcester 
makes the date 1111]. ** Flaudreuses ad Kos venerunt." [The Aunales 



178 ON THE DBLIMITATION OF THE 

surroundings, for many hundred years, though, in later times, 
it received Celtic additions. It is now merged into the 
CromweUian Irish English, by which it is surrounded. But 
a hundred years ago it was suflSciently distinct to have spe- 
cimens of it collected, and these betray one of the oldest 
forms of English dialect All these three settlements were 
nearly in a line proceeding down the Bristol Channel and 
crossing to Ireland, and they evidently consisted of Southern 
English, or Wessex people. The two settlements in Wales 
must be regarded as part of England. The presence of Welsh 
people is a mere accident of immigration, as insignificant in 
respect to nationality as the presence of Welsh people in 
London. In these cases the delimitation is comparatively easy, 
and the information I have received (I have in no case 
visited the spot or perambulated the boundary myself) is as 
follows : — 

are known now from a thirteenth century MS. at the British Moaeum, 
bat they are evidently translated from Welsh of an earlier date.] 

These citations show that there is thorough agreement among the 
ancient chroniclers as to the nationality of the Lowland Teutons who 
occupied the south-west of Pembrokeshire. Their accounts are probably 
all derived from the same source. But Geraldus Cambrensis, as a 
native of Pembrokeshire, born about forty years after the reported 
Flemish settlement, shows probably the belief of the Pembroke people 
themselves. If we took the chroniclers literally, these Flemish were 
sent to Wales to get rid of them, and ** cleanse England of their filthy 
presence^' (as William of Malmesbury puts it, in even stronger terms), 
and then, unaccompanied by Saxon or Norman guards or rulers, were 
left to fight the Welsh in the interests of England. Yet, about 250 
years later, Higden finds them speaking sufiiciently good Saxon. This, 
and the modem state of thç language, shows that the chroniclers were 
at any n^ not acquainted with the whole story, and that the Saxons 
must have certainly preponderated. Again, the chroniclers do not refer 
to Gowerland, which is in precisely the same condition as to language, 
nor to Wexford. The evidence, then, in favour of the Flemish settle- 
ment breaks down linguistically. At most there could only have been 
a subordinate Flemish element, which soon lost all traces of its original 
and but slightly different dialect, while the principal element must have 
been Saxon as in Gower and Wexford. 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 179 

Glamorganshire, informant, Rev. J. D. Davies, Llanma- 
doc Rectory, at the N.W. extremity of Gower. The 
boundary is along the present line of railway from Pen- 
clawdd Station, on the Burry River, to Mumbles Road Sta- 
tion on Swansea Bay. It comprises the following seventeen 
parishes, all of which have spoken English for centuries : — 
1, Cheriton ; 2, Llanmadoc ; 3, Uangenydd ; 4, Rhos-sili ; 
5, Llanddewi ; 6, Knelston ; 7, Reynoldston ; 8, Port Eynon ; 
9, Penrice ; 10, Oxwich ; 11, Nicholaston ; 12, Pemnaen ; 13, 
Llanrhidian (lower division ; the upper division does not 
speak English); 14, Ilston ; 15, Penard ; 16, Bishopston ; 
17, Oystermouth. The first thirteen parishes belong to the 
West, and the last four to the East, Rural Deanery of Gower. 
There are still to be seen the ruins of an old castle, once the 
Caput Baronim of this extensive ancient lordship west of 
Swansea. " In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries," 
Mr. Davies says, ''we frequently meet in old documents 
with the expressions ' Oower WcUlica* and * Gower Anglica." 
The terms are, however, greatly mixed up. 

As there are no printed specimens of this dialect, I 
mention the following words from an example translated 
for me by Mr. Davies, the italics showing Mr. Dayies's 
orthography ; zo, so; zay, say ; «e, see ; zide, side ; she's gwain, 
she is going ;■ drough (rhymes plough), through; defe, deaf; 
we know-n, we know him ; aula, old ; beant, isn't ; dcpur 
(rhymes French sceur), door ; mdbhy, may be, perhaps ; lü, 
little ; teach «r, teach her ; agen, again. Of these, the use of 
initial z for 5 in zo, zay, ze, zide, and of initial dr for thr in 
droiigh, the use of givain for going, of beant for isn't, and 
especially of -n in know-n for know him, are distinctfve marks 
of the strongest Southern English, which is situated on the 
other side of the Channel not nearer than Somersetshire. 
This shows that the English is ancient and not acquired in 
modem times. I may add that the Archceohgia Cambreims, 



180 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

1861, pp. 356-362, speaking of the ethnology of Gower, gives 
Dr. Latham's opinion that the people are English, and not 
Flemish, and says Dr. Williams had glossed 150 words, 
and found them like Somerset, as delve, dig, told we, told us 
(which is always used by a Gower man), the use of z for s, 
and V for/, which was formerly universal over the South of 
England), and hold un, hold him or it. 

Pembrokeshire, hundreds of Ehos and Daugleddy, in- 
formant. Rev. J. Tombs, Rector of Burton, 3 miles N. 
of Pembroke and 7 miles S.S.W. of Haverfordwest. He 
says that "the probable boundary of the original or very 
early colony was from Newgale Bridge, near the N.K comer 
of St. Bride's Bay, to the village of Ambleston (7 miles 
N.N.E. of Haverfordwest and a mile and a half K of 
Trefgarn), thence to Lawhadon and Narberth, and from there 
by Ludchurch to Amroth or Cronwear in the Bay of Car- 
marthen. No line can now be drawn between Anglicised 
Welsh and the early colonists. About one hundred years 
ago something approaching to such a line might have been 
drawn, but even the Anglicised Welsh were interspersed 
with the stranger, and, from the very first, some, by inter- 
marriages or other means, kept their ground in many parts 
under same conditions." From a printed lecture on Pem- 
brokeshire delivered by the same gentleman at Milford on 
20 March 1863, of which he obligingly lent me the only 
remaining copy which he had, I take the following notes. 
Henry I (says Fenton in his History of Fembrokeshire, p. 201) 
having admitted, out of respect to Queen Maud (daughter of 
Baldwin, Earl of Flanders), a great number of Flemings into 
England, driven out by inundations, removed them from the 
north to part of Pembrokeshire (already taken possession of 
by Normans under Arnulph de Montgomery) about Pem- 
broke, Tenby, and Roos.' A Welsh chronicle insinuates that 

* See the citationB from the ancient chroniclers in the note on p. 176. 



EXGIJSH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 181 

fifty years later Henry II introduced a fresh colony "to 
supply his new ganisons, raised and fortified by Strongbow, 
Haverfordwest and Tenby." Strongbow was Eichard, Count 
of Eu, who, in 1110, conquered Welsh Divet or Pembroke, 
which was called " Little England beyond Wales". In 1401 
Owen Glendowr is said to have defeated " the English 
militia of Herefordshire and the Flemings of Rhos and 
Pembroke." Rhos is spelled Roos, Roose, Rouse by English 
writers. Thierry quotes from the Cavibrian Register : "They 
aJBfect not to know the name of a single individual inhabiting 
the part in which Welsh is spoken. To the inquiries of 
strangers they wül answer, ' I donna knaw, a lives some- 
where i' the Welshery.' " Tliis representation of the dialect 
is, of course, not to be trusted. Mr. Tombs also notes the 
following Welsh names which remain in an Anglicised form : 

Pembroke = Penfro or -bro, that is, "head of the maritime 
land or promontory". Tenby = Din-by ch, that is, "little hill 
port". Hakin, one mile west of Müford (also Hagin), which 
he conjectures to be the same 8is -hagen in Copenhagen, that 
is " port", saying that the Danes have left some traces. This 
is very doubtful. Pill = PwU ; and numerous Welsh sur- 
names. 

Mr. Tombs also notes the report that another colony, under 
Martin de Tours, landed northwards of the Precelly range of 
mountains {Mynydd Preseleg, six or seven miles south-east 
of Fishguard on the north coast), and says that, of course, 
they had connection with the southern colonies ; but they 
have become inextricably mixed up with the Welsh. 

As regards the language, Mr. Tombs says "there is nothing 
like the Devonshire or French u here, and our (Pembroke) 
mode of pronouncing is very different from West Somerset ; 
and our r is nothing like the subdued EngUsh London r, and 
not so very noticeably different from the Welsh r." On the 
other hand, Mr. Elworthy of Wellington, West Somerset, 



182 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

author of a grammar of that dialect, who has a very keen 
appreciation of the pronunciation of his district, told me 
(11th October 1878), after a \dsit to Tenby, that the lan- 
guage was " most like a book version of West Somerset, with 
a little of the Devonshire u and the peculiar Southern r" 
The Devonshire u is clearly a modernism, and probably very 
partially introduced. The Southern r is the mark of the 
Southern dialect from Cornwall to Kent and Dorset to Wor- 
cestershire. It is made by pointing the tongue to the throat 
or else retracting it very much, and is very easily seized by 
those who have once heard it, but strangers overlook it 
generally, and Londoners confuse it with their own vocal r. 
All the dialectal peculiarities are, however, fast djnng out 
under the influence of education. 

At the Swansea meeting of the Cambrian Archaeological 
Society, 1861, the following was given as a genuine bit of 
Pembrokeshire English : " I'ze a gwaaing to zell zum vish to 
buy zum vlesh vor that blezzed day Zoonday." This could 
not be genuine : ze in Fze, oo in Zoonday, and ng in givaaing 
are quite impossible; hence, the observer was not to be 
trusted, but the fact that «, v are used for s,/, may, perhaps, 
remain. The rest is picturesque. Mr. Tombs thinks, how- 
ever, that it is unmistakably Flemish.^ It is really a bad 
representation of Southern English, such as may still be 
heard. But Mr. Tombs says he has himself heard a Pem- 
brokewoman say, " I'll put out the kive to vang the water." 
Halliwell and Wright spell the word keevey and say it is a 
Western (that is South-Westem) term for a brewing-tub ; it 
is Anglo-Saxon cyf; German, kufe. To varig for to fang or 
catch (compare the snake's fangs or catching teeth) is a 
regular Southern term. He has also heard vank for a spark ; 

* Possibly the initial 2*8 and v\ which are used in Flemish and Datch 
writing, may have misled him. Initial /and s in Anglo-Saxon were also 
undoubtedly pronounced as v and z. Initial s is still pronounced as 
2 in High German. 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 183 

compare middle high German, vunke, vanke, modern fuiike ; 
Dutch, vonk (see Dieffenbach's Gothic Dictionary, i, 413, No. 
62) ; but I cannot find it as an English dialect word, though 
our "word funk belongs to it. He has also heard misken for 
miven, a dung-heap, which is similar to the Southern trans- 
positions wajpSy haps for wasp, hasp. Also drang, a narrow 
passage^ á regular Southern word ; and " rathe, rather, 
räthest" for quick or early, earlier, earliest, the first of which 
is a very old English word. 

In the example which Mr. Tombs translated for me occur 
the following Southemisms : zo, zay, zee, zide = so, say, see, 
side ; vi'om = from (he has heard throm, but only from 
families of Welsh blood ; it is an impossible combination to 
a south-western English peasant) ; dreotv, through (the regu- 
lar change of thr initial) ; maayd, waey aÿwaayin, maid way 
a-going ; she ool, she will ; we knaows ihn, we know him ; 
rho'od, road (the aspirated r is pure Southern, as well as the 
division of the digraph) ; with others, which will mark the 
real English which exists here. 

After this account of " Little England beyond Wales", I 
will proceed at once to speak of greater England in its im- 
mediate pressure on Wales from the East. But, first, let me 
recall to your mind that there are two classes of languages 
in England proper, the received or literary, and the dialectal. 
The first, as these names imply, is twofold, and the second is 
manifold. The received speech is that ordinarily spoken in 
familiar conversation by the governing, the wealthy, the 
highly educated classes of society. It is by no means uni- 
form either in pronunciation or construction, and many 
slight varieties are " received", that is, their use is not con- 
sidered to be a mark of lower rank, deficient education, 
vulgarity, or provincialism. There is also a middle-class 
English pronunciation, construction, and vocabulary, which 
aspires to be received, but is not. This, however, stands 



184 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

much higher than the purely vulgar. The "literary" is 
quite different. In construction, it is essentially the lan- 
guage of books, as distinct from conversation, and in pro- 
nunciation, it is the language of orthoepists and purists. This 
I term generally *'book English". It is supposed to be 
taught in schools, and wherever the "art of delivery or 
elocution" is inculcated. It is the language of literature 
when read eloud, of oratory, of the pulpit and the stage 
(two words by-the-bye of originally the same meaning, that 
is, platform), but it is not the language of native conver- 
sation, it is not what we learn from our fathers and mothers, 
our school and college-companions, the men and women 
with whom we daily consort. Foreigners, by which I shall 
understand, as in the provinces, persons who by birth speak 
a different language, and not give it any invidious political 
signification — foreigners who learn a language by book and 
by orthoepical instruction, naturally acquire the book lan- 
guage, tinctured, however, essentially by their own na- 
tionality. We have numerous instances of such English 
speech in Wales. Such book-language is considered " purer" 
than the received. This is a mere assumption. It is another 
language, more wholly artificial than the received, which has 
itself arisen from a semi-artificial paring down of a par- 
ticular (East Midland) form of speech, to suit the habits and 
prejudices of the so-called "upper" classes. 

But real natural English, hereditarily transmitted from 
father to son, is dialectal. The Greek word SmXe/croc of 
course meant "conversation", from the deponent form 
SuiXeyofiai, " I converse", the active form SioKeyo) meaning " I 
discriminate or pick out one from another". In conversation 
there are, of course, at least two distinct speakers. A dialect 
now merely means a " local speech", when numerous local 
speeches do not differ greatly from each other or from the 
received language of a country. But the limits of language 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 185 

and dialect are hard to find. At present I wish to consider 
dialect as simple local speech, learned without book, essen- 
tially a spoken and not a written dialect. The dialects of 
England are practically unwritten at the present day, the 
attempts at writing a few of them, being rather caricatures 

than representations. I speak after more than ten years* 
special attention to the subject. But the local speech, to be 
local, requires some fixation of locality. A hundred years 
ago it was not easy for the poor to change their domicile, 
communication was difficult, and "certificated teachers" as yet 
were not. Hence the local form of speech remained, with 
only its internal capacity of change, which, though not great 
in itself, in time produced great results. Every century 
made a perceptible change, even in the most out of the way 
districts, and it is now very hard to find an ancient form of 
pronunciation. Still, local forms exist, decidedly different 
from received speech, such as those which I have just ad- 
duced from Glamoiganshire and Pembrokeshire, and these 
are entirely different from the book English taught in 
schools. 

Now I have quite recently found it possible to divide 
English dialects into four regions, dependent upon their 
treatment of the short and long Anglo-Saxon u, as in the 
words, some house. The Southern and Eastern dialects pro- 
nounce words of this class practically in the received 

fashion ; the Midland dialects say sööm, with curious varieties 
of fwuse. The Northern dialects say sööm hôôse; and the 
Scotch Lowland dialects practically pronounce some as in 
received speech, but retain the höôse of the northern English 
dialects. Now, the only part of this curious division which 
concerns us this evening is the southern boundary between 
the Southern and Midland dialects, or between some and 
sòöm, and only a small part of this, though I may say in 
passing that all three boundaries have been determined right 

VOL. V. 



186 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

across the country. The boundary in question beginning in 
N.W. Shropshire, between EUesmere, which has söùniy and 
Oswestry which has sum; sloping down to S.E., and run- 
ning W. of Hordley {8ö&m\ E. of Whittington («ûm), S. of 
Wem and Yorton (both sò&m), and just S. of Hadnall, or 
about four miles N". of Shrewsbury when it turns S., and passes 
just W. of Upton Magna at a distance of about two miles 
E. from Shrewsbury, near which place it reaches the river 
Severn, and it pursues the course of that river throughout 
the rest of Shropshire.^ Its subsequent course does not 
concern our present inquiry. All W. and S. of this line says 
{sum), all K and K of it says {sò&m\ and belongs to the 
Midland dialects, which have altogether a different character. 
Miss Jackson's excellent Glossary of Shropshire refers to the 
first (sum) portion almost exclusively. In this northern part 
of Shropshire, wedged between it and Cheshire, lies a de- 
tached part of Flintshire, separated from the main county 
by part of Denbighshire, and practically forming part of 
England, as its Welsh name Mador Saesnaeg implies, 

Now, of the parts of England adjoining Wales, this 
southern (or sum) part of Shropshire was a Welsh-speaking 
country, on which English was forced hundreds of years ago. 
It is therefore an old English-speaking region, but the 
English was always a Welsh English, and although years 
sufficient have since passed to allow of its forming an inde- 
pendent English dialect, it has traces of its origin in the 
intonation of speakers, and the well trilled r occurring with- 
out a subsequent vowel. It has also not quite lost its Welsh 
speakers. I am told that in Oswestry more Welsh is spoken 
than in Montgomery, and the region from Chirk to Llan-y- 

^ Since this paper was read on 24 May 1882, this part of the line has 
been re-examined and verified for me by Mr. Thomas Hallam of Man- 
chester, to whose observations on the whole of the boundary between 
stlm and iu^^i I am greatly indebted. 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 187 

mynech is practically Welsh to this day, speaking English 
as a foreign language. The English of Shropshire has 
received much from the Midland counties, among which 
must be reckoned the verbal plural in -n. This is as dis- 
tinctly marked in the whole of the Southern (or sum) region 
as in the Northern. It has also borrowed from the southern 
dialects both in pronunciation and in the use of the verb I be 
in place of / am, which is singularly combined with the 
Midland plural in -n in we hin, they bin, that is, be-n = " we 
are." This must be distinguished from the use of we bin for 
we have been, a mere ellipsis which may be heard all over 
England. 

South of Shropshire we have another English-speaking 
Welsh region, Herefordshire, which was joined to Mercia, or 
the Midland kingdom, about the same time as Shropshire. 
It has, however, no Midland pronunciations left, and at least 
the S.E part, including Boss, Ledbury, and Much Cowame 
has as much a Southern dialect as Gloucestershire. Tlie rest 
of the county, including possibly a peninsula of Worcester- 
shire about Tenbury, has as much of an English dialect as 
Shropshire, and it is southern in its general character, but 
the peculiar southern r, already described, cannot be traced 
with much certainty. 

South of Herefordshire we have Monmouthshire, which 
was so recently (only in 1535) incorporated with England, 
that many enthusiastic Welsh people refuse to acknowledge 
the Act of Parliament, and consider it still Gwent and Mor- 
ganwg. It is certainly more recent in its English than either 
Hereford or Shropshire, and a portion of it still speaks 
Welsh. Its English is decidedly Welsh in tone, and some- 
times in words, but, at least on the Eastern part, it has strong 
marks of the southern dialect. 

Going north to Flint (detached), Denbigh, and Flint (main- 
land)^ we have strong marks of Midland influence, which 

o2 



188 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

altogether separates these districts from those just considered. 
But these districts form recognised parts of Wales. On the 
south of the projecting western part of Shropshire, we have 
a strip of Montgomeryshire, almost the whole of Radnorshire, 
and a strip of Brecknockshire, together with Monmouthshire 
already mentioned, which all speak English of a more recent 
character. 

Now, I have found it expedient to distinguish all this 
region linguistically as Cambrian, including those parts of 
both English and Welsh counties already named, and to 
divide them into three districts, the North Cambrian (or N.C.) 
to the north of Shropshire ; the Mid-Cambrian (or M.C.), in- 
cluding the south-western part of Shropshire and portion of 
Montgomeryshire ; and the South Cambrian (or S.C.), taking 
in the rest. The eastern boundary of the N.C. district is 
not well defined or at all accurately known, but it possibly 
lies on a line connecting AVhitchurch, Whixall, Wem, and 
Yorton, in Shropshire, following the Shrewsbury and Crew3 
Railway. Its southern boundary is that of sum and söám 
already described as far as Yorton; and the northern and 
north-eastern boundary, is that of Cheshire. The western 
or Welsh boundary, will be considered presently. From the 
M.C. district I exclude the parts west of Oswestry and Llan- 
y-mynech, and I make it extend, so far as my information at 
present serves, to a line drawn nearly due east and west 
just north of Bewdley, in Worcestershire, just north of 
Ludlow, and through Bromfield, in Shropshire, and then by 
the north boundary of Radnorshire. The western, or Welsh 
boundary, will be considered hereafter. The eastern boundary 
of the S.C. district is completely determined as a line from 
a little west of Ross to Much Cowarne, as already mentioned, 
which may extend northwards to about Bewdley, and it 
passes southwards by the border of Monmouthshire and the 
river Wye to the Bristol Channel. The western, or Welsh, 
boundary has to be considered hereafter. 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 189 

In considering the western or Welsh boundary of the 
Cambrian region, which, in fact, deKmitates the English and 
Welsh languages, and is the proper subject of this paper, it 
is necessary to determine what shall be considered an Eng- 
lish and what a Welsh-speaking place. Now I consider an 
English-speaking place to be one in which the uneducated, 
or, at least, merely the elementarily-educated population, 
speak with each other exclusively in English. Even English 
peasantry, in general, speak two languages, the 'broad' to 
one another, the 'fine* to superiors; but both are English, 
and they understand received English when the words are 
not too high-flown. There are many places in Wales where 
both languages are spoken, and even others, where the 
speakers do not understand Welsh without special instruction. 
But it is necessary to divide these places into at least two 
classes — those in which a more or less dialectal form of English 
is used, and those where ' book English', as I have explained 
the term, is spoken, that is, those in wliich English has been 
learned by instruction and not by communication,^ or is else 

^ Dr. Isambard Owen has furnished me with the following extract, 
which explains precisely what I mean by the above phrases. None of 
the children mentioned in it should be classed as English-speakers, 
although they may have become speakers of book- English — a very dif- 
ferent thing. The *^ Welsh lump'' mentioned at the end of the citation, 
is Mr. Powell's "Welsh Note", Y Cymmrodor^ vol. v, p. 28, line 2 from 
bottom, as Dr. Isambard Owen pointed out to me, and its use is a com- 
plete proof that the children were natural Welsh-speakers. The peculiar 
intonation or rising inflexion spoken of at the end of the extract, is a 
very trustworthy mark of a Welshman speaking English. It is some- 
times very pretty, — especially in a pretty girl, — but it is decidedly un- 
English at all times. The children of the boys mentioned in this extract 
may now be English-speakers, but they will most probably not be 
dialectal speakers. 

From A Second Walk through Wales, by the Rev, Richard Warner, of 
Bath, in August and September 1798. Second Edition. Bath, 1800. 
Pages 262, 263. "During our former, as well as present progress 
through Flintshire, we have had occasion to observe that English is very 
generally spoken by all classes of society ; in so much, as nearly to super- 



wo ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

spoken by the children, perhaps even the grandchildren, of 
those who have thus learned it. Then comes the more 
recent En<Tlish, where parents speak to each other in Welsh 
and to their children in English. These places I call semi- 
bilingiial. because, although the parents know two languages, 
the children may know only one. Should these be classed 
as English speakers ? Hardly in this generation, though in 
the next tliey will become so. Next we have a large class, 
comprising perhaps most Welshmen who have been at school 
at all, who prefer to talk Welsh, but who can talk English 
more or less perfectly. I can no more reckon these as English 
speakers, than I can call educated English people who can read, 
write, and speak French, French speakers. They are merely 
foreign speakers of English and French respectively. There 
is another test. In places of worship does the minister find 
it necessary or advisable to have regular or occasional 
Welsh services, for native inhabitants, excluding immigrants ? 
Of course there are services in Welsh and many other lan- 
guages in London, but these are entirely for immigrants, and 
London remains a perfectly English-speaking city. I cer- 

8ede the use of the national tongue. We were unable to account for 
this circumstance till to-day, when our landlady's Fprightly son ac- 
quainted us with the cause of it One great object of education, it 
seems, in the schools (both of boys and girls) of North Wales, is to give 
the children a perfect knowleige of the English tongue ; the masters 
not only having the exercises performed in this language, but obliging 
the children to converse in it also. In ofder to effect this^ some coercion 
is necessary, as the little Britons have a considerable aversion to the 
Saxon vocabulary ; if, therefore, in the colloquial intercourse of the 
scholars, one of them be detected in speaking a Welsh word, he is imme- 
diately degraded with the Welsh lump^ a large piece of lead fastened to a 
string, and suspended round the neck of the offender. This mark uf 
ignominy has had the desired effect; all the children of Flintshire speak 
English very well, and were it not for a little curl, or elevation of the 
voice, at the conclusion of the sentence (which has a pleasing effect), 
one should perceive no difference in this respect between the North 
Wallijins and the natives of England. '' 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 191 

tainly exclude those places which have one Welsh service a 
week from being English. But I have not received sufficient 
information here. I only inquired about services in South 
Wales, and only from beneficed clergymen, whereas it is the 
Nonconformists, who form the bulk of the artisan and labouring 
class, that would be most important in this respect. I hope 
that hereafter, with the help perhaps of this Society, a more 
accurate delimitation will be attempted, in which one of the 
chief elements should be, the preaching in Welsh in Noncom- 
formist chapels. If the minister finds that he can only 
reach the hearts of his congregation by addressing them in 
Welsh, then Welsh is their language, however much they 
may speak English. 

Now I will draw the line which seems to me to mark the 
present boundary of English and Welsh, so that you may 
have a general view of the state of the case, and I will after- 
wards furnish the details, with the authorities on which I 
rely. I draw the line from the north to south. 

iVestern or Welsh Boundary of Englitk, 

Flintshire, — The line commences between Flint and Con- 
nah's Quay, or New Quay, on the river Dee. It runs 
southwards, leaving Northop and Mold on the west, 
and Hope on the east. 

Denbighshire, — The line deflects slightly to the south-east, 
passing through Wrexham, to the east of Ruabon (Rhiw- 
abon) and west of Chirk. 

SJiropshire, — The line possibly continues through Oswestry 
and Llan-y-mynech. 

Montgomeryshire. — The line enters this county east of Ilan- 
santfTraid, and west of Llandysilio, and, taking an undu- 
lating south-westerly direction, passes west of Guilsfield 
and Welshpool, west of Berriew (Aber Rhiw), north of 
Tregynon, west of Penstrowel and Mochtre, and possibly 
east of Llanidloes. 



192 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

BadnoTshire, — The line runs almost directly south to the 
Wye, passing east of St. Harmon's and Rhayader Gwy 
(Rhaiadr Gwy), and follows the Wye, to within 2 or 
3 miles of Builth (Buallt), when it enters 
Brecknockshire, and passes in a south-easterly direction just 
west of Builth and east of Llangynog, and then, probably 
(but my information is here deficient), runs parallel 
to the Radnorshire border to Talgarth and the Black 
Forest, whence it turns southwards, and leaves Ilanfi- 
hangel-cwm-du on the west, and Crickhowel (Crug- 
hywel) on the east. 
Monmouthskire, — The line seems to enter this county east of 
Brynmawr, and probably follows the valley of the lesser 
Ebbw or Ebwy to its junction with the greater, and 
keeps east of the united Ebbw, west of Pontypool and 
east of Risca, but west of Newport, to the junction of 
the Ebbw and Usk rivers on the Bristol Channel. I 
understand that most of the Welsh speakers in Western 
Monmouthshire are immigrants and not natives. 
This completes the line from sea to sea, and it is suffi- 
ciently exact for my own purposes, but after it has been thus 
sketched out, it would be a holiday task for an English-speak- 
ing Welsh tourist to go from town to town, and by question- 
ing the Nonconformist ministers and intelligent people correct 
the line where in error. To determine it even to -this extent 
without actual perambulation, to which I could not give 
up sufficient time, I addressed a large number of letters to 
clergymen near to what I merely conjectured was the line, 
and inclosed a post card with 3 questions for North and 4 
for South Wales, issued subsequently. I am glad to say that 
in general I received most courteous replies, and from some 
writers, especially the rector of Montgomery, I obtained a 
great deal of valuable information. I do not think I can do 
better than first give the (questions, and then the several 



ENGUSH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 193 

answers I received, because I regard these as documents 
to be preserved, while what I have deduced from them is of 
course liable to a good deal of doubt, as the record was 
necessarily imperfect 

Qiiestions asked in North Wales, April 1879. 

1. Is Welsh or English generally spoken by the peasantry 
about [place addressed] to one another ? 

2. If Welsh, where is the nearest English speaking place 
to the east ? 

T 3. If English, does it resemble in pronunciation the 

English of [the neighbouring English county] ? Or is 

it simply book English ? 

Answers. 

Flintshire. 

Flint, from Eev. R Jenkins, vicar. " 1. Not in the town 
generally, but generally in some parts of the parish. 2. 
Connah*s Quay. 3; Book English in the town. The English 
of the district of Pentre is somewhat like that used in 
Cheshire, and Hawarden parish, in Flintshire." 

Northop (3 m. S. of Flint), from Eev. Thomas Williams, 
vicar. "I. English. 3. Book English. In a little hamlet 
at one 'extreme of the parish called Pcntremochy the 
dialect spoken is very like that spoken in Hawarden, wliich 
parish it joins."^ 

ffaivarden (6 m. KS.K of Flint), from Eev. Steplien 
R Gladstone, rector. " 1. Almost exclusively English. 3. 
I should say it was rather more Lancashire than Cheshire 
English. But it is rather peculiar, especially about Buckley 
[6 m. S.S.R of Flint], and Ewloe [5 m. KS.R of Flint].'' 

Mr. S. R Gladstone was good enough to have a translation 

^ It roust be to this western portion of Flintshire that the citation 
from Mr. Warner refere, in the foot-note on p. 189, which shows a 
true Welsh-speaking population. 



194 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

of my Dialect Test made for me by the schoolmaster, Mr. 
Spencer. It is chiefly in ordinary spelling, which should 
imply ordinary received pronunciation, but I notice the fol- 
lowing words : see say, Tmtes mates, gete gate, street straight, 
neeme name, these are all distinctly Cheshire, and not Lan- 
cashire pronunciation; the following are not decisive: red 
right, scv! school, rovd road, wey way, dooer door, deef deaf, 
ond old, agen again, aint isn't ; we know *im shews that the 
verbal plural in -n, common in Lancashire and Cheshire, is 
not employed ; I are for I am (which, if correct, is remarkable 
in this region), her*s she is, her'U she will, (the two last are 
common in the Midlands, where the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Jioo is not used for ' she'). The specimen wants further in- 
quiry, which it will receive, but these suffice to shew that 
Cheshire is the main source of the English, especially quite 
the South of Cheshire. 

Mold, from Eev. Roland Ellis, vicar. "1. Welsh and 
English, I should think in about equal proportions. 2. 
Buckley and Hawarden. 3. The English spoken in this 
neighbourhood is not at all like that of Cheshire, more like 
book English." 

Hope (5 m. S. K of Mold), from the Eev. J. Eowlands, 
vicar. "1. About one-third of Welsh. 2. All English to the 
east 3. The Cheshire dialect with sometimes a Welsh accent 
or twang." 

Hence I have drawn the line east of Flint, and Mold, 
whicli I consider bi-lingual, and I think that probably 
Northop with its book English, is so also. Pentre, the 
hamlet of Northop spoken of, lies east of this line. 

Denbighshire. 

Holt (5 m. N.K Wrexham), from Eev. Henry Wray, vicar. 
" 1. English entirely. 3. Cheshire." 

Mr. Edw. French, of Hull, a native of Farndon, Cheshire, 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 195 

which is only separated from Holt by the bridge over the 
Dee, writing to me in 1879, says: "The pronunciation of 
Famdon prevails along the southern border of the county [of 
Cheshire] and into the detached part of Flint,^ which latter 
is thoroughly English, although the old Welsh names of 
the farms and villages stül remain. I feel that I cannot guard 
you too strongly against thinking that the pronunciation of 
Famdon and the adjacent district is in the slightest degree 
afifected by the adjoining Denbighshire district. The exact 
opposite is the case, for the Cheshire pronunciation penetrates 
several miles into Denbighshire; and yet, immediately the 
Dee is crossed, the fields, farms, etc., are found to have the 
ancient Welsh names still unchanged. I have paid particu- 
lar attention to this point, and when living for several years 
in the bi-lingual district on the west side of Wrexham — 
eight miles from Famdon — I could always detect a Farndon, 
Holt, or south Cheshire man immediately he opened his 
mouth. The first effect that the Welsh influence has on 
English is to destroy all provincial pronunciation. It always 
seemed to me that the English work-people in the bi-Hngual 
districts of Wales shrink from contracting a Welsh pronunci- 
ation. The complete absence of Welsh influence on the 
southern Cheshire border seems to me marvellous." 

Wrexham, from Eev. D. Howell, vicar. " 1. English ex- 
clusively to the east ; Welsh and English mixed to the west 
of Wrexham, for about 3 miles; then Welsh exclusively. 
2. The town of Wrexham practically divides the two. 3. 
About Wrexham the English is *book English', but east- 
ward it becomes more like Cheshire and Shropshire." 

^ The pronunciation ivhich I have received from this detached part 
of Flint differs considerably from that given me by Mr. French from 
Farndon, but it evidently requires further investigation, and hence I do 
not give it here. 



196 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

Ruction (5 m. S.W. of Wrexham), from Bev. M. Edwards, 
vicar. " 1. Both. 3. Not provincial." 

Chirk (9 m. S.S.W. Wrexham), from Bev. T. H. Lompson, 
vicar. " 1. English in Chirk, Welsh upon the western border, 
i.e, in the parish of Llangollen. 3. We join the county of 
Salop, and there is no difference in the pronunciation and 
phraseology." 

Shropshire. 

Oswestry. The Bev. F. W. Parker, rector of Montgomery, 
writes, " The Shropshire town of Oswestry is said to have more 
Welsh than either Newtown or Welshpool [see Montgomery- 
shire]. I dare say in many of the Shropshire parishes you 
would find some Welsh, they are inclined to migrate." I 
have been also told, but I cannot recover the authority, that 
several shops in Oswestry are obliged in consequence to keep 
Welsh-speaking assistants. 

Llan-y-mynech, from Bev. W. E. Price, rector. " 1. English. 
3. I think it better than Shropshire English generally, and 
more like Montgomeryshire English, and which has been 
mostly learned from educated people and is hence purer." 

From this information I have made the line to nm through 
Oswestry and Llan-y-mynech, which forms a good junction to 
the lines through Denbighshire and Montgomeryshire. 

Montgomeryshire. 

Llandrinio (8 m. N.N.E. of Welshpool), from Bev. Edward 
B. Smith, rector. " 1. English entirely. 3. It is generally 
good English with little provincialism, and I trace several 
quaint (old English ?) expressions." 

GuUsfield (2 m. N. of Welshpool), from Bev. D. Phillips 
Lewis, vicar. 1. "Both Welsh and English. By far the 
greater number speak English. 3. It resembles the English 
of Shropshire but with local peculiarities." 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 197 

Bidtingtcni (2 m. N.K of Welshpool), from Rev. J. Lewis, 
vicar. " 1. English. 2. Good English, but Welsh accent is 
common; nothing of Shropshire English along the Severn 
valley." 

At the suggestion of the Rector of Montgomery, who 
thought the last answer inaccurate, I wrote again to Rev. 
D. P. Lewis, vicar of Guilsfield, who had been formerly 
vicar of Buttington, and he replied 4th April 1879, "The 
information about Buttington surprises me. When 1 left that 
parish in 1863, it was to all intents a Shropshire parish. 
The workmen coming and going in that most especially 
Saxon district, between Severn and Church Stretton [Shropshire, 
12 m. S.S.W. of Shrewsbury], where you may hear of ' housen, 
mousen and treesen'* and even the termination of -en of the 
third person plural is not unknown, as / went, they loentev, 
[regular in Shropshire]. No doubt local dialects are weak- 
ening before National and British Schools. But as any one 
with an ear for dialects would detect Cheshire in the Vale 
of Qlwyd [from Ruthin, Denbighshire, to Rhyl, Flintshire, 
far west of the boundary line I have drawn through those 
counties], so would he perceive Shropshire in east Montgom- 
eryshire. It used to be said that three languages were 
spoken in Flintshire, English, Welsh, and Buckley Moimtain, 
which was in fact a very rough Cheshire, mixed with Welsh, 
but Cheshire was the foundation." 

^ The plurals of the Anglo-Saxon words hús^ mÚ9, treoto are hús^ mýs^ 
treowu, hence housen^ mousen, treesen are not Saxon forms. Miss 
Jackson admits the first, but not the two last, in her glossary. In 
treesen ^= trees-en we have a double plural, as in the usual child-r-en. 
This -en termination is, however, early English ; and numerous exam- 
ples are collected by Dr. Morris in the Grammatical Introduction to his 
edition of Dan MicheFs Ayenhite of Imvyt, pp. xi-xxv ; but they do not 
include housen (now so common in English dialects), mousen (which I 
never heard of before, indeed even mouses is rare, though meece is occa- 
sionally heard), nor treesen^ but only tren^ treon. 



198 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

On further communicating with Rev. J. Lewis, he said, 
" I have certainly observed this use [of the verbal plural in 
-eri] in this neighbourhood more than in Shropshire. I lived 
eleven years in Shrewsbury, where, however, such peculiarities 
may not be as common as among the country people," In 
county towns the language is always refined. 

Welshpool, from Rev. J. S. Hill, vicar. "1. English. 3. 
It is good English. There are Shropshire provincialisms in 
words and idioms, but the pronunciation is particularly pure." 

Forden (3 m. N. of Montgomery), from Rev. John E. Vise, 
vicar. " 1. Not one word of Welsh. 3. It is Shropshire, 
which county is the edge of my parish." 

Berriew (? Aber Rhiw) (3 m. N.W. of Montgomery), from 
Rev. Joseph Baines, vicar. " 1. English. 3. Book English, 
i.e,y it has not anything approaching dialect or any cor- 
ruption." 

Snead (5 m. S.E of Montgomery) from Rev. G. 0. Pardee, 
rector. " 1. English entirely. 3. Tlie English of Shropshira" 

Kerry (2 m. S.E of Newtown), from Rev. W. Morgan, B.D., 
vicar. " 1. English exclusively. 3. Book English." 

Montgomery, from Rev. F. W. Parker, rector. " 1. English 
entirely. No Welsh-speaking parishes south of the Severn 
[this does not refer to the parts of the Severn valley west 
of Llanidloes]. 2. Welsh language gradually, steadily, re- 
ceding. 3. Certainly in a great measure resembling Shrop- 
shire in pronunciation, though not in all respects. Many 
Shropshire words in use. Manner of speaking good. Names 
of places Welsh." 

Mr. Parker also sent me two long letters on 3rd and 7th 
April 1879, from which I will make some extracts, and give 
an arrangement of the lists of places which he furnished. 
"Though an Englishman myself", he says, "I have been 
living in tliis district for upwards of 30 years, first as curate 
of Welshpool, secondly, as vicar of Mochtre or Moughtrcy 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 199 

near [3 m. S.W. of] Newtown, and now as Rector of Mont- 
gomery. Having thus been living in different parts of this 
district, I ought to have a tolerably accurate knowledge of 
the Severn Valley from Llanidloes [11 m. S.W. of Newtown] to 
the Breidden Hill [Craig-ap-Wridden, 5 m. N.E. of Welshpool, 
on the borders of Shropshire and Montgomeryshire]. No 
doubt there was a time when the Welsh language was spoken 
in all these parishes, and the names of places, houses, etc., still 
survive, but English has gradually taken the place of Welsh, 
and is gradually encroaching upon it Were it not that there 
is a constant migration of Welsh-speaking people from the hill 
country to the north into the more fertUe valley lands, tlie 
Welsh language would have died out much faster. In most of 
these border parishes there are to be found a certain number of 
people of Welsh extraction, who have come down and taken 
farms or cottages and still retain their knowledge of Welsh, 
but their children in many cases have no knowledge of 
the language. Naturally there is a certain amount of Welsh 
accent in many of these people who are emerging from 
Welsh, and with it an admixture of Shropshire twang, but 
as compared with most parts of the country, the lower orders 
speak very good English. I should say tliis remark applies 
to all the border land between Montgomeryshire and Shrop- 
shire. Tliis parish, though the old capital of the county, 
quite belongs to England, and before the days of railways 
there was a good deal of direct intercourse with Shrewsbury, 
through Cherbury, which is in Shropshire [14 m. S.W. of 
Shrewsbury]. In all this Severn VaUey district, the English 
is better than you find in most places, and the pronunciation 
remarkably good. To get purely book English you must go 
.... to places where Welsh is the language of the fireside 
and play ground."^ 

* See the extract from Mr. Wanier, foot-note, p. 189. 



200 



ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 



The following is a classified arrangement of the list of 
towns and places, furnished me in Mr. Parker's first letter. 



Welshpool. 

Criggion, 

Buttington, 

Trelyston, 

Montgomery. 

Forden, 

Llandyssii, 

Church Stoke, 

Snead, 

Llanmerewig, 

Newtown. 

Kerry, 

Penstrowel, 



ThoroiLgidy English. 

7 m. N.N.E. of Welshpool. 
2nLN.K 



3 m. S.K 

3 m. N. 

2 m. S. 

3 mu E.S.E. 
5 m. S.E. 

5 m. S.W. 



j> 



if 



n 



a 



of Montgomery. 



ii 



fi 



yi 



» 



11 



11 



11 



If 



2 m. S.E. of Newtown. 
2 m. W. 

Mochtre or Moughtre, 3 m. S.W. 

iVo JVelsh scTidces, hut probably Book English, 



11 



ti 



It 



11 



Llandisilio, 

llandrinio, 

Guilsfield, 

Tregynon, 

Bettws, 

Berriew,* 

Aberhavesp 

Uanllwchaiarn, 



11 



11 



7 m. N. of Welshpool. 

8 m. N.N.K 

2 m. N. „ 
8 m. W.N.W. of Montgomery. 
6 m. W. 

3 m. N.W. 

2 m. W. of Newtown. 
Im. N. 



11 



11 



11 



It 



n 



* " Berriew is a large parish and runs up into the hill 
country, and some parts of it bordering on Manafon and 
Castell Caer Einion [see next list] would have an affinity to 
the Welsh, a good deal of Welsh accent; and possibly in this 
parish many children of Welsh parents may have learned 
their English from books or mixing with the children at the 
school, and tliis process may have been going on for many 



n 9t 

)l Montj 

91 II 

*9 99 

99 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 201 

years. This parish would have less in common with 
Shropshire than most enumerated by me." (Mr. Parker's 
remark.) 

BUingiial wUh more or less strong admixture of Welsh, 

♦Llansantfifraid, 8 m. N, of Welshpool. 

Meifod, 6 m. N.W. „ 
♦Castell Caer Einion, 4 m. W.S.W. 

Llanllwgan, 11m. W.N. W. of Montgomery, 

♦Manafon, 8 m. N.W. 

Llanwyddelan, 9 m. W.N.W. 

Llanidloes, 11 m. S.W. of Newtown. 

liandinam, 6 m. W.S.W. 

♦ "Probably in the next generation the three places 
marked * will be classed as EnglisL" (Mr. Parker's remark.) 

ThorougMy Welsh, 

lianfyUin, 9 m. N.W. of Welshpool 
Uanfair, 8 m. W. „ „ 

and places further west. 

Qiiestioiis asked in South Wales, Oct. 1880. 

1. Is Welsh or English generally spoken by the peasantry 
of [the place addressed] to one another ? 

2. If Welsh, where is the nearest English speaking place, 
East or West. 

3. If English, where is the nearest Welsh speaking place? 
and is it book English, or like Hereford and Gloucester? 

4 If mixed, how often have you Welsh Services or 
Sermons ? 

Radnorshire. 

Llanddewi Ystradenney (11 m. W.S.W. of Knighton), 
from Rev. L. A. Smith, vicar. " 1. English. 3. In Brecon- 
shire, Welsh is heard in the district of St. Harmon's [18 m. 
W. of Knighton] and at Rliayader [20 m. W.S.W. Knighton], 

VOL. v. P 



« • 



202 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

Builth [see Brecknockshire], and Newtown [see Montgomery- 
shire], not nearer. The English is poor and scanty, and of 
the mongrel order. 4 None/' 

New Hadnor (7 m. S.W. of Presteign), from Rev. John 
Gillam, rector. *' 1. English entirely. 3. As a rule the river 
Wye divides the two languages between Badnorshire and 
Breconshire ; in the latter county Welsh is understood and 
generally spoken by the peasantry. The only parish in 
Radnorshire where Welsh is understood and spoken is in 
Cwmtoydwr [or Cwm-y-ddau-ddwr, adjoining Rhayader-gwy 
at the spot where the Elan joins the Wye], which adjoins 
Breconshire, Cardiganshire, and Montgomeryshire. In this 
parish many of the young people (I am told), having learned 
English in the National School, speak English more correctly 
than is usual/' 

Bovyhrood (18 m. S.W. Presteign, in the extreme S. of the 
county) from the Rev. Henry de Winton, vicar of Boughrood, 
and Archdeacon of Brecon. " I. English only. 3. No Welsh 
is spoken in Radnorshire now by natives to the left or east 
bank of the Wye. The English language occupies the 
ground up to the river Wye, which is, in fact, the boundary 
of the languages from Boughrood upwards (t.e. northwards). 
Directly you cross that river into Breconshire (above Bough- 
rood) you enter a Welsh speaking district The English 
spoken being an acquired language, is more free from pro- 
vincialisms and purer than that of the neighbouring English 
counties. It has occurred to me to add that above the 
junction with the river Elan, that river and not the Wye 
separates Radnorshire from Breconshire. In the district be- 
tween the two rivers, which is called Cwm-dau-ddwr^ 

^ [Rather ** Cwmmwd Denddwr^', or, according to colloquial pronon- 
ciation, *' Cwmmwd Donddwr", the commote of the two waters, the t 
arÌBÌng from the combination of the two </& It is a principle of cynghan- 
edd tliat two sonants coming together may answer a stud, as in " £u 
ira hynod ífírionwch", where T-r-n are answered by D,D-r-n.— Ed. Y. C] 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 203 

(pariah), or ' the valley of the two waters', Welsh is spoken. 
It is possible that Welsh is still spoken on the eastern side of 
the Wye in the extreme north-west corner of Badnorshira 
The vicar of St Harmon's would give information upon that 
point" I wrote to him, but by some accident received no 
reply.* 

Brecknockshire. 

BuiÜh (13 m. N. of Brecon), from Eev. Alfred J. Coore, 
vicar. " 1. Eadnorshire is entirely English. A little Welsh 
is spoken in the neighbourhood of Builth, in Breconshire 
(Llanddewi'r Cwm). 3. Beyond Llanddewi'r Cwm parish, 
which extends 3 miles S. and S.E. of Builth, you come into 
bilingual parishes at Gwenddwr and Uangynog [3 and 5 m. 
S. of Builth], The Welsh speaking people of Llanddewi'r 
Cwm are those who have come from this district. There is 
an old Welsh Bible in the Church, but it does not seem to 
have been used within the recollection of any living person. 
The English is pure." 

* Note, by Mr. Uowd W. Lloyd, M. A. " Some forty years ago it was 
said that Welsh was still spoken in parts of Radnorshire, and that the 
existence of localities in which English was spoken was accounted for 
by the settlement there, by Oliver Cromwell, of the families of some of 
the soldiers who had fought in the Civil War on the side of the Parlia- 
ment against the King. The Welsh and English districts were said to 
be much intermixed, so that the two languages had continued to hold 
their ground distinctively in places contiguous to each other, neither 
tongue having, in the course of nearly two centuries, effected the 
slightest progress towards the extermination, or even the amalgamation, 
of the other with itself. This may, perhaps, partly have been caused 
by the antipathy between the two races, partly by the habit^ prevalent 
in mountainous districts, of their inhabitants to stir but seldom beyond 
the boundaries of their own villages. Should such have really been the 
fact, the local conditions must have been altered marvellously in the space 
of forty years, so as to produce a change in the correlation of the two 
languages, towards which little or no advance had been made during 
the two hundred years which had elapsed from the settlement of Oliver 
Cromwell." 

p2 



204 ON THE DELIMITATION OF THE 

Brecon, from Eev. D. Griffith for the vicar. "1. Mixed. 
Old people (peasants) speak Welsh. Younger ones English. 

2. In Breconshire it would be difficult to say where the 
Welsh ended and English began. There is less Welsh to 
the East of Brecon than to the West. 3. Our English is 
not book English, but it has not many provincialisms. 
4. One Welsh service on Sunday evenings. All others are 
English." 

CHckhowel (12 m. E.S.E. of Brecon), from Rev. B. Somerset, 
rector. "1. In Crickhowel itself English is generally spoken. 
In the Welsh parishes about it, Welsh by the peasantry 
among themselves, English to their children — and cattle. 

3. The nearest Welsh speaking place is [Ilanfihangel] Cwm- 
du, 3 miles [north] west. The English much more approaches 
book English than that of Hereford or Gloucester. 4. Welsh 
services would be unintelligible to three-quarters of my con- 
gregation and I never have them." 

The English spoken in Brecknockshire, and even by 
speakers of English in Brecon, has some marked Southern 
features, as I have been informed by Mr. R Stead, now head 
master of Folkestone Grammar School, Kent, but for more 
than six years one of the masters at Christ's College, Brecon. 
Words like load, road, with Anglo-Saxon long a, are " frac- 
tured", that is broken into two very short sounds, the first 
resembling the u in fi^ll and the second a in idea. In 
Southern speech the u is usually a little longer. Words 
like tale, lame, which had a short Anglo-Saxon a ending a 
syllable, and others like tail, mail, which have ieg in Anglo- 
Saxon, have also fractured vowels, the first element being 
a very short a, as in chaotic, shorter than in chaos, but bear- 
ing the accent, and the second as before a in idea. The 
diphthongs i, ow, in ice, wire ; now, cow have their first ele- 
ment the same as o in work and the second is t of bill and 
u of bwU. This gives a peculiar character to the sounds. 



ENGUSH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 205 

which I have heard with the first element much lengthened, 
from the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, but with first 
element short, as here, it is common to aU the neighbouring 
Southern dialects. The reverted r, of which I have spoken 
above (p. 182) as a strong mark of Southern speech, is quite 
common on the Herefordshire border, and Mr. Stead thinks he 
detected decided cases of this peculiarity in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Brecon, a bUingual district, while to the 
west and south west of the town, as in Llandovery, Carmar- 
thenshire (24 m. N.£. of Carmarthen), it seems to all but die 
out. 

Glamorganshire. 

Merthyr-Tydml, from Rev. John Griffith, rector. " 1. Welsh 
principally, but there is English intermixed. It is difficult 
to answer your questions, as they do not apply to a district 
like this. 2. Welsh and English all round, even to Ponty- 
pool and Newport, Monmouthshire. Most, or a very large 
portion, speak both languages. You will find it very diffi- 
cult to trace a boundary in towns. The English is peculiarly 
'Welsh English', neither like Hereford nor Gloucester, in 
fact English in a Welsh idiom. 4 We have special churches 
for English and Welsh." 

LlarUrissant (10 m. N.W. of CardifiQ, from Eev. J. Powell 
Jones, vicar. " 1. Welsh is generally spoken by the natives, 
but on account of the large influx of English people, English is 
much spoken in the town and its vicinity. 2. Welsh is 
spoken by the natives in all the parishes surrounding Llau- 
trissant Parish. 3. I can name no particular place within 
many miles of this place, where the natives speak English ; 
but English is gaining ground among the natives tlu-ough 
contact with English residents. Welsh children mixing with 
English chUdren talk English. 4. Five services on Sunday 
in all the Parish schoolrooms as well as the Church." 



206 on the delimitation of the 

Monmouthshire. 

Pontypool (8 m. N.N.W. of Newport), from Eev. John C. 
Uewellin, vicar. "1. English. 3. Brynmawr [Brecknock- 
shire, 14 m. S.E. of Brecon] or Ebbw Vale. like Hereford, 
although Monmouth has a kind of dialect. 4. No Welsh 
services." 

Caerlean in Llangattock Parish (3 m. N.E. of Newport), from 
Rev. H. Powell Edwards, vicar. "1. English only. 3. No 
Welsh spoken to the Chepstow and Hereford sides of Caerleon, 
and none within some miles on the other side. Book English, 
by which I take you to mean English spoken by well-edu- 
cated people, and not corrupted by long use among the 
vulgar, and in this sense I use it. In Monmouth and Wales 
the language has been acquired from superiors, and has not 
been debased to any great extent. 4. None ever for the 
last 25 years. The youngest Welsh speaking native of 
Caerleon is above fifty years of age." 

Such is the histoiy, so far as I can tell it^ of the modem 
incursion of English into Wales. It is no longer a case of 
fire and sword, or of expulsion if not destruction, and it is no 
longer a case of conquest where the natives are forced to 
learn the hated idiom. It is purely a voluntaiy assumption 
of a new language. And the motives are not far to seek. 
The English language opens up wide fields of employment, 
from which the little known Welsh language shuts out a 
candidate. There is, in fact, more chance of earning money 
by the English than by the purely Welsh speaker. Then 
there is the enormous advantage of English literature over 
Welsh, I don't mean in poetry, essays and fiction, but in 
eveiy branch of knowledge, in histoiy, in arts, and manu- 
factures, in commerce, as well as in philosophy and science.^ 

^ All this is Tery clearly and forcibly put in the Kev. D. J. Davie&'s 



ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 207 

Perhaps in poetry, also, even a determined stickler for 
bardic supremacy might allow that English has some names 
to show which are worthy of attention. In fact, if a young 
man would "rise", he must learn English, and he does so; 
and however much he may love the reminiscence of his 
native Welsh, and it is linguistically well worth a reminis- 
cence, in a generation or two it slips out of his family. His 
very children are not taught it, as we have seen from several 
of the above answers. And thus Wekh is evidently destined 
to become a dead language, and the boundary between the 
English and Welsh languages will reach St. George's Channel 
at some future day. But with these speculations I have no- 
thing to do. My duty has been merely to trace as accurate a 
line as I could, where purely English native speech ceases, 
and bilingual speech commences. There is very little of real 
mixture ; but naturally Welshmen use Welsh idioms at times 
and even Welsh words.^ Their children do not, and the 
transition is complete. There is a considerable space west- 
ward of the line I have drawn where bilingual speech pre- 
vails. In all this modem region, and in some Of the old, 
the English is literary, the artificial product of books and 
schools. In the oldest form, as in Shropshire and Hereford- 
shire, Welsh-English is dialectal, and this extends to those 
few Wekh places that have learned English by contact with 
natives. But we see that, at least in what I have termed 
the Middle and Southern Cambrian English, two forms, an 
eastern and a western, must be distinguished as dialectal, 
and a third or literary form as English without being dialec- 
tal; and this third form may be perhaps subdivided into 
inchoate and complete English. But it is clearly impossi- 

article '^On the Neceaeity of Teachiog Englifih through the Medium of 
Welah", at the beginning of vol. v of 7 Cymmrodor, 

^ Of course I leave out of consideration the numerous English words, 
which, as their sounds show, have existed in colloquial (as distinguished 
from literary) Welsh for hundreds of years. 



208 THE ENGLISH AND WELSH LANGUAGES. 

ble to draw boundaries which should mark off these divi- 
sions ; they would, in fact, descend to the classification of 
individuals. And the population is not stationary, there 
being much immigration both from the east and the west. 

In conclusion, I would only express a hope that the 
Cymmrodorion Society may take up this subject, and con- 
duct it to a better and more perfect result than I have been, 
or ever shall be, able to do. Such points as the following 
admit of accurate determination: 1. Names of all places 
where no inhabitant can speak Welsh. 2. Where every 
inhabitant can speak English. 3. Where every inhabi- 
tant can speak Welsh. 4. Where every inhabitant 
can speak both Welsh and English. 5. Where no Welsh 
services are held in churches or chapels. 6. Where no 
English services are held. 7. Where the services are in 
both languages, and in different ratios. 8. Where English 
is exclusively the language by which instruction is given in 
schools.* 9. Where Welsh is the exclusive language of in- 
struction, distinguishing those in which (a) English is taught, 
and (6) where it is not taught, and (c) where Welsh is 
used for teaching the younger and English for teach- 
ing the elder. There is such a marked and decisive 
diflTerence between the two languages, that it would be 
comparatively easy to obtain these results by a series of 
returns, but it is obviously impossible for a private indi- 
vidual to undertake the task in its entirety. What I have 
endeavoured to do in this paper, is to show you how far I have 
succeeded in obtaining returns by my own importunity and 
the great politeness of those I addressed, to whom I feel 
sure that you, as well as myself, will feel grateful for the 
information they have so kindly furnished. 

^ After reading the excellent article by the Key. D. J. Davies, referred 
to on p. 38*, note, I fear that this test may be very fallacious, unless it 
is accompanied by an enumeration of those who habitually speak Welsh 
to one another in the playground, and at home to their parents. 



209 



THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 

(An Address by Professor W. BOYD DAWKINS, M.A., F.R.S., 

at the Societifs Meeting on June 7M, 1882, Mr. Charles 

Williams Wynne in the Chair,) 



Professob Boyd Dawkins said : Mr. President, it seems to 
me not foreign to a Society such as this, that I should put 
before you a few general considerations relating to the 
ethnology of ancient Wales, that is to say, the eth- 
nology of Wales before history began in this country. 

We all know that at the present day the claims of race are 
coming more and more to the front, and we all know, too, 
that in this island, the most ancient as well as the most 
honourable race is that which is called by the English the 
Welsh. Not merely will our inquiry lead us to the examina- 
tion of our ancestry ; but it will also lead us far afield from 
the Wales of to-day into the important question of the 
introduction of civilisation into Europe during the Prehis- 
toric Period. We will begin at home. 

In 1869 Mrs. Williams Wynn was good enough to tell me 
of the discovery of a series of skeletons in a cairn which 
existed on her estate at Cefn, St Asaph, which we subse- 
quently found to have been formed in this manner. [Here 
Professor Boyd Dawkins illustrated his remarks by means of 
the diagrams with which he was abundantly provided.] First 
of all there was a rude cairn of stones, and when these stones 
had been removed — partially by the plough and partially by 
the workmen whom Mrs. Wjnan put at our disposal — we 
found that there was a large stone chamber, roofed with slabs 
of stone put roughly on, overlapping one another, and form- 
ing a sepulchral chamber with a stone passage leading into it, 



210 THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 

full of human bones. When I came to examine the remains, 
I found among them a few flint flakes, and also the bones of 
domestic animals. The folk who left these reh'cs in that 
place were possessed of the small Welsh cattle ; the Welsh 
goat was then in Wales, and also the dog and the domestic 
horse. The pig, which plays such an important part in our 
civilisation, was also present. So you see the people who 
raised that cairn were in the agricultural phase of civilisa- 
tion, and possessed of domestic animals.^ 

I must now ask your attention to another part of North 
Wales. In 1869 Mrs. Lloyd of Rhagatt, sent to Mr. Charles 
Darwin a box of bones of domestic and wild animals, obtained 
from Perthi Chwareu, about ten miles east of Corwen, and a 
mile to the west of the little village of Uandegla, Denbigh- 
shire, and invited me to examine the place. The bones were 
derived from the stump of an old refuse-heap. The 
refuse-heap had been washed away by the action of the 
rains in unnumbered centuries, leaving only a few bones 
washed into the interstices of the rock. While we were 
engaged on this, it struck me that there ought to be sepulchral 
caves in the limestone ridges close by. In the course of a 
few minutes we discovered one, and on subsequent explora- 
tion four others in the neighbourhood And now comes the 
interest of the discovery. You see the cavern [of which 
a vertical section was shown] has been blocked up by 
a barrier of stones. Inside the barrier we found human 
skeletons arranged or crowded, I may say, close together. 
They were associated with the remains of the same domestic 
animals as those of the refuse-heap, and of the tumulus 
at Cefn, with rude pottery and a few flint splinters. In 
one, a polished stone axe, and a fragment of a second, 
indicated that these burial-places belonged to the age 

1 For an account of these discoverieSy see my work on Cavt'Ilunting^ 
p. 161. 



THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 211 

of polished stone, or the neolithic age. But the most in- 
teresting fact of all was this. The human bones which we 
found in these two places, belong to people of the same 
physique. They were a small people with long skulls, small 
cheek-bones, and prominent noses. In one cave a group of 
these skulls had belonged to a family remarkable for their 
nez retroussés} These explorations at Perthi Chwareu, and at 
Cefn, prove the important fact that the numerous skulls 
belong to the same type, and that their owners were men 
of small stature, averaging about 5 feet 4 inches. 

Now I must ask your attention to the fact that chambered 
tombs of the kind which you see in the diagram, have been 
found over the greater part of Wales, and if we examine 
similar tombs in England and Scotland, we shall find in 
them the remains of the same people, remarkable for 
their small size, for their long heads, and for possessing 
domestic animals. Nor is our survey ended with Great 
Britain. We find them equally over the whole of Ireland 
in chambered tombs of that kind, and also here and there in 
sepulchral caves. The population, therefore, must have been 
uniform over all these islands. 

The first thing to be noted is that we have very decided 
evidence that the civilisation of these people, in this country, 
was by no means low. I have already mentioned the evi- 
dence of domestic animals in Wales. A discovery in one 
of the ancient dwellings of these men, near Salisbury, has 
established the fact that they were acquainted with wheat. 
Moreover, they were possessed of the arts of spinning and 
weaving. In a great number of cases we find the spindle 
whorls — ^little discs which have been used for spinning the 
thread — in tombs and in habitations, which were rude huts 
sunk in the soil We also meet with the combs — looking 

^ The details of these explorations ivill be found in my work on Cave- 
Hunting^ chap. v. 



212 THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 

almost like small curry-combs — which were used, not for 
combing the hair, but for pushing the warp on to the woot 
It is clear, then, that these people were spinners and weavers. 
They were also minera One of the most important mate- 
rials which they used for making their polished stone axes is 
flint, and in many places in this country pits have been 
discovered which were sunk by these people for the 
sake of the flint. I might mention Cisbury as an illus- 
tration. In the case of Cisbury, the pits were some of 
them as deep as eighty feet The surface around them 
is covered with vast accumulations of broken and chipped 
implements — implements broken in the manufacture and 
tossed aside as useless by the makers. We were able 
sometimes to fix the very spots where the men sat and 
chipped their axes ; and in three cases I was able to find the 
halves of an implement which had been broken and cast 
on one side by the maker, because it had broken under his 
hand. 

We are not considering the presence in Wales of a race of 
no importance in the world. We are face to face with the 
people who were the introducers of civilisation into Britain, 
and the foimders of the civilisation which we ourselves 
enjoy. Even in that remote neolithic time, long before the 
knowledge of metals, they were acquainted with spin- 
ning and weaving ; they were acquainted with mining ; they 
were farmers and gardeners; and the domestic animals which 
they introduced are still here, just as those arts which they 
introduced are still flourishing in this country. 

These men also were well acquainted with the arts of war. 
AU of us, I am sure, must be very familiar with the camps, 
which are so widely distributed. In Wales there is 
scarcely any hill overlooking a fertile tract of valley bottom, 
on wliich you will not find traces of some rude earthwork, 
which formed the fortified village, or " pah", into which the 



THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 213 

people retreated when there was war in the land From the 
number of these old fortifications, we may gather the very 
interesting social fact that their owners were divided up into 
small, warring communities, something like those which 
Mr. Stanley has made us familiar with in his expeditions 
down the Congo. 

Nor were these men devoid of religious ideas. In many 
burial places stone axes have been placed along with the 
dead, as it seems to me, for use in a future world. 
Sir John Lubbock thinks not His argument runs some- 
what in this way. Because we do not find in some of the 
tumuli implements along with the human remains, there- 
fore in all probabüity the things which we do find in 
tumuli were not put there for any superstitious reason, 
but are touching evidences of affection for the dead. I 
must confess that the facts strike me in a totally different 
way. I should be inclined to believe that the absence 
of implements in some of the large tumuli belonging to 
the neolithic age, may be accounted for in a different 
way. I should be inclined to think that in all proba- 
bility, in these times, just as long afterwards, the great 
chief in his lifetime prepared his last resting place, so that 
the size of that resting pl£kce, as in the case of the Egyptian 
pyramids, would depend on the estimation in which he held 
himself, and the length of his reign. In some cases, after 
death, it is quite likely his friends would not feel inclined to 
sacrifice very much to his memory. The size of the tumulus 
I should attribute to the estimation of the man in his life- 
time ; the absence of implements, to the estimation his friends 
put upon him after death. 

But I am wandering from my subject. I must ask your 
attention very briefly to remains of this kind which are to be 
found on the continent, confining my survey to the regions 
west of the Bhine and north of the Alps. I make this limit- 



214 THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 

ation because, although I have studied these people in Italy 
and Gennany, I am not sufficiently conversant with the 
ethnological facts of these countries to allow me to speak with 
the same degree of certainty as I can of Gaul and Spain. All 
over Gaul, all over Spain, and I may say over Belgium and 
Switzerland also, we find traces of these ancient people. The 
civilisation which I have attempted to sketch out to you is a 
civilisation which spread over the whole of that area. 
What it was is brought visibly before us by the remains 
which have been fished up from the bottoms of the Swiss 
lakes — ^remains of huts built upon wooden platforms, sup- 
ported upon wooden piles, which did the duty of the 
camps which we see on the Welsh hills. From time to 
time the fate which inevitably awaits libraries fell upon 
these habitations. They were burned, probably by acci- 
dent, perhaps sometimes on purpose — ^and after each burn- 
ing the remains dropped bodily down to the bottom of the 
lake. Consequently we have the position of each hut 
most accurately made out, and their contents most perfectly 
preserved. Their owners were in the habit of growing wheat 
and barley of various kinds. They were also in the habit of 
growing millet. They grew flax, and they used linseed-meal. 
They were also people who possessed gardens, and we find the 
plums, and apples, and pears which they stored up for winter 
use, sometimes cut into halves and quarters, and preserved to a 
great extent by having been burned. Of cattle, using the 
the term in its widest sense, there are found sheep and goats, 
particularly the short-homed, small Welsh oxen, and a larger 
breed of oxen, which in this country are more particularly 
identified with the English invasion.^ 

^ I ought to mention, that till the Engliáh inyaded this country and 
drove the Welsh to the regions in which they are found now, the small 
Welsh shorthorns were the only cattle in the country. When the English 
came over, they brought their great Schleswig-Holstein cattle along with 



THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 215 

Now comes the question which is more particularly im- 
portant to us. Who were these people ? The examination of 
their remains has pointed out that they were a small race 
possessed of long heads and with delicate aquiline features. 
Their faces were oval, and the lower part of their faces was 
totally devoid of that massive character which is very 
generally to be noted in the lower portion of the faces of 
most of the Cymry of the present time. These charac- 
teristics are met with in human skulls found in the whole 
of the British Isles and the continent west of the Bhine, 
and we may therefore conclude that the population was un- 
doubtedly uniform over the whole of this area. Can we 
identify them with any race of the present time ? In answer- 
ing that question I simply have to enter upon the labours of 
Drs. Broca, Virchow, Professor Huxley, and a great many 
other explorers. The result of their enquiries is, that this 
small race of people who inhabited Europe in the neolithic 
age, the introducers of the neolithic civilisation, the most 
ancient people in the present population, are represented by 
the Basques. When I use the term Basque, I am using 
it only as applicable to the small dark Basque-speak- 
ing people whom we find in the western portion of the 
Pyrenees, — I am using it ethnologically not philologically — 
excluding the tall fair-haired Goths, who strayed into these 
parts long afterwards and now speak the Basque tongue. 

Thus we are landed in this important conclusion : that 
the introducers of the neolithic civilisation are represented 
at the present time, among the European populations, by 
the Basque-speaking people on the French and Spanish sides 
of the Pyreneea The next point is. Who were the Basques? 
They are (using the term still ethnologically and not includ- 

them. Only the other day, I had the pleasure of examiniDg the large 
akull of a bull, which had been found in the burial-place of an English 
chief near Bury St. Edmund*B. 



216 THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 

ing the Goths), the representatives of the ancient Iberic 
population which had an enormous range in Europe at 
the beginning of history, the people to whom the Spanish 
peninsula owes its name of "Iberian", the people who at the 
very beginning of history were in possession of at least one-half 
of Spain, and of a very large area in Gaul. In Gaul their 
northern boundary was the river Loire ; and a line drawn 
from the upper waters of the Loire so as to sweep down to 
the mountains of the Cevennes, would give you a good idea 
of their eastern boundary. Comparing the map [displayed by 
the Professor], with a map founded on history at the earliest 
period [also shown], you see that in the neolithic age the 
Iberic peoples were in possession of the whole of the area 
[indicated] west of the Rhine and north of the Alps. At the 
dawn of history their dominion had shinmk to the above- 
mentioned boimdaries. At the present day they have been 
pushed as far to the west as the shores of the Atlantic by the 
pressure of invading peoples. 

While Europe was in the neolithic stage of culture, the 
Iberic peoples were invaded by a race wholly diflferent in 
physique ; different, too, in some of its manners and customs. 
In the chambered tombs, of the kind which you see illustrated 
upon the walls, in Belgium and in France, lai'ge numbers of 
himian remains of a different type make their appearance, that 
is to say, skulls of a round type, which have been determined 
by Professor Huxley, Mr. Milne Edwards, and a great many 
others to represent the ancient Gaul, the ancient Celt It 
is clear then that these Gauls or Celts, who stood in the 
vanguard of the Aryan migration, invaded Europe in the neo- 
lithic age. When history began in these countries, what do we 
find ? We find that the Celts had pushed the Iberic peoples 
from northern and central Gaul, and had passed over the 
Pyrenees, on the Mediterranean side, into Spain, and had oc- 
cupied the greater portion of the country on the Mediterranean 



THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 217 

seaboard. In Spain, between the two races, we have the 
large and powerful nation called the Celt-Iberi, that is to 
say, the people who resulted from the union of the Iberic 
aborigines and the Celtic invaders. In the south of France 
we have evidence of the same fusion. For instance, we 
hear of the Ligurians, and the Celts, the Celto-Ligurians, 
proving that the ancient population was driven out, and 
dispossessed by the Celtic invaders. I ought to mention 
the physique of these invading peoples. They had round 
heads, with massive features, prominent cheek bones, 
the lower portion of their features possessing that at- 
tribute which Professor Huxley calls snoutiness, and 
a stature bigger than that of the aborigines, averaging 
five feet eight inches. Thus there is an important physical 
difference existing between the slight, elegant, dark-haired 
Iberian, and these bigger Celts or Gauls. One of the new 
fashions these people introduced into Gaul was that of 
burning the dead. So far as I know, in the neolithic age 
there is not the slightest evidence of cremation in this country, 
although it is commonly found in the neolithic tombs in 
Gaul, and in Spain. 

Now I pass to the question. When did the Celts come over 
into this country? Throughout the whole of the neolithic 
age the Iberic race was in possession of this country. It 
would seem that the " streak of silver sea", to which Britons 
seem now to attach such importance, prevented the inva- 
sion of this country for a very considerable time after 
the invasion of the opposite coasts. It was not until a great 
advance had been made in the arts of peace and of war, that 
this country was invaded by another race. In the long 
course of time a new material was introduced — bronze. This 
country was invaded by men with bronze weapons in their 
hands. At the beginning of the bronze age we find the Celts 
or Gauls in this country, and there can be no manner of doubt 

VOL. V. Q 



218 THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 

that what happened in Gaul was repeated in this country. The 
Iberic people were gradually pushed back from the re- 
gions nearest to Gaul, further and further to the west ; and 
we have evidence that the Celts followed them very far 
indeed to the west. Implements such as these [reference 
was here made to diagrams], bronze axes, bronze razors, 
bronze daggers, bronze pins, have been found scattered far 
and wide over the whole surface of this country, and it is 
quite certain, from the discovery of these things in Wales 
along with Celtic skulls, that in the bronze age the Celts 
proper had taken possession of Wales. The same kind of 
reasoning, too, will hold good with regard to Ireland, where 
bronze implements of the same kind have been discovered, 
which are to my mind indubitably connected with this 
Celtic invasion of our country. Nevertheless, we must, of 
course, fully believe that the Iberic people whom the 
Celts dispossessed, whenever they had the chance, got hold 
of the same implements, and I take it that the Celts drove 
them away to the west mainly because they had the first 
chance of getting hold of them. 

I have said nothing yet as to the complexion of the Celtic 
peoples. So far as I can make out from a tangled mass of 
evidence, the Celts were a fairhaired race. You may say a 
very large region of Celtic France is not peopled by a fair- 
haired race. Perfectly true. I take it that is simply due to 
the mingling of the dark with the fair, of the Iberian with 
the Celt The same kind of mingling undoubtedly took place 
wherever these peoples came into contact In the very nature 
of things we could not expect to find hard and fast divi- 
sions between two races inhabiting the same districts. 

Now I must ask your attention to another invasion of this 
country. When Caesar conquered Gaul, he foimd there were 
three peoples in possession — the Iberic in the north and 
west, the Celtic in the middle, and a people whom he termed 



THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 219 

the BelgsB, who are represented, to. some extent, by the 
modem Belgians. Who were the Belgae? One class of 
ethnologists tell us that the Belgae were Germans; others 
say that the Belgae were Celts. So far as the bones tell 
us anything, all the intennents which have been found in the 
country of the Beiges, belonging to the period in question, 
indicate a physique such as I have pointed out as character- 
ising the Celts. Now comes an important fact connected 
with the invasion of this country by the Belgae. In the course 
of time, iron was discovered, and the knowledge of iron 
spread exceedingly rapidly over the continent, because its 
ores are so widely spread, and along with the use of this 
better material for cutting purposes, a higher civilisation 
sprang into being, and gradually penetrated to the far 
north and west At the dawn of history we find a Belgic 
race in the region opposite the Belgic portion of Gaul; 
then beyond that region the Celts ; and then Tacitus 
records the existence of another people in this countiy 
called the Silures, in the colour of their hair, and phy- 
sique, remarkably like the Iberians of Spain. Thus the 
invasion of Gaul repeated itself in this country, and just 
as the Celts invaded the Iberians, and drove them away 
westward from a large portion of Gaul, so they invaded 
this country and drove the Iberic peoples far to the 
west. And just as the Belgae pressed upon the Celts in 
Gaul, so they passed over the Channel and pressed upon the 
Celts in this country. When the Belgoe invaded Britain they 
were in the iron stage of culture, and it is not unlikely that 
they introduced the arts of the iron age, just as their prede- 
cessors, the Celts, introduced those of the bronze age. 

The influence of the Roman invasion upon this country 
must next be considered. So far as I know, the Roman con- 
quest made little difference in the ethnology of this 
countr}^ There were no great displacements of jieoples. 

q2 



220 THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OP WALES. 

The iron hand of the military power prevented the Belgie 
from driving away the Celts, as they were doing when Caesar 
first found them. So ' that really, ethnologically, the influence 
of Rome on the people of this country may be taken to be 
next to nothing, and in wonderful contrast to the vast in- 
fluence Rome exercised on the civilisation of this country. 

I now come to the great turning point, if I may so put it, 
in the history of Wales. The Roman empire broke down in 
Europe, and tribes of invaders, belonging to the Germanic 
race, broke through the military defences on the continent, 
and poured over the fair provinces of Gaul, burning, destroy- 
ing, and slaying, taking possession of various parts of the 
country themselves, and when they settled down, rapidly be- 
coming converted to the religion of the conquered. We find 
them extending ultimately to the remote parts of Europe, 
the Lombards giving their name to Lombardy, the Burgun- 
dians to Burgundy, the Franks to France. The Goths, too, 
swooped down upon Gaul, and passed through Gaul into Spain, 
repeating over again the Celtic conquest of Spain. The in- 
vasion of Britain was merely a part of this great dismember- 
ment of the Roman empire. For four centuries the Britons 
had enjoyed profound peace, broken here and there by local 
disturbances it is true, but on the whole a profound peace, 
under the shadow of the Roman eagles. 

In the year 449, the northern pirates, who had already been 
harrying the coasts of this country and of Gaul for a long 
time, made a descent, and from that time expedition after 
expedition sailed' away from the old England on the shores 
of the Elbe, to join their friends in Britain. They fought a 
war of extermination with the Britons. They were as 
hard fighters as any that the world has yet seen, and the 
Britons, as my friend Mr. J. R. Green has well shown, 
were foemen worthy of their steel. It took no less than 
two centuries of hard fighting, in which every bit of 



THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 221 

land was fought for inch by inch, before the Belgae, the 
Celts, and the Iberic peoples, composing the British race, 
were hurled to the west. They had to take refuge in the 
western parts of the country, and the eastern parts became 
England. You see the bearing of these important facts. 
They show us that, in the ethnology of Wales, we must have 
three elements besides the English and Danish. We 
may almost reduce these three peoples to two, if you are in- 
clined, as I am, to consider the Belgas first cousins of the 
Celts. 

So much, then, for the evidence from histology and history as 
to the arrival of the Welsh people within their present boun- 
daries. One section of them, the small dark people, are still to 
be found living among us; but in these days of railroads, when 
the Welsh people have such a habit of going to America and 
coming to the great cities in this country, accumidating fame 
and reputation, and proving themselves to be cosmopolitan, 
the genuine stay-at-home Welshman is a very rare animal. 
Consequently, the small dark race in Wales is rapidly 
being " crossed out". Indeed, during my own experience 
in the last twenty years, I have noticed a most marked dimi- 
nution in the number of small dark Welsh people, undoubt- 
edly of Iberic stock. I say Iberic stock, because supposing 
you were to compare one of these small dark Welshmen, 
with a small dark Basque-speaking man from the Pyrenees, 
a small dark Highlander, and a small dark South of 
Ireland man, you could not tell any ethnological differ- 
ence between them. They are, practically, the same 
people, and contrast in every possible way with the 
peoples aromid them. That small dark race then, wliose 
flashing eyes and raven tresses some of us admire so 
very much in tlie ladies, is to be looked upon as the 
most ancient element in the Welsh population. Tlien, we 
have the main staple of the Welsh population represented 



222 THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 

by the Celtic people, and I would venture to add to the 
people who speak Welsh in Wales, a considerable infu- 
sion of English and Danes. There can be no manner of 
doubt that along the shores, near the estuary of the Dee 
and in the Menai Straits, we have a considerable percentage 
of ancient English settled, and probably as good Welshmen 
as any of the old genuine Welsh stock. 

So much for the points I have been able to put before you 
this evening : I thought certainly it was right and proper to 
put before a Society of this kind, which is intended for the en- 
couragement of anything that is Welsh, the side of the shield 
which is presented to me as an archseologist and geologist. I 
have put before you the evidence obtained mostly by the 
pick-axe and shoveL I have compared with it the evidence 
which history presents us regarding the ethnology of Europe ; 
and I think you will all agree with me in saying, the history 
of Wales may be said to be an epitome of the history of the 
ethnology of western Eurojie west of the Rldne and north of 
the Alps. 

Before I sit down, I ought to mention to you that the ancient 
Iberic language still preserves to us relics of the neolithic 
age. For instance, I will just read out some words. Among 
the French and Spanish Basques the name for an axe at the 
present time is ai(z car a — aitza "a stone", and.^ora "lifted up." 
A pick is aitz urra, urra meaning "to tear íisunder". A knife 
is aitz itoa, "a little stone"; scissors is aitz turrac, "little stones 
for tearing asunder." Thus you see for articles which at the 
present ought to be made of steel, we have names that 
relate to stone, pointing back to a time when they really 
were made of stone. This remarkable case of survival 
confirms the conclusion at which we have arrived, that the 
neolithic civilisation in western Europe was derived from a 
race closely allied to, if not identical with, the Iberic, or that 
which is now represented by the small dark Welslmian; whose 



THE ANCIENT ETHNOLOGY OF WALES. 223 

ancestors were in Britain for long ages before the Welsh- 
speaking Celtic vanguard of the Aryans had set foot in 
Britain or on the continent of Europe. 

[The learned Professor resumed his seat amid a prolonged 
outburst of applause, and subsequently was very cordially 
thanked for his lecture.] 



224 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH 

LITERATURE. 

By DAVID LEWIS, Esq., Barrister-at-Law (of the South Wales 

' Circuit). 



To know ourselves as we are is too high a philosophy for 
most of us ; and when we do try to estimate our real value 
the estimate is considerably higlier than that of our friends 
or our enemies. We cannot be expected to go to our enemies 
for a character, however honest they may be. Canning's well- 
known lines express what most of us feel when writhing 
under the honest criticisms of a candid friend — 

^^ Give me the avowed, the erect, the manly foe ; 
Bold I can meet — perhaps may — turn his blow, 
But of all plagues, good Heayen, thy wrath can send, 
Save, save, oh save me from the candid friend!'' 

That the knowledge of what we appear to others is a valu- 
able acquisition, is expressed in the sentiment of Bums's two 
familiar lines — 

*^ Oh, wad some power the giftie gie us, 
To see ourselves as ithers see us." 

Where we are to find the "ithers" who are to tell us im- 
partially what we are, is a diflScult matter to decide, for if we 
exclude our friends and our enemies, we exclude the only 
people who really know us. This self-knowledge is as valu- 
able to nations as to individuals, and as difficult to obtain. 
The "ithers" best qualified to form a judgment of the character 
of my Welsh fellow-countrymen, are obviously their English 
neighbours, who have, at difierent periods of history, been 
their avowed enemies, and their very candid friends. What 
opinion these "ithers" have held of the Welsh is to be 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 225 

gathered from the writings of their standard authors. My 
paper is an attempt to sketch briefly the history of that opinion 
from an early period down to the present time. The far 
greater portion is, for obvious reasons, concerned with English 
literature from the time of Queen Elizabeth to the present day. 

Before the Conquest, and the so-called Incorporation by the 
Statutes of Ehuddlan, by Edward the First, the Welsh and 
English lived in a state of active and unceasing hostility. 
When an English king had nothing particular to do, he made 
an expedition into Wales, usually gaining little from his 
excursion. So the Welsh princes, when they found time 
hanging heavily on their hands, crossed the borders and 
ravaged the unhappy Marches, returning back with as much 
booty as they could carry off. It is probably to this period 
that we are to attribute the well-known nursery rhyme, 
" Taffy was a Welshman", etc., — if it is an old nursery 
rhyme at all. It bears evidence of having been written soon 
after the occurrence, by an Englishman whose cow had just 
been lifted in one of these border raids, and turned into beef. 

Such being the relations of the two countries before the 
Conquest, we could not expect the character of the Welshmen 
of the English literature of that period to be painted in very 
brilliant colours. The Welsh are described by the writers 
of the time.as fierce and barbarous, and are often accused of 
mangling the bodies of their slain antagonists, and this even 
later than the Conquest of Wales. Shakespere only follows 
the accepted traditions of his day, when by the mouth of the 
Earl of Westmoreland, in the first Act of the First Part of 
Hewi'y IV, he accuses the Welshwomen "of mangling the dead 
bodies of the followers of Mortimer, after their defeat in Here- 
fordshire. It does not fall within the scope of my paper to 
discuss the truth of these accusations. I will only observe 
that in almost all wars, whether of ancient or modern times, 
charges are made of violation of the rules of civilized warfare 
wliich (If) not stand the test of subsequent investigation. 



226 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

Apart from these charges the courage of the Welsh was 
always admitted A very honourable testimony was given to 
their valour by King Henry II, in a letter to the Greek Em- 
peror, Emmanuel Comnenus. This prince having desired that 
an account might be sent him of all that was remarkable in 
the island of Great Britain, Henry, in answer to that request, 
was pleased to take notice, amongst other peculiarities, of the 
extraordinary courage and fierceness of the Welsh, who were 
not afraid to fight unarmed with enemies armed at all points, 
valiantly shedding their blood in the cause of their country, 
and purchasing glory at the expense of their lives. 

Like the period before the incoi-poration of the Prin- 
cipality with England, the literature of the two hundred years 
which followed furnishes, except in one respect, but slight 
material for the purposes of my paper. That exception refers 
to the statutes enacted from time to time, down to the acces- 
sion of the House of Tudor. The incorporation was only one 
in name. The care of the border country was placed in the 
hands of the Lords Marchers, whose conduct kept the people 
in an incessant state of restive discontent Again and again 
they rose, broke out into rebellion, and tried to regain their 
liberties. Instead of seeking to improve their condition by 
better government, the English Parliament attempted to 
subdue their unconquerable love of freedom by rigorous laws. 
They prohibited by statute the sending of all sorts of arms 
into Wales. They forbade a Welshman to have any house of 
defence. They disarmed them. They made an Act to drag 
oflfenders from Wales into England for trial Where one of tlie 
parties was an Englishman his trial was always to be in English. 
They refused the Welsh the use of fairs and markets. They 
enacted that no Englishman that married a Welshwoman 
should be in any ofiice in Wales. In short, when the 
statute book was quite a moderate-sized volume you find 
no less than fifteen Acts of penal regidation on the sub- 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH UTERATURE. 227 

ject of Wales. These savage laws were allowed to remain 
on the statute hook during the whole of the reign of Henry 
VIL One would have expected their repeal to have been 
one of the very first acts of this monarch, in gratitude for the 
aid rendered him by his valiant fellow-countrjrmen on the field 
of Bosworth. They, however, continued in full force until 
repealed upon a petition of the people of Wales in the reign 
of his son. What the disabilities of Welshmen must 
have been, may be gathered from the fact that one of the re- 
wards conferred by Henry VII, on Welshmen who assisted 
at Bosworth, was a grant of denization. Here is one instance 
taken from the first volume of Materials for the History of 
Henry VII, p. 295, Rolls Series : "February 16th, 1486. Grant 
of denization to Eichard ap Llewellyn ap Hulkyn alias Ses 
ap Llewellyn ap Hulkyn (in consideration of true service done 
to the king, as well in liis late victorious field as otherwise), 
extending to him all the privileges of an Englishman, 
with enfranchisements from the penal enactments made 
against the Welsh in the second year of Henry IV.*' With 
the abolition of these penal laws, and the frequent inter- 
mingling of the natives of the two countries, their mutual 
hatred gradually disappeared, and quickly a more friendly 
feeling sprung up in its place; and by the time Elizabeth came 
to the Throne, English writers could describe their fellow- 
subjects on the other side of Ofifa's Dyke, unblinded by a 
detestation that had been mutual, and unbiassed by the 
traditional prejudices of now long-buried animosities. 

In 1587,Churchyard wrote his poem entitled, i%<j Worthines 
of Wales: A true note of the Aundent Castles, Famous Monu- 
ments, goodly rivers, fair bridges, fine Toumes, and courteous 
people, that I have seen in the noble country of Wales. It was 
dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, and is a glowing eulogy on 
Wales and her people. In his epistle dedicatory he in- 
fonus the "most redoubted and royall queen that kings doe 



228 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

fear, subjects do honour, strangers seek succour from,*' etc. ; 
that he had written the book for the honour of Wales, "where 
your highness ancestors took name, and where your majestic 
is as much loved and feared as in any place of your higlmess 
dominion." After speaking of the courtesy and politeness of 
the common people towards strangers, he goes on to say: 
" They likewise triumph so much of fidelitie that the very 
name of a falsifier of promes, a murtherer, or a thief, is most 

odious among them and such regard have they one 

of another, that neither in market towns, highway meetings, 
nor public assemblies, they strive for place, nor show any 
roysting, for instead of such high stomachs and stoutness, 
they use friendly salutations and courtesie." Churchyard did 
not write this song of praise on hearsay, for he tells us, "I have 
not only searched sundry good authors for the confinnation 
of my matter, but also painfully travelled to try out the sub- 
stance of what is written." 

In 1613, appeared Drayton's Polyolbion, a poetical de- 
scription of the author's native land. It was dedicated 
to Henry, Prince of Wales. It contains two introduc- 
tory prefaces, one " To the General Eeader", and the 
other, "To my Friends, the Cambro-Britons." In the 
latter he tells his friends in which of his poems he has 
placed their, and he must confess his, loved Wales, with the 
laudable intention, I presume, of saving them the labour of 
wading through three poems about English counties, before 
they came to what to them would be the interesting part of 
the book. Out of the eighteen poems the work contains, 
seven are devoted to Wales, and of these he says : — 

^* And ere Bey en books have end, 111 strike so high a string, 
Tby bards shall stand amazed with wonder while I sing." 

The preface concludes in these words: "And beside my natural 
inclination to love antiquities (which Wales may highly boast 
of), I confesse, the free and gentle companie of that true lover 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 229 

of his countrie (as of all ancient and noble tilings)^ M. John 
Williams, his Maiestie's Gold-smith, my deare and worthy 
friend, hath made me the more seek into the antiquities of 
your Country. Thus wishing your favourable construction 
of these, my faithful endeavours, I bid you farewell." Of the 
poem, Hallam says, "There is, probably, no poem of this kind 
in any other language, comparable together in extent and 
excellence to the Polyolbion : nor can any one read a portion of 
it without admiration for its learned and highly gifted author." 
Praise from such a writer was well worth having. 

He redeems the pledge given in his introductory preface, 
in the seven long poems devoted to Wales. Therein he spares 
neither praise of the people, nor admiration of the coimtry; 
but whether it resulted in striking with amazement the con- 
temporary bards I do not know. In his sixth song, singing 
of the patriotism of the Welsh, he describes the noble Briton 
as — 

'* A patriot, and so true, that it to death him greevea 
To heare his Wales disgrac^t ; and on the Saxon swords 
Oft hazardeth his life, ere with reproachfull words 
His language or his leeke, he^ll stand to heare abus'd.^' 

To Shakespere a Welshman need never be afraid to turn 
for a character of his countrymen, for in the three Welsh 
characters that he has delineated, Owen Glendower, Sir 
Hugh Evans, and Captain Fluellen, there is not one that he 
need be ashamed to call his countryman. We are introduced 
to Glendower in the first Act of Henry 7F, Part I, by the 
Earl of Westmoreland, who tells the king the news of the 
defeat sustained by Mortimer at the hands of "the irregular 
and wild Glendower". The character Shakespere gives him, 
as I read it, is that of a brave, chivalrous, patriotic gentle- 
man, punctilious to a degree, a friend to be desired, a foe to 
be feared ; as Mortimer puts it, "a worthy gentleman, exceed- 
ingly well read, and profited in strange concealments, valiant 



230 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATUKE. 

as a lion, and wondrous affable, and as bountiful as mines of 
India." 

In the Sir Hugh Evans, of The Merry Wives of Windsor, we 
have an amusing but kindly sketch of a Welsh parson. A 
mixture of shrewdness and simplicity, we laugh heartily 
whenever he appears on the scene ; yet do not despise him. 
His blindness to personal ridicule amounts almost to stupidity, 
but with it all he manifests a shrewdness of observation 
which saves him from contempt He makes "fritters of 
English", and Falstaff, Dame Quickly, and the rest laugh at 
him openly for it, and he does not appear to see it Yet he 
is shrewd enough to see through Pistors bombast when he 
first meets him, unlike Fluellen in this respect So, too, he sees 
how groundless are Ford's jealous suspicions ; and if he is 
easily gulled by mine host of the Garter into the mock duel 
with Dr. Caius, he is clever enough to devise a most notable 
revenga In fact, both mine host and Falstaff, before the 
play is out, find the tables completely turned upon them by 
the simple Welshman, whom they had ridiculed and despised. 
" Heavens defend me from that Welsh fairy, lest he transform 
me to a piece of cheese", says Falstaff when Sir Hugh, disguised 
as a satyr, approaches with his lighted taper near the Oak 
of Heme the Hunter ; and, when the fat knight, having been 
sufficiently tormented, and the failure of his intrigues made 
manifest, is compelled to hear from the parson a moral 
lecture on the iniquity of his ways, his wonted marvellous 
readiness of repartee and wit is gone. "I am dejected", he 
says, "I am not able to answer the Welsh flannel, ignorance 
itself is a plummet over ma Use me as you will." In short, 
with all his oddities and absurdities Sir Hugh is no fool, and 
Shakespere deals with him kindly and fondly. By the side 
of " Robert Shallow, esquire, in the county of Gloster, justice 
of peace and coram, and custalorum and ratalorum too", he 
stands a monument of wisdom and common sense. 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATÜBR 231 

Bat Captain Fluellenis the character to whom a Welshman 
would point if he were asked which of Shakespere's Welshmen 
is the most typical. He is indeed a "Cymro o waed coch 
cyfan", a Welshman in every fibre. "Careless of antiquarian 
pedantry", says Mr. Froude, "Shakespere drew men and 
women as he saw them around him in the London of his own 
day, and Fluellen, Captain Jamy, and Captain MacMorris, 
were the typical Welshman, Scotchman, and Irishman, as they 
were to be met with in Elizabeth's train bands." How then 
does Shakespere sketch him? He is hot as gunpowder, and 
quick to return an injury, as Pistol finds when he is cudgelled 
^nd made to eat the leek, for wearing which upon St David's 
Day he had laughed at Fluellen "in a place where the latter 
could breed no contention with him." He is generous, though 
his generosity is ill received, both when he offers the soldier 
Williams a shilling, and when he gives Pistol a groat to heal his 
broken pate. He is extremely loquacious, and when he appears 
has a large share of the dialogua He is argumentative and 
ever ready for a few disputations, in the way of argument 
and friendly communication concerning the Roman wars, with 
the history of which he was familiar. In argument he takes 
the word out of the mouths of others, but is indignant when 
it is taken out of his. He is most brave, though his valour 
may be a little out of fashion — "For I do know Fluellen 
valiant", says King Henry. " He wears his leek to mark his 
loyalty, and he is a most honourable gentleman"; though his 
ideal of a gentleman — " as goot a gentleman as the tevil is, as 
Lucifer and Belzebub himself" — ^is a somewhat strange one. 
His fondness for comparison has given rise to one of the 
most truly humorous bits in the whole of Shakespere — the com- 
parisons between Macedon and Monmouth, between Alexan- 
der and Henry V. 

Ben Johnson, like Shakespere, appears to have been well 
acquainted with the characteristics of the Welsh. He was 



232 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURK 

long on intimate terms with Inigo Jones, with whom he after- 
wards quarrelled bitterly, and whom he satirised in several 
epigrams. He seems to have had some knowledge of the 
Welsh language, scraps of which, more or less inaccurate, 
he introduced in his For tlu Honour of Wales. This piece 
was a kind of anti-masque (or comic masque), added, for 
the sake of variety and the King's amusement, to the masque 
Pleasure Reconciled to Virtue,iii which piece Hercules, Bacchus, 
and other classical heroes had taken part, the scene being laid 
upon Mount Atlas. Three Welshmen are introduced, Griffith, 
Jenkin, and Evan, an attorney. The dialogue is most amusing. 
No sooner do they enter than they commence squabbling "as to 
who should be there.** They then complain of the scene in the 
ma&que being laid on Atlas, ''when his highness has as goodly 
mountains, and as tawl a hills of his own (look you, do you 
see now), and of as good standing as the proudest Adlas 
christened." " Why law ! you now", says Jenkin, "is not Pen- 
maenmawr and Craig Eriri as good sound as Adlas every 
whit of him r Evan the attorney, who is described by Jenkin 
as "a very sufficient litigious fellows in the terms, and a 
finely poets out of the terms," recites a list of Welsh moun- 
tains in support of this proposition, amid continual inter- 
ruptions from Jenkin, who when checked, replies, "Why 
cannot you and I tauk too, cosoin ? The hauU (God bless it !), 
is big enough to hold both our talks, and we were twice as 
much we are." They at last get to quarrel desperately "with 
words", but, like Fluellen on a similar occasion, are restrained 
by the place. Laying by their quarrel for a more convenient 
season, they glorify their mountains, after which they lay claim 
to the chief nobility, as of Welsh blood, and Evan expresses 
the desire that the music be all Welsh, and the dances, and no 
Hercules brought in with a great staff and pudding upon him. 
In fact, what need say they of Hercules, when Cadwalladr or 
Lluellin, or Kheese ap Griffith, or Cradock, or Owen Glen- 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 233 

dower, M'ith a Welsh hook and a goat skin on his back would 
have done ** very better and twice as well" The piece ends with 
a speech of Griffith, which — a model of modesty — sets out 
the characteristics of his nation — a nation unconquered and 
most loving liberty, *' yet, it was never mutinous, and please 
your Majesty, but stout, valiant, courteous, hospitable, tem- 
perate, ingenious, capable of all good arts, most lovingly con- 
stant, charitable, great antiquaries, religious preservers of their 
gentry, and genealogy, as they are knowing in reUgion." 

James I had a liking for the Welsh ; and many Welshmen, 
some of whom occupied high and important posts, frequented 
his court. His personal popularity led to an amusing scene 
during his progress to Wales in 1607, which is thus related 
by Yorke in his Royall Tribes of Wales. " He had progressed to 
Chester, and was attended by a great number of the gentry, 
who came out of curiosity to see him, and formed a mounted 
guard of honour to escort him. The weather was very dry, 
the roads dusty, and the king almost suffocated. He did not 
know how to get rid of them civilly, when one of his atten- 
dants, putting his head out of the window of the coach, 
said, * It is His Majesty's pleasure, that those, who are the 
best gentlemen, shall ride forwards.' Away scampered the 
Welsh, and one solitary man was left behind. 'And so,Sir*,said 
the king to him, 'and you are not a gentleman then?* *0h, 
yes ; and please hur Majestee, hur is as good a shentleman 
as the rest, but hur ceffyl (horse), God help hur, is not so 
good.'" 

Scott has told us, in the Fortunes of Nigel, how James de- 
lighted in a gossip with his Scotch goldsmith, Geordie Heriot. 
May we not also picture him chatting with his Cambro- 
British goldsmith, John Williams, the friend of Drayton, about 
his subjects on the other side of Offa's Dyke ? The cannie 
king, we may be sure, would well know, when driven to nego- 
tiate a loan, that the quickest way to loosen the purse-strings 
VOL. v. R 



234 THE WELSHMAN OP ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

of the Welshman, was to affect an interest in his country and 
fellow-countrymen. 

The Welsh characters of Sliakespere and Ben Jonson, even 
apart from the glowing panegyrics of Churchyard and 
Drayton, indicate that the Welsh enjoyed a high degree of 
popularity during the Tudor period, and the reign of James I. 
In an interesting article which appeared in vol. iii, part 1, 
January 1880, of Y Cymmrodor, the Editor, Mr. Powell, has 
drawn the character of the Welsh as it appeared to their 
neighbours in the sixteenth century — ^viewed from an en- 
tirely comic point of view. The materials upon which the 
article is based are found in the jest books of the period, 
extracts from which are given to illustrate what were con- 
sidered to be the prominent foibles and weaknesses of the 
Welsh. " In the representation here given", says the author 
of the article, " of what the writers of the various collections 
conceived to be the salient features of Welsh character, there 
is nothing that need offend the most ardent and sensitive 
patriot, who will bear in mind that the object is to provoke 
laughter. Indeed these sketches, if not all very humorous, 
are fully as goodnatured as Shakespere's own. The Welsh- 
man of the Jests is devoutly religious in his way ; but, as 
he is at the same time intensely ignorant, his earnestness only 
developes an exaggerated superstition, and he ' strains at a 
gnat and swallows a camel' with a vengeance. He is in 
despair at the thought of having broken his fast on a Friday 
by the accidental swallowing of a crumb of cheese, but yet 
robs and murders without compunction, and confesses these 
crimes with the utmost naivete. At one time he appears as 
a plain countryman, whose simplicity we are invited to laugh 
at ; at another he is a stupid barbarian, from whose ignor- 
ance we are gravely called on to learn a lesson. He is, of 
course, choleric and hasty, and it is not always safe to cross 
him ; he is a noisy brawler even in heaven (when he happens 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH UTERATÜRE. 235 

to get in by some informality), and has a great weakness for 
drink and toasted cheese. Strangely enough, the leek, so dear 
to Fluellen and so bitter to Pistol, is not referred to at all." 

The partisan bitterness of the civil wars quickly took away 
from the Welsh the popularity they had gained in the period 
I have just been dealing with. Welah levies took part in 
the very first engagements on the side of the Boyalists, and 
their behaviour in these engagements was a subject upon 
which the pamphleteers of the Parliamentarians were never 
tired of exercising their wit. The Parliament party had 
possession of London, and London at that time contained 
nearly all the printing presses of the country; and advantage 
was taken of this to flood the country with comic tracts and 
broadsides, satirising the Boyalists, and particularly their 
Welsh allies. Of such, the years 1642 and 1643 were espe- 
cially prolific. 

One is " The true Copy of a Welsh sermon, preached before 
Prince Maurice in Wales, upon his departure thence, by 
Thon ap Owen, Priest", in which the writer scourges the 
the Welsh runaways from Edgehill, sneers at the prince for 
leaving Holland, coming hither in arms ; and in broken 
English asks, "What did her meane to come into her borders, 
to spoile her brave orchards, and gardens, her cider and her 
perry trees ?'* Another satirical effusion is "The Welchman's 
Lamentation and Complaint for the loss of her great cosin 
and commander Mr. Fitz William Coningsby, Governour of 
her great city of Hereford. Printed in te yeer (hur thinks) 
of her utter Testruction, 1643." A third, the last which I 
shall notice, is entitled " The Welchman's Public Recantation, 
or his hearty sorrow for taking up arms against her Parlia- 
ment, Declaring to all the World how her hath been abused 
by faire words, and such aduUations and flatterings, telling 
her what Booties and Prizes her should get : the Divell take 
the Array." 

k2 



236 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGUSH LITERATURE. 

The main object followed up in all these satires is to put 
in as ridiculous a light as possible the behaviour of tlie 
Welsh levies in the field. I have read through many of 
them. In nearly all the wit is of the grossest kind. Apart 
from the coarseness surrounding it, it is nothing. That any 
could find time and inclination to indulge in such trifling 
upon so serious a subject, would have inflicted a painful 
sting upon more staid and considerate minds. When the 
civil debate of the sword, the gravest and most awful under 
heaven, is attempted to be turned into merriment, and the 
effort meets with success, it is evidence of a depraved con- 
dition of public feeling. 

Before proceeding further, the Anglo-Welsh dialect, as here 
written, calls for an observation or two. We must, of 
course, in reading satirical pieces like these, be prepared as 
well for exaggeration of peculiarities of speech as of other 
peculiarities. But many subsequent writers seem somehow 
to have lost sight of this, and in all good faith have put into 
the mouths of their Welsh characters peculiarities of pro- 
nunciation observable for the first time in these publications. 
For instance, the Welshman of these drolleries speaks of 
himself as "her" (it is variably spelt, sometimes "hur", some- 
times "her"), and "her", the Welshmen of these writers I 
have alluded to call themselves also. Now, I certainly have 
heard Welshmen describe inanimate objects as of the feminine 
gender, but I never heard a Welshman call himself a "her"; 
nor do I think have any of you, nor indeed the broadside 
writers themselves. One other observation with regard to these 
writers. They charge the Welsh levies with cowardice, at 
Edgehill in particular. It is unnecessary for me to labour 
long over confuting such a charge against my countrymen's 
valour. That has been proved on too many a field to be open to 
question. But as to the Edgehill affair, the following short 
passage from Sir Richard Bulstrode's Memoirs of tlie Reigns 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 237 

of Charles I and Charles II seems to put it right. " Most of 
the regiments", he says, "which were raised in Wales, were 
very ill armed. However, they were brave and resolute to 
serve their king, with such arms as they had or could get in 
their march. . . . Some hundreds of Welshmen were so brave 
that they had no arms, but pitchforks, and such like tools, 
and many only with good cudgels ; yet they went down the 
hill as eagerly to fight as the best armed men among them/' 

Is it to be wondered at that, armed as here described, three 
regiments ran away from the field ? The surprising part is 
that they engaged in the battle at all. Certainly it did not 
lie in the mouths of the Parliamentarians to sneer at them 
for this, for four regiments of their own army, together with 
their left wing of horse, turned tail and fled ; and Cromwell 
himself came not away without the imputation of cowardice 
on that occasion. 

Charles Cotton, the friend of Isaac Walton, has given us 
the following comic description of a Welsh guide of the 
seventeenth century, which may be compared with the guides 
in the Snowdon district of the nineteenth. 

A Welsh Guidk. 

^* Â guide I had got who demanded great vails, 
For conductÌDg me over the mountains of Wales : 
Twenty good shillings, which sure very large is ; 
Yet that would not serve, but I must bear his charges : 
And yet for all that, rode astride on a beast. 
The worst that e'er went on three legs I protest ; 
It certainly was the most ugly of jades. 
Bis hips and his rump made a right ace of spades ; 
His sides were two ladders well spur-galled withal ; 
His neck was a helve, and his head was a mall ; 
For his colour, my pains and your trouble I ^11 spare, 
For the creature was wholly denuded of hair ; 
And, except for two things, as bare as my nail — 
A tuft of a mane, and a sprig of a tail, 
l^ow, such as the beast was, even such was the rider, 
With a head like a nutmeg, and legs like a spider : 



238 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

A voice like a cricket, a look like a rat, 

The brains of a goose, and the heart of a cat ; 

Even such was my guide and his beast : let them pass, 

The one for a horse, and the other an ass." 

With the restoration of Charles the Second, the unpopu- 
larity of the Welsh did not disappear. In 1672, 7%e Travels of 
lorevin de Bocheford were published ; and a translation of that 
part of the book which treats of England and Ireland was in 
1809 published in the fourth volume of the AntiguarianReper- 
lory. His descriptions are valuable, as showing the opinion 
foreigners entertained of England during the seventeenth 
century; and they have a peculiar value for my present 
purpose, in that he tells us in what estimation Welshmen 
were held by the English of that day. " Strangers in general 
are not liked in London", he says, "even the Irish and Scots, 
who are subjects of the same king. .... The eldest sons of 
the kings of England bear the title of Prince of Wales, which 
is a province of England, long governed by its own sovereign 
princes. The inhabitants of this province are the least es- 
teemed of all others in England, insomuch that it is an afifront 
to any man to call him Welchmann, that is to say, a man of 
the province of Wales : similar to the appellation of Norman 
in France, Calabrian in Italy, Galeguan in Spain, Finlander 
in Sweden, Swiss in Germany, and Corack in Poland-" I 
have failed to get much information about this writer, and, 
therefore, I cannot say how much reliance is to be placed 
upon his powers of observation. Buckle, certainly, makes 
several quotations from this same book of travels of his 
without any note as to their trustworthiness or the 
contrary. 

In 1682 wasj)ublÌ8hed " Wallographyy or the Britton Des- 
cribed : Being a pleasant relation of a journey into Wales, 
wherein are set down several remarkable passages that occur- 
red in the way thither : and also many choice observables, 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITEKATURK 239 

and notable commemorations, concerning the state and con- 
dition,! the^^natnre and humor, actions, manners, customs, 
etc., of that country and people, by W.E, : a mighty lover 
of Welsh Travels." He tells us, in his epistle dedicatory, that 
he had travelled through the country thoroughly, and that he 
intends not merely to give a bare image and portraiture of the 
country, but the character of the inhabitants, their original, 
persons, diet, apparel, language, laws, customs, policy, etc. As 
to the original, I don't think his suggestions vould be of much 
use to a philologist. "Some", he says, "suppose them to be the 
spawns of the Gauls, from whom they seem to be but a few 
Aps removed; Ap6alloys,Ap Gauls, ApWallois,Ap Wales. As 
for the inhabitants, they are a poor sort of creatures. They are 
of a Boerish behaviour, of a savage physiognomy; the savage- 
ness of their bodies, and the Bceoticalness of their souls, and 
that which cannot otherwise be expressed, the Welchness 
of both, will fright a man as fast from them as the oddness of 
their person invites one to behold them. They are not much 
given to fighting. They are much inclined to choler, for hur 
Welch plood is 'soon moved; aud then hur stamp and stare, 
and scrat hur pole, and vent her fury, in ud-plutter-a-nails, 
and will fight for hur life in battle with fisty-cufifs. The 

whole nation (like a German family) is of one quality 

We could not perceive that they were guilty of much 
learning, of which the lowest degree is several notches above 
their most exalted capacity. A man skilled in orthography 
is admir'd as a sophy, and a writer of his name is term*d a 
rabbi. The top-gallant of the parish, possibly, may be so wise 
in hieroglyphic as to scrawl the character of a mystical mark : 
tho' such deep literature is not frequent amongst them. 
That which we admired most was the virginity of their lan- 
guage. 'Tis a tongue (it seems) not made for every mouth ; 
as appears by the instance of one in our company, who, 
having got a Welch polysyllable into his throat was almost 



240 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

choked with consonants, had we not by clapping him on the 
back made him disgorge a guttural or two, and so sav'd him. 
Their native gibberish is usually prattled throughout the 
whole of Taphydom — excepting in the market towns, men 
of two coats, and gentry." The last observation he makes 
is, that of all the maimed people that ever he read of, 
he found none comparable for nimbleness to a Cambrian 
cripple. 

I hope I haye succeeded in giving a summary of the 
one hundred and fifty pages or so of Wallography, which not 
only contains the principal of "W.RV* observations upon 
Wales, but savours enough of his style to afford some idea of 
what the rest is like. It smacks of burlesque throughout ; the 
ludicrous and the ridiculous have it all their own way. 
There is no seriousness. It is at times rather coarse, but 
when the age in which it was written is considered, its free- 
dom from indelicacy is marvellous. I do not think for a mo- 
ment that "W. R.", whoever he was, ever intended his so-called 
"pleasant relation of a journey into Wales" to be read seriously. 
The whole thing savours too much of joking to be taken for 
satire. However, it would be quite in keeping with the 
opinion of the day, as stated by De Rocheford a short time 
previously ; and the sallies of humour would be much to the 
taste of that dissolute age. 

Twenty-six years later we find Steele writing something 
about us in the Tatter. In the first volume of that periodical 
— I forget which number — ^he tells his readers that a young 
relation of his had been turning his head to duelling, and one 
of his reasons was, that he intended to reside mostly on his 
own estate at Llanbadamfawr, and the Welsh being a nation 
of gentlemen, it behoved him to understand well the science 
of quarrelling. Poor Steele ! let us hope he too found them 
a nation of gentlemen, when, having " outlived his places, 
his schemes, his wife, his income, his health, and almost 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 241 

everything but his kind heart, twenty years later he died 
on his own little Welsh property, worn out, and almost for- 
gotten by his contemporaries." 

Not long after the death of Steele, Smollett, in Humphrey 
Clinker and Boderick iîa?MÍowi,introduced to the public of his 
day several Welsh characters. I do not think any of the Welsh 
characters of Humphrey Clinker can be looked upon as 
typical. Matthew Bramble, the * Glamorganshire Squire, 
might as well have hailed from Devonshire, indeed, he has 
been said to be the prototype of Sir Anthony Absolute in 
T?ie Rivals, Winifred Jenkins, apart from the dialect of her 
most amusing letters, might pass for an English maid-servant 
But in the Surgeon Morgan of Roderick Random we have a 
real typical Welshman. Redolent of cheese and leeks, his 
eccentricities and whimsicalities make him supremely ridicu- 
lous. Yet he is an honest, stedfast friend ; strictly honourable 
and utterly regardless of himself when his friend is in danger. 
Though the character is doubtless an imitation of Fluellen, it 
is no servile one, and differs from Shakespere's Welshman in 
many points. In one in particular — his habit of soothing his 
ruffled feelings with a melancholy ditty — ^he rather resembles 
the Parson, Sir Hugh, than the choleric captain. 

In 1774, Dr. Johnson made a tour of six of the coimties 
of Wales in company with Mr. Thrale, who went down for the 
purpose of taking possession of an estate which had fallen 
to his wife. He does not appear to have been in good health 
when he started on his journey, for in one of his letters, 
written soon after, he writes : " I have made nothing of the 
ipecacuanha, but have taken abundance of pills, and hope 
that they have done me good." From the letter of the in- 
defatigable Boswell, it would appear that both the latter and 
the booksellers expected a book containing observations on 
the country and the people, similar to his Journey to the 
Wesicnn Mauds. But whether, owing to his state of health 



242 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH UTERATURE. 

or the absence of Boswell, or both, no book resulted from this 
tour. In a letter to Boswell he says, that "Wales is so little 
different from England that it offers nothing to the speculation 
of the traveller." Boswell could not find that he kept any 
journal or notes of what he saw there; and all that he heard 
him say of Wales was, that " instead of bleak and barren 
mountains there were green and fertile ones ; and that one of 
the castles of Wales would contain all the castles that he had 
seen in Scotland." 

It is a matter of great regret to Welshmen that Scott, when 
he did lay the scene of one of his novels in Wales, and intro- 
duced Welsh characters, should have been so unfortunate as 
to produce such a dry and uninteresting work as Tlte 
Betrothed, Lockhart tells us that he was mainly prompted to 
write it by the lively and instructive conversations on Welsh 
history and antiquities, of his friend Archdeacon Williams. 
One cannot help wishing that the learned Archdeacon had, 
instead, roused Scott's interest in that stirring period of 
Welsh history, so interesting to a Welshman, when Glendower 
raised the standard of rebellion and waged an unceasing 
war against the power and might of England. Of all our 
heroes Glendower is the one that comes nearest to 
our hearts, and Scott's was the pen best fitted to delineate 
his character in the pages of fiction. The Betrothed 
deals with a period of Welsh history so remote from the 
present day, that, though it treats of Wales, I should not have 
mentioned it, but for its having been written by a modern 
and the greatest of modem novelists. Scott himself was so 
displeased with it that but for the fear that some pirate had 
got hold of the early portion of it which he had written, and 
laid by in disgust, he would, in all probability, not have pub- 
lished it, — in fact, he repeatedly said that he would rather 
write two more new novels than the few pages necessary to 
complete his unfortunate Betrothed, It is pleasing to a 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 243 

Welshman to recollect that Scott had the highest opinion of 
the clever Archdeacon, and continued his friend until death ; 
at his grave Archdeacon Williams read the burial service 
over him. 

In Ivanhoe, King Richard and Wamba, to cheer their lone 
journey through the recesses of the forest, gaily carol the 
wooing of the Widow of Wycombe by her three suitors — the 
north country squire, the Welsh knight, and the yeoman of 
Kent The Welshman tried his fortune after the failure of 
the north country squire, with the result thus merrily sung 
by the Jester : — 

" The next that came forth swore by blood and by nails, 

Merrily sound the roundelay, 
Hur 's a gentleman, God wot, and hur *b lineage was of Wales, 
And where was the widow might say him nay ? 

'* Sir Dayid ap Morgan ap Griffith ap Hugh 
Ap Tudor ap Rhice, quoth his roundelay ; 
She said that one widow for so many was too few. 
And she bade the Welshman wend his way." 

Much as I should have desired my compatriot to have been 
successful in his wooing, if he really was such an idiot as to 
speak of himself as ''Hur", as Scott makes him do, then he 
richly deserved, I think, to be sent about his business, as the 
widow sent him. 

Few books of its kind are more interesting than George 
Sorrow's Wüd Wales. To a Welshman it ought to be one 
of the most delightful books ever written. Early in life, 
when an articled clerk to a solicitor in a town of East Anglia, 
Borrow commenced the study of Welsh; and partly from books 
and partly from a Welsh groom, he became able, not only to 
read, but to speak the language thoroughly. Having had con- 
siderable experience of roughing it in Spain and other coun- 
tries, he determined to do North Wales. He started from 
London in the summer of 1854 with his wife and daughter ; 



244 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

and making Llangollen his head-quarters for North Wales, 
did that country thoroughly, extending his rambles even to 
Anglesey ; after which he made the tour of South Wales 
somewhat more rapidly. He walked about on foot He 
mixed with the people of the country — the labourers, the 
colliers, the miners, the shepherds. And a fine time 
he gets of it among them. What he most liked to get hold of 
was a *'prydydd" or poet ; his greatest antipathy was a 
Wolverhampton or Manchester gent. He meets several speci- 
mens of both on his travels, and while a conversation with a 
" piydydd" generally sends him happy to bed* the appearance 
of a gent in the cofifee room of a hotel is invariably the signal 
for his abrupt departure. He is very proud of his linguistic 
capacity, and is constantly airing his knowledge of the works 
of the best Welsh poets, never seeming to think it as incon- 
gruous to expect a Welsh peasant to be familiar with the 
works of Dafydd ap Gwilym as it would be to expect a 
farmer of Devonshire to be familiar with the works of 
Chaucer, who was the contemporary of Ap Gwilym. His 
admiration of the old Welsh poets amounts to a passion. He 
makes pious pilgrimages to their birth-places. He visits the 
places immortalised in their poems, and narrates their history 
in the happiest of styles. He follows their steps from their 
birth to the grave, and delivers orations of glowing eulogy 
over their tombs. What then does he say of the Welsh 
people he walked amongst ? Let me give a few ex- 
tracts from his book. This is one. "What a difference", 
he says to his wife, after a conversation with a miller's man 
about Taliesin and Huw Morris, " between a Welshman and 
an Englishman of the lower class. What would a Suffolk 
miller's swain have said if I had repeated to him verses out of 
Beowulf or .even Chaucer, and had asked him the residence 
of Skelton." On another occasion he had been with his 
friend John Jones, the Calvinistic Methodist, to visit the 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 245 

" chair " of Hugh Morris, the old royalist poet, of whose 
writings he was extremely fond. On the way back to Llan- 
gollen they found at an inn an intoxicated stonemason, who 
asserted that he could repeat more of the songs of the Eos than 
any man alive, however great a gentleman, however sober — 
more than Sir Watkin, more than Colonel Biddulph himself. 
He then began to repeat what appeared to be poetry, and 
John Jones jotted down what he could catch in Sorrow's 
pocket-book. Amongst the lines the drunkard hiccupped 
were four which he said were composed by Huw Morris on 
his death-bed. "I took the book and read aloud the fol- 
lowing lines, beautifully descriptive of the eagerness of a 
Christian soul to leave its perishing tabernacle and go to its 
Creator. 

' Myned iV wyl ar redeg, 
I*r byd a beryl chwaueg, 
I Baradwys, y ber wiwdeg 
Yn enw Duw yn union deg.' 

Of which this is a translation : — 

* Now to my rest I hurry away, 
To the world which lasts for ever and aye, 
To Paradise, the beautiful place, 
Trusting alone in the Lord of Grace.' 

"A scene in a public-house ? Yes ! but in a Welsh public- 
house. Only think of a Suffolk toper repeating the death- 
bed verses of a poet. Surely, there is a considerable differ- 
ence between the Celt and a Saxon." 

Of their hospitality, their kindness, their generosity, he 
speaks over and over again. The self-respect of the peasantry 
he brings out in many a scene. Be it remembered that Borrow 
was not a man predisposed— except by his admiration for the 
older poets — ^to find in Wales a Utopia. He was a Churchman 
of the sturdiest type ; and the people he moved amongst 



246 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LTTERATURB. 

were, as he repeatedly tells us, a nation of Dissenters. More 
than once he enters into a theological controversy, but he never 
parts with his antagonist on other than friendly terms, even 
though the argument does not always end in his favour. 
Very rarely does he meet with rudeness. I am sorry to say 
that the two worst instances occurred in South Wales, where 
his North Welsh accent got him rudely and unmercif uUy 
laughed at. 

The testimony of Borrow, like that of Churchyard three 
hundred years before, is valuable, because it is that of a man 
who has formed his opinion of Welshmen upon actual exper- 
ience and observation ; and it should be esteemed by Welsh- 
men accordingly. I wish we had a few more travellers of 
his sort. 

In striking contrast to the picture of the Welsh character 
drawn by Borrow, is that drawn by Walter Savage Landor, 
at the time when he resided at Llanthony. In a letter written 
to Bishop Burgess, dated 13th August 1809, upon the subject 
of restoring Danthony chapel, occurs the following passage: — 
" I have conversed with the lower ranks of more than one 
nation in Europe, and last of all with those who have gen- 
erally been considered the most superstitious and the most 
barbarous. But, if drunkenness, idleness, mischief, and 
revenge are the principal characteristics of the savage state, 
what nation, I will not say in Europe, but in the world, is so 
singularly tatooed with them as the Welsh? .... We have 
beheld without attention a strange phenomenon. While 
Scotland and Ireland have been producing in every gener- 
ation historians, philosophers, and poets, the wretched Welsh 
repeat their idle legends from first to second childhood, bring 
forward a thousand attestations to the existence of witches, 
and fairies, boast of their illustrious ancestors, and of the 
bards, more illustrious, who have recorded them — ^and convert 
the tomb of Taliesin into a gate-post." "To this", says Forster, 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 247 

" the bishop was prompt in reply, wisely avoiding the Celtic 
question introduced so explosively, and confining himself 
strictly to the first letter (a former had been written) as if 
but a jog-trot reminder had reached him with the second." 
Six months earlier than his first letter to the bishop he had 
been writing of the Welsh to Southey in much the same 
strain. "Happily on the borders of the Wye the people are 
more civilised than about ma They are more active, and 
activity will not permit the lurking and loose indulgence of 
malignity and revenga My people are idle and drunken. 
Idleness gives them time, and drunkenness gives them spirit 
for mischief." In the succeeding summer he writes again to 
Southey from Llanthony. " While I was in Spain, more in- 
jury was done to the Abbey than I think it possible to 
repair, though I would live on a hundred a year for the re- 
mainder of my life to do it. In architects I have passed from 
a great scoundrel to a greater, a thing I thought impossible ; 
and have been a whole year in making a farm house habit- 
able. It is not half finished, and has cost already two thou- 
sand pounds. I think seriously of filling it with chips and 
straw and setting fire to it. Never was anything half so ugly, 
though there is not a brick or tile throughout Again and 

again I lament I was disappointed in my attempt to fix in 

« 

your delightful country. The earth contains no race of 
human beings so totally vile and worthless as the Welsh. I 
doubt whether they will allow me to make improvements ; I 
am certain they will not allow me to enjoy them. I have 
expended in labour, within three years, eight thousand 
pounds amongst them, and yet they treat me as their greatest 
enemy. Nevertheless, when I see the spherical head of a 
Welshman, I am indebted to him for a perfect view of Lowes- 
water. My mind glances from him, as the point of a sword 
from a stone, and I lose my aversion in my regret.*' 

It would be impossible for anyone, even unacquainted with 



248 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

the writer, to read these letters without suspecting him of a 
tendency to exaggeration. A Welshman cannot read them 
without regret, for however much he may resent the unfounded 
calumnies they contain, he cannot but remember that the 
writer was a man of high intellectual endowments, a ripe 
scholar, and the author of some of the most remarkable prose 
productions of the age. But when the character of the man and 
the circumstances under which the letters were written are 
taken into account by any impartial reader, there should be no 
fear of his identifying in his mind the people of Wales with the 
Welsh nation of Landor. Unfortunately, Forster, his warm- 
hearted biographer, is so led away by his admiration for his 
friend, that whilst he gives the greatest prominence to the 
letters I have just quoted,he gives no warning that the estimate 
of character which they contain should not be accepted without 
qualification. The effect of this is, that the letters get quoted 
without the materials which Forster's biography furnishes, 
whereby they may be read in their proper light; and they are 
evidenced as the opinions of a great writer only, and not of 
a man whose opinion upon the particular subject they deal 
with was most untrustworthy. These letters are the product 
of the unfortunate business of Llanthony, acting upon a mind 
" in condemnation all ferocity", to quote the words of Dickens 
as applied to Boythorn, of whom Landor is said to be the 
original. The ungovernable temper which caused the 
head master of Rugby to request his removal from school, 
which led to his college life at Oxford coming to an abrupt 
close, and brought about a quarrel with his father, one of the 
most genial and pleasant of men, was bound to lead him 
sooner or later to quan-el with neighbours as high-spirited 
and hot-tempered as himself. If he had taken Loweswater, as 
he had intended,he would have quarreled with the natives just 
in the same way ; and according to his notions have been 
swindled in the same way. Forster, himself, says that he has 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 249 

not been much startled to hear it said of Landor by " others 
unfaltering both in admiration and tried aflfection for him, 
that during hardly any part of his life, between nine years 
and almost ninety, could he live with other people in peace 
for any length of time : for that though always glad and 
happy, and good humoured for a while, he was apt gradually 
to become tyrannical where he had power, and rebellious 
where he had not." Such being his character, one is naturally 
disposed to think that, if the architects, both " the great and 
the greater scoundrel ", were allowed to speak, they might put 
the transactions between them and Landor in a very different 
light. People are rarely satisfied with their architects ; and 
people who indulge in such romantic fancies as Lander's very 
often under-estimate the cost of carrying them out; and it is 
not a necessary conclusion that all his architects, contractors, 
and workmen were scoundrels and thieves, because the works 
at Llanthony used up an enormous sum of money. Of Lander's 
egotism and power of exaggeration Forster supplies an 
amusing instance — even in this matter of Llanthony — by the 
following letter, written to him some thirty years later. 
" Llanthony is a noble estate, it produces everything but 
herbage, corn, and money. My son, however, may perhaps 
make something of it ; for it is about eight miles long ; and 
I planted a million o/ trees on it more than thirty years ago. 
I lived there little more than eight months altogether, and 
built a house to pull it down again. Invent a hero, if you 
can, who has performed such exploits." Forster's comment 
on this letter is instructive. " Here was an instance of my 
old friend setting down as the tiling he did, the thing he only 
intended to do ; for his million of trees fell considerably 
short, in the reality, of perhaps a tenth of the number his 
fancy reckoned them." Is it too much for us to say that the 
character of the Welsh as painted by him, was ten times as 
black as the reality. I cannot help thinking that these letters 
VOL. V. s 



250 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

should be read just in the same way as the following extract 
from Bleak House, in which the character of Boythom is so 
well brought out : — 

" The dinner was put back an hour, and we were sitting 
round the fire with no light but the blaze, when the hall 
door suddenly burst open, gtnd the hall resounded with these 
words, uttered with the greatest vehemence, and in a sten- 
torian tone : 

"'We have been misdirected, Jarndyce, by a most aban- 
doned ruflSan, who told us to take the turning to the right 
instead of the turning to the left. He is the most intolerable 
scoundrel on the face of the earth. His father must have 
been a most consummate villain ever to have had such a son. 
I would have that fellow shot witliout the least remorse !' 

" 'Did he do it on purpose ?' Mr. Jarndyce inquired. 

" 'I have not the slightest doubt that the scoundrel has passed 
his whole existence in misdirecting travellers !' returned 
the other. ' By my soul, I thought him the worst looking 
dog I ever beheld, when he was telling me to take the turn- 
ing to the right. And yet T stood before that fellow face to 
face and did not knock his brains out !' " 

If the Landor of later life — the Boythorn of Dickens — 
continued in the same opinion of the Welsh as the Landor of 
Llanthony, and this is perhaps to be gathered from one of his 
" Imaginary Conversations", I would ask his readers and ad- 
mirers to remember upon what a slight foundation his broad 
generalization rests. The Vale of Ewyas is even now but 
sparsely populated, and then it must have had very few inhab- 
itants. Landor lived but eight months there, he says, and 
does not appear to have acquired a knowledge of the lan- 
guage. Wild border districts have never been remarkable for 
conspicuous honesty or morality; and it may be, notwith- 
standing what I have said about the condition of things under 
which the letters were written, that they describe, with more 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 251 

or less accuracy, the character of his neighbours. But even 
so, it seems to me that his generalization from his neighbours 
to their nation is about as fair as that of a man who, living 
in a notorious quarter of a foreign town, should attribute to 
the country the vices ' the suburb. 

A curiously parallel case to that of Landor and Llanthony 
was revealed in a recent trial at Westminster. Madame 
Adelina Patti, like Landor, had a fancy for a romantic ruin 
which she set about restoring. Hers was a castle called Craig- 
y-Nos, situated at the upper end of the Swansea Valley, a place 
as wild and unpeopled as Llanthony. She employed trades- 
men living in the district to do the work. As in Laudor's 
case, disputes soon arose, and divers actions were brought, 
threatened, or compromised. The last was brought by one 
Stevens, a Belgian, and during its hearing it came out that 
there had been a general attempt to overcharge on the part of 
many of the tradesmen employed. Forthwith appears an article 
in The Times upon the trial. The writer treating all the people 
of the district as Welsh, draws from the trial gloomy morals 
of the dishonesty of the Welsh tradesmen of the district of 
Craig-y-Nos, and of Welsh tradesmen generally. Now, the real 
facts of the case were these, — the only tradesman who does 
not appear to have overcharged Madame Patti was a Welsh- 
man, and of those who are alleged to have done so, though 
all are resident in Wales, the proportion is as two English- 
men to qne Welshman. This mistake of treating all who live 
in Wales as Welsh is one which often works to the pre- 
judice of the national character. Not very long ago a learned 
judge, on circuit in Wales, at the close of a civil trial 
ordered one of the solicitors engaged in the afiair to stand up 
and show himself, as a notable example of Welsh legal 
cunning and rascality. That solicitor was an Englishman. 

There are not many allusions to Wales and her people in 
the works of Thomas Carlyle, from which may be gathered 

s2 



252 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

the opinion which that great writer held of the people. The 
only one that I have found occurs in his Life of John Stirling, 
It is in the early part of the Life, when the Stirliugs were 
living at Ilanblethian, near Cowbridge. Carlyle was evi- 
dently pleased both with Ilanblethian and with the Vale of 
Glamorgan. "The peasantry*', he says, "seem indolent and 
stagnant, but peaceable and well-provided; much given to 
Methodism when they have any character. For the rest, an 
innocent good-humoured people, who drink home-brewed beer, 
and have brown loaves of the most excellent household 
bread. The native peasant village is not generally beautiful, 
though it might be were it swept and trimmed : it gives one 
rather the idea of sluttish stagnancy — an interesting peep 
into the Welsh Paradise of Sleepy Hollow. Stones, old kettles, 
naves of wheels, all kinds of broken litter, with live pigs and 
etceteras lie about the streets ; for, as a rule, no rubbish is re- 
moved, but waits patiently the action of mere natural chem- 
istry and accident ; even if a house is burnt or falls, you will 
find it there after half a century, only cloaked by the ever 
ready ivy. Sluggish man seems never to have struck a pick 
into it ; his new hut is built close by on ground not encum- 
bered, and the old stones are still left lying. This is the 
ordinary Welsh village, but there are exceptions, where 
people of more cultivated tastes have been led to settle, and 
Llanblethian is one of the more signal of these." 

If Carlyle had lived to pay a visit to the Vale of Glamoi'gan 
in these days, I do not think he would have applied the epithet 
"stagnant and indolent" to the peasantry. Better food and 
wages have roused them into activity since he wrote. But 
as to the native peasant village we should not have much 
difficulty even now in finding its exact counterpart — i^ven 
down to the " old kettles, naves of wheels, and etceteras." 

In the works of Thackeray there are, as far as I remember, 
no characters which may be called typical Welsh characters. 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 253 

Few indeed are the allusions to Welshmen. There are one or 
two gentle satires on our national love of pedigrees. We are 
told that the pedigree of the Pendennises carried them back 
to the Druids, and that they were related to all the great 
families of Wales : and in Vanity Fair we have a reference 
to a long Welsh pedigree. It is pleasant, however, to reflect 
that in the Book of Snobs no real Welshman appears. There 
is, it is true, a gentleman who derives his descent from the 
Hogyn Mogyns of remote antiquity, but he is only a 
barren counterfeit rascal, whose connection with Wales 
springs only out of the fertile imagination of Heralds* College. 

In the Mrs. Woodcourt of Bleak House we have the 
portrait of a Welsh lady drawn by the hand of Dickens. 
This is how she is described on her first introduction to us. 
** She was a pretty old lady with bright black eyes, but she 
seemed very proud. She came from Wales : and had had, a 
long time ago, an eminent person for an ancestor, of the 
name of Morgan-ap-Kerrig — of some place that sounded like 
Gimlet — who was the most illustrious person that ever 
was known, and all of whose relations were a sort of royal 
family. -He appeared to have passed his life in always 
getting up into mountains, and fighting somebody ; and a 
bard, whose name sounded like Crumlinwalliwer, had sung 
his praises in a piece which was called, as nearly as I could 
catch it, * Mewlinwillinwodd.' After expatiating to us on the 
fame of her great kinsman, she said that no doubt, wherever 
her son Allan went he would remember his pedigree, and 
would on no account form an alliance below it. She told 
him that there were many handsome English ladies in India 
who went out on speculation, and that there were some to be 
picked up with property ; but that neither charms nor wealth 
would suflftce for the descendant from such a line without 
birth, which must ever be the first consideration." 

The inopportuneness of this genealogical glorification to 



254 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

one in the peculiar position of the heroine, shows up tlie 
proud old lady in a light so unfavourable that the reader 
positively hates her for it. But she quite recovers favour when, 
towards the end, in the struggle between pride and afiTection, 
pedigree goes to the wall and her warm Welsh heart is seen 
to be in the right place after alL It is gratifying to a Welsh- 
man to think that the blood of Morgan-ap-Kerrig of Gimlet 
flows in the veins of Alan Woodcourt, the young doctor, one 
of the noblest characters, not only in this, but in any of 
Dickens' works. 

The very title of Blackmore's novel, I7ie Maid of Sker, com- 
mends it to a Welshman, associated as it is with the song. 
The characters therein are so familiar to you that any de- 
scription of them by me is unnecessary. Dyo Llewellyn, 
man of war's man, pensioner, fisherman, poacher, clock-keeper, 
naval hero, and a whole host of other things, is one of the 
cleverest sketches in nineteenth century fiction. I have 
often heard it said that he is an exact type of his race in aU 
his points, and that the author meant him to be considered 
so. But I do not think that can be the case. I do not think 
the typical Welshman would cheat his customers in the way 
Dyo used to, when he palmed off his tainted fish upon them, 
or put horns to truth and tell " corkers " as Dyo did, and as 
he more than once confesses to have done. Near as Davy 
Llewellyn approaches the typical Welshman, he is no more to 
to be taken in all his points as a perfect type, than Parson 
Chowne is to be taken for a perfect type of a Devonshire 
parson. 

The Maid of Sker closes my selection from the permanent 
portion of English literature. I am conscious that I must 
have left out many authors who have delineated typical 
Welsh characters, equally worthy of selection with 
tliose I have given. My excuse is, that the ground of my 
subject is entirely new as far as I have been able to discover, 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 255 

for I have not yet, after much diligent search, met with any- 
book in which it has been treated. Consequently, I have 
been limited to such writers as I had a previous acquaintance 
with before commencing this paper, and those whom I 
have come across, after a good deal of laborious and often 
fruitless searching through many and many an indexless 
volume. From the sketch as it is I gather that my country- 
men have been on the whole criticised very fairly by the en- 
lightened English foreigner ; that the best English writers 
are those with whom they have appeared in most favour, and 
that those by whom they have been satirized and ridiculed 
with spite and bitterness, are for the most part men whose 
very names are unknown or forgotten. 

The Welshman of ephemeral English literature differs to- 
day very much from the same individual of ten or fifteen years 
ago. Then it was quite the fashion to treat of matters relat- 
ing to Wales invariably in a contemptuously didactic strain, 
and to assume for the purpose of argument that certain 
sweeping generalizations as to the character of the people 
admitted of no possibility of doubt. So firmly rooted, for 
instance, was the belief of the prevalence of perjury to an 
enormous extent in Wales, that it is really a matter of 
wonder why, in a slack session, Parliament did not enact a 
statute with some such preamble as this: — "Whereas our 
loving subjects of the Principality of W^ales have little notion 
of the obligation of an Oath ; and whereas false swearing and 
perjury in our Courts of Justice in the said Principality are 
deplorably common : Be it enacted," etc. 

Our inordinate vanity was another feature in our national 
cbamcter assumed without qualification by periodical writers, 
in want of a butt at which to aim the shafts of their wit, 
when treating of our nmnners or customs, our social habits 
or personal qualities. What the Welsh people complained of 
in the criticisms of that period was, not the being criticised 



256 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURK 

at all, but that the critics themselves were obviously ignorant 
of the subject about which they wrote ; which is not sur- 
prising when we consider the kind of historical text books in 
use up to a very recent period. The other day I looked into 
one in use when I was at school, to see what it had to say 
about the Welsh, for as far as my memory served me, it said but 
little. I found it what I expected it to be. It began with a 
flourish of trumpets about the early history of Britain being 
enveloped in mist, then in a few lines skipped nimbly down the 
centuries to the time of Julius Caesar, devoted a little space to 
the Boman occupation, quickly disposed of the lot of Saxon 
kings, and set to work in earnest with William the Conqueror. 
More or less vague references to wars with the Welsh 
occur at rare intervals; but from these nothing can be 
gathered with respect to the position of the Welsh people in 
the scale of European civilisation ; and this applies not only 
to the period anterior to Edward the First, but even to the 
period from that time down to the present, when a history of 
England, to be worthy of the name, ought to include some 
account of the Welsh people. The aid the Welsh gave to 
English kings in their foreign wars is unnoticed ; even the 
gallant service which the Welsh rendered in a garden where 
leeks did grow, upon St David's day, at Crecy, is not men- 
tioned, notwithstanding it was chronicled by Froissart and 
immortalised by Shakespere. 

Having told us that the earliest inhabitants were tatooed 
savages, and that their descendants received some polish from 
the Bomans, the historian considers he has said enough about 
the condition of the WelsL Not a word about their literature. 
The sclioolboy seizes on the "tatooing"and forgets all about 
the " Roman polish". The schoolboy pictures to himself a 
barbarous race — without culture, without a literature — 
brought by slow degrees within the pale of civilisation by the 
influence of the polite and courteous English. Tlie inevitable 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 257 

result of such reading as this is to. engender a contempt hard 
to get rid of in after years. 

To the general ignorance of Englishmen upon the subject 
of Welsh literature let Mr. Matthew Arnold speak. This is 
what he says: — "To know the Celtic case thoroughly one 
must know the Celtic people ; and to know them, one 
must know that by which a people best express themselves — 
their literature. Few of us have any notion what a mass of 
Celtic literature is really yet extant and accessible. One 
constantly finds even very accomplished people, who fancy that 
the remains of Welsh and Irish literature are as inconsider- 
able by their volume as, in their opinion, they are by their 
intrinsic merit; that these remains consist of a few prose 
stories, in great part borrowed from the literature of nations 
more civilised than the Welsh or Irish nation, and of some 
unintelligible poetry. As to Welsh literature, they have heard 
perhaps of the Eed Book of Hergest or the Black Book of 
Caermarthen, and they imagine that one or two famous manu- 
script books like these contain the whole matter." I do not 
think Mr. Arnold has at all overstated his case. Indeed, I 
fancy that even the number of " very accomplished people", 
who have heard of Y Llyfr Cock o Hergest, or Y Llyfr Du o 
Oaerfyrddin, is by no means large. 

Happily, a new school of historians has arisen, and with 
the advent of such writers as Mr. Froude, Mr. Green, and Mr. 
Morley, we may reasonably expect the rising generation to 
grow up free from that early contempt of which I have 
spoken, as springing from not being taught something of the 
literature of the Welsh, or of the gallant services they rendered 
the English on many a field of battle. 

What an effect can be produced by a personal knowledge 
of Wales and the Welsh people is gracefully illustrated by 
Leigh Hunt in the following lines. 



258 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

^^ I used to think of thee and thine 
As one of an old faded line, 
Living in his hills apart, 
Whose pride I knew, but not his heart. 
But now that I have seen thy face, 
Thy fields and ever youthful race, 
And women's lips of rosiest word, 
(So rich they open) and have heard 
The harp still leaping in thy balls, 
Quenchless as the waterfalls, 
I know thee full of pride, as strong 
As the sea's most auciunt song, 
And of a sympathy as wide." 

Whilst the periodical writer of to-day treats of the Welsh 
in a much fairer spirit than his predecessor, and often, indeed, 
holds out a friendly and encouraging hand, he is still influ- 
enced by the deep-rooted tradition of the awful prevalence of 
perjury, and the inordinateness of the national vanity ! Now, 
that perjury is committed in Wales, and to an extent to be 
regretted, is what no Welshman will deny. But it is, I think, 
quite eiToneous to assert that it is committed to a greater 
extent in Wales than in England. My own impression is 
that the existence of this belief is due to a passage in Mur^rays 
Guide Book, perpetuated without alteration by successive 
editions, down even to that of last year. It runs thus ; — 
" Notwithstanding the absence of crime, there is ofton to be 
met with a sad want of truth and straightforwardness, and 
a love of prevarication. Every magistrate who sits in a 
Welsh police court, and judge of assize, lias abundant 
opportunities of noticing this propensity, and even old 
Giraldus gives the following testimony: 'They pay no respect 
to oaths or truths, and never scruple to take a false oath for 
the sake of any temporal advantage.' Without subscribing 
to this sweeping charge", Murray continues, "it must never- 
tlicless be confessed, that lack of truthfulness is a fault lament- 
ably prevalent." An Englishman, however indiirei-ent to 



THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 259 

literature of a higher kind, is pretty sure to make himself 
master of the guide book to the country he is about to visit ; 
and Murray has always held a first place in the affections of 
the roving tourist. Just imagine, then, the sort of respect 
towards the inhabitants an Englishman must feel, when enter- 
ing Wales fresh from reading such a passage as the above. 
He is ready to see a lie in everything, and is unhappy till he 
does come across one. If you reason with him he refers you 
to Murray, to the judge of assize and magistrates. Now, as to 
the judges of assize, all I can say is, I asked one who had gone 
the South Wales circuit recently, whether it was true ; he said 
certainly not. As to the magistrates, I don't believe the state- 
ment; and as to Murray's statement generally, I say it is 
untrue. He quotes the evidence of Giraldus forsooth — a 
Welshman, by the way — a man who lived many centuries 
ago. What would he say to the character of the English of 
the present day for truth being made dependent on that they 
had at the time of Giraldus ? Perjury is not a crime charac- 
teristic of the Welsh. "The very name of a falsifier of promes, 
is most .hateful to them," said Churchyard nearly 300 years 
ago, in the passage I have already quoted. Not a line is there 
in Shakespere or in Ben Jonson to indicate that they thought 
• lying common amongst the Welsh of their day. What was said 
of them 300 years ago can be said with equal truth of them now. 
Before English writers, with no real experience of, or acquaint- 
ance with the Welsh, charge them with a propensity for lying, 
I would ask them first of aU to reflect upon what has been the 
English character in this respect, which I will read you from 
a recently published book by an English writer — Pike's His- 
tory of Crime. "This offence (perjury) always common among 
uncivilised peoples, had been prevalent in England since the 
days of compurgation. Nor to anyone who studies our social 
history from the seventh century downwards, is there any 
cause for surprise in the fact, that almost within the memory 



260 THE WELSHMAN OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

of persons yet living, professional perjurers walked West- 
minster Hall, with straws in their shoes to advertise the fact 
that they could be hired to give evidence for a consideration. 
The traffic of these male prostitutes of the witness-box has 
now fortunately come to an end, though no one who has any 
acquaintance with law courts would deny that perjury is still 
very often committed. As no practice was more characteristic 
of the days before the Conquest, or asserted itself more per- 
sistently in the age of chivalry, or more efiFectually defied 
every change of religious belief, so none impressed its mark 
more deeply upon the eighteenth and even upon the nine- 
teenth century." In the face of and after such a character as 
that, does it lie in the mouth of any Englishman to talk about 
*' the sad want of truth and straightforwardness, and the love 
of prevarication" so fearfully common in Wales? 

Then as to our national vanity. Is it so excessive as it is 
said to be ? I am afraid, if I tried to answer the question, I 
should be met with the lines of Burns which I quoted at the 
commencement of this paper. The accusation, to a great 
extent, rests on what takes place, or used to take place, at 
Eisteddfodic gatherings. No doubt we are rather fond of 
crowing over the victory at Harlech, but then the march has 
many English counterparts. — "Twas in Trafalgar Bay", and * 
the like. And if we do celebrate our triumphs we commem- 
orate — what must be rare in a nation excessively vain — 
a great disaster in the beautifully mournfid dirge " Morva 
Ehuddlan." What song commemorates Saratoga, or Fontenoy, 
or Khyber Pass ? I may be wrong, but I do not think we can 
be so vain as we are reputed to be, when I remember that one 
of our pet proverbs is "Every land breeds its hero" — Yn 
mlioh gwlad y megir glew. 



261 



THE POEM BY lOLO GOGH ON OWAIN 
GLYNDWR'S PALAGE OF SYGHARTH, 



The description of the palace of the last claimant of the 
hereditary and independent sovereignty of Wales, by his 
domestic Bard, has attracted the curiosity of the English- 
speaking public to a degree sufficient to furnish excuse for an 
attempt at its translation. An imperfect paraphrase has, 
indeed, appeared in the amusing little work, entitled Wild 
Wales, by the late Mr. Borrow, but this could scarcely be 
expected to convey any idea of the style or composition of 
the poem, an object, in fact, almost entirely precluded by the 
rules of alliterative concatenation {cymghanedd) peculiar to 
the Welsh poetry of the age, carried in some of its parts 
to an almost unreasonable excess, so as to leave too little 
scope for the due interpretation, by the language, of the 
inward mind of the composer. The reader should also be 
guarded from any fetJing of disappointment, should he be 
disposed to seek in the poem for a sober and accurate account 
of the prince's residence. The frequent repetition of the 
mystical number nine, for example, is proof enough that the 
amplification, which figures so largely and so constantly in 
Cymric poetry, has been here resorted to as a means of adding 
a certain dignity and grandeur to the picture. Of the date 
of the composition of the poem, within a year or two at 
least, there can be little room to doubt, since, from its internal 
evidence, it is clear that it was inspired to the imagination of 
the Bard during the height of the prosperity of his patron, 
during the assumption by him of regal power and authority, 
and the display of all the splendour and magnificence which 
that assumption wan-anted, which liis circumstances admitted 



262 THE POEM BY lOLO GOCH 

of, and wliicli his policy required. The statement, that if he 
were but greeted in public by his lord, his status would at 
once be established in the respect of the rest of the world 
suffices to fix the date to the year 1400, when Glyndwr 
first appeared in arms, and assumed the title of sovereign, 
or one very nearly preceding it. Nor, again, can it have been 
composed later than May 2, 1402, when Hotspur had burnt 
the palace of Sycharth, and ravaged the surrounding terri- 
tory. Out of this arises another interesting question, as 
to the age of the bard. Tliere is internal evidence that he 
had attained to old age, in the lines to that effect, though that 
he was also decrepid, may, perhaps, be put down to exaggera- 
tion, since his decrepitude did not prevent his travelling so 
far — on horseback, it is to be presumed — to visit his patron. 
On this point the conjecture (for it amounts to no more) of 
Canon Williams, in the Biographies of Eminent Welshmen, 
can scarcely, as yet, be taken as settling the question. He 
says: "lolo Goch must have lived to extreme old age, as 
among his poems, is an elegy on the death of Tudur ab 
Gronw, who died in 1315, and a poem wTÌtten on the comet 
which appeared in 1402." But, as there happens to have 
been more tlian one Tudur ab Gronw of the family of 
Ednyved Vychan of Penmynydd, from whom descended 
Owain Tudor, the ancestor of Henry VII, the statement by 
no means settles the question, unless it were placed beyond 
doubt that this was the Tudur on whom the elegy was com- 
posed. From a genealogical table of the family, appended to 
a very interesting account of it by Mr. Williams, in Archeo- 
logia Cambrensiê (Vol. xv, p. 378, third series), it appears that 
Ednyved Vychan had a son Gronw, who did homage to Edward 
I ; that this Gronw had a son, Tudur Hen ab Gronw, who was 
buried in the Church of the Carmelite Friary, which he had 
founded at Bangor, and died subsequently to 1301 , the year in 
wliich he did homage to Edward II ; that his son Gronw was 
buried at Bangor in 1.S31 ; that his son, Tudur Vychan ab 



ON OWAIN GLYNDWR S PALACE OF SYCHARTII. 263 

Gronw, assumed knighthood, and with it a new coat of arms, 
in which he was confirmed by Edward III, and died in 1367; 
and that he, also, had a son named Gronw, surnamed Vychan, 
who was drowned in 1367, and to whom several poems and 
elegies, by other bards, are found in the Myvyrian Archaiology, 
from which it appears that he attained to high praise as a 
warrior, and that part of his career was exhibited in France. 
So far as appears, therefore, the elegy may have been written 
on either Tudor; but, if the former, the statement that he 
died in 1314 would seem to be incorrect, it being argued by 
Afr. Williams that Tudur Hen was living as late as 1352, 
from the fact that he was then being constantly termed Tudur 
Hen, the elder, to distinguish him from Tudur Vychan, the 
younger. Nor is this the whole of the case. For, in the 
late Mr. Wynne's catalogue of the Hengiort MSS., an elegy is 
named, as by lolo Goch, on Gronw ab Tudur ab Gronw 
(in No. 366), but not one on Tudur ab Gronw ; while another 
MS. (No. 253a) is described as containing a poem by tliis 
bard to the "Four Sons of Tudur Ilwyd of Penmynydd", 
which Tudur Llwyd is identified with Tudur Vychan ab 
Gronw, though unknown by this appellative to Mr. Williams. 
Should anyone think this argument superfluous or superficial, 
it may be added that, by parity of reasoning, it might be in- 
ferred, from the words " in 1314", appended to the notice, in 
the catalogue, of a poem by lolo Goch to Davydd ab Bleddyn, 
Bishop of St. Asaph, that a poem was written by him so 
early as in that year. But, from Canon Williams's account 
of this bishop, it appears that he was not consecrated until 
1315, and that he was living in 1346, so that the poem may 
have been composed at a date subsequent to the latter year 
for aught that is known to the contrary. Although, therefore, 
it is true that lolo must have been living in 1402, since he 
wrote on the comet that appeared in that year, it does not 
yet sufficiently appear what his age then was, though, by his 
own admission, ** the minstrel was infirm and old". From the 



264 THE POEM BY lOLO GOCH 

poem addressed to Owain in his retreat, a translation of 
which has appeared in the Cymmrodor, it would seem not 
improbable that its author survived to the year 1406, or 
later, as it was then that the King of France was beinir ex- 
pected to support him with an army. But the interesting 
question of the actual duration of the life of lolo Goch is 
one still awaiting solution from a fuller examination of his 
works than their condition, scattered as they are in different 
libraries, and existing, for the most part, only in MSS., 



CYWYDD I OWAIN GLTNDWR, 

Cyn iddo godi mewn rhyfel yn erbyn y Brenin Harri 'r 
Pedwerydd, i ganmol adeiladaeth ei Lys ef, lie 'r oedd 
lolo, wedi cael ami wahawdd, yn dyfod i dario yn hen wr, 
fal y tystia 'r Cy wydd. 

Addewais i t* hyn^ ddwywaith, 

Addewid teg, addaw taith, 

Taled bawb tal, hyd y bo 

Addewid a addawo ; 

Beth anwyl mae'n bwyth uniawn,* 5 

Perwyl mor anwyl raawr iawu. 

Myned mae adduned ddain,^ 

Lies y w,* tua Ilys Owain ; 

Yno yn ddidro ydd âf, 

Nid drwg, ag yno drigaf, 10 

I gym 'ryd i'm by wyd barch, 

Gydag ef, o gydgyfarch.^ 

Fe all fy nâf, uchaf ei® ach, 

Aur ben clêr,^ dderbyn cleiriach, 

> Hyd yn, in Moses Williams's Repertorium ; hyd hyn (H. L.) 

* *' I pererindawd ffawd ffyddlawn." (Llyfr Twm o'r Nant^ No. 3.) 

» Dain, "pure, delicate*'. (O. Pughe's Diet, s.v.) 



ON OWAIN GLYNDWR*S PALACE OF SYCHARTH. 265 

uncollated and uncorrected, will admit of, until this state of 
things be greatly altered for the better. 

The text of the poem has been taken from that in Gor- 
chestion y Beirdd, with correction of some palpable errors and 
misprints, and collated with a copy in Llyfr Huw Llyn, re- 
ferred to as H. L., in the handwriting of Gutyn Owain, 
written prior to the year 1487, and others in the British 
Museum. The MS. copy written by lolo Morganwg is desig- 
nated by I. M. ; and by T. E., that of Twm o'r Nant. 



A POEM TO OWAIN GLYNDWE, 

Before he rose in war against King Henry the Fourth, to 
extol the building of his mansion, where lolo, when an old 
man, was coming to stay after frequent invitation, as the 
poem testifies. 

Twice have I promised thee to bear 

The journey — 'twas a promise fair — 

And, when a promise has been made, 

It should be to the utmost paid. 

Fulfilment always dear when meet. 

Is dearer still in cause so sweet 

The vow is delicate, for so 

Tis gain to Owain's Court to go ; 

Then thither straight I'll wend my way. 

It bodes no ill, and there I'll stay ; 

To gain my life respect, I. ween, 

In mutual greeting when we're seen. 

My Lord supreme, of high descent. 

To minstrels most munificent. 

Can welcome still, nor deem it hard, 

A crooked, old, decrepid bard. 

* Lie syw. (H. L.) » Oed o. (H. L.) • ei, (H. L.) 

7 A decrepid old man. (Th. Clair^ '* prone, bending downward.") 
VOL. V. T 



266 THE POEM BY lOLO GOCH 

Clywed bod, nis eel Awen,^ 15 

Ddiwarth hwyl, yn dda with hen ; 

I*r Ilys ar ddyfrys ydd âf, 

deucant odidoccaf f 

Llys Barwn, He syberwyd,' 

Lie daw Beirdd am* He da byd. 20 

Gwawr Bowys fawr, beus* faig, 

Gofyniad® gwiw a^ fynaig, 

Uyna modd y llun y mae, 

Mewn eurgylch,® dwr mewn argae ; 

Pand da *r Llys, pont ar y Uyn, 25 

Ag unporth, lie 'r ai ganpyn. 

Cyplau* sydd, bob cwplws ŷnt, 

Cwpledig, bob Cwpl, ydynt : 

Clochdy Padrig,^® ffrengig, ffrwyth, 

Cloystr Wesmestr, cloau ystwyth,^^ 30 

Cengl yn rhwym,^* bob Congl unrhyw, 

Cafell^' o aur cyfa^* oil yw ; 

Cenglynion, yn^* y iron fry, 

Dordor^^ megis daeardy. 

A phob un, fal llun^* Uyng-glwm,^^ 35 

Sydd yn eu gilydd yn glwm.^® 

^ Klod hod kyd hoed aliisen. (H. L.) 

> Oddioccafy in ^^ Grorch. y Beirdd ", is a manifest misprint. Odidohaf 
(H. L.) 

8 Syherwyd may be courtesy. " Gwell syberwyd na bonedd," Better 
is courtesy than nobility. WeUh Proverh. 

« Ami. (H. L.) 

^ This is a difficult passage. Beus in '^ Gorch. y Beirdd ^* ; hcuys in 
T. E. ; heuesy I. M. It is petts^ a country, slice, the lay of the land, in 
H. L. ; PeiieSy (I. M.) Fr. pays. For the connection between peues and 
Powys vide Mont, Coll., yol. i. The word is not to be confounded with 
* heiu8\ faulty, erroneous. Maig, lit. an eyent, a hap, a fall, a course. 
Probably, the meaning is that, " he (Owain) announces his request that 
I should describe the fortune or state of the district in which he 
dwells." 

• Go/uned. (H. L.) ^ 0. (H. L.) » A mound. (1. M.) 



ON OWAIN GLYNDWR'S PALACE OF SYCHARTH. 267 

Hear, for the Muse tx) tell is bold, 
He*ll blush not to befriend the old. 
In haste, then, to his Court I'll fare, 
Not one, mid hundreds, is so rare, 
A stately place, a Baron's Court, 
For bounteous cheer the Bard's resort. 
The Light of Powys — grave request — 
Hath laid on me his high behest. 
His dwelling's state superb to sing, 
Its tow'r fenced round with gold-like ring. 
Its Lake, with bridge o'erreaching far. 
Its gate secured with many a bar. 
Its steeple, like St. Patrick's, French, 
Its bolts supplied with supple clench. 
To Westminster 's its cloister like, 
With quoins each angle fraught alike, 
Its roof with gilded vaults above, 
So tight they like a prison prove. 
The junction is, in all the joints. 
Made firmly fast, at all the points. 
And, as a ship's planks fitly joined 
Together all completely groin'd. 

• Cyplau, plur. of cu^pl^ from Lat. copula. In heraldry, a chevron ; 
in buildings, a principal rafter. 

^^ A steeple worthy of St. Patrick. Ffrengig, perhaps, in the Koiman 
style. " So T. E , but clostri esmuyyth (H. L.). 

^ Cenglynrhwym, " Gorch. y B." 

'3 Kanghell QXka Kynga. (H. L.) ^* Kyn fron fron, (H. L.) 

'* TordoTy lit. ventre h ventre. But the reading may be incorrect, as 
the word is not found in Dr. Davies^s Lex, C. B, 

>« Lien (H. L.). 

*^ Llynglwm. Llwmglwm (T. E.), llwmgwlm (H. L. and I. M.). Dr. 
O. Pughe reads llwmglwm^ and translates it, **• like a hard knot". But 
the bard may have writn llyng-glicmj^ ** compact as a ship^*, and so 1 
have rendered it. 

*^ Owlm. (H. L. and L M.) The word occurs in the Barddas. 

T 2 



268 THE POEM BY lOLO GOCH 

Tai Napl, ar folt^ deunaw plas, 

Tŷ pren glân, mewn* top bryn glâs, 

At bedwar piler eres, 

Ei Lys ef i nef yn nês. 40 

Ar ben pob piler pren praff, 

Uofft ar dalgrofft adeilgraif. 

At pedair llofft, o hoflfder, 

Ynghŷd gwplws* clau gwsg cler : 

Aeth y pedair disglair lofift, 45 

Nyth Iwyth ,♦ teg iawn yn wyth loflt ; 

To teils, ar bobty* talwg, 

Simneiai, Ue magai« mwg. 

Naw neuadd cofladd/ cyflun, 

A naw Wardrob, ar bob un : 50 

Siopau glan glwys, gynwys gain, 

Siop landeg,® fal Siep® Lundain. 

Croes Eglwys, gylchlwys, galchliw, 

Capelau, a gwydrau® gwiw. 

Pob tû 'n Uawn, pob tŷ 'n y Uys,^^ 55 

Perllan, Gwinllan gaer wenllys. 

Garllaw 'r Uŷs, gorlliwio 'r^^ Hall, 

Y pawr Ceirw mewn pare arall. 

Pare owning, Meistr Pôr^* cenedl, 

Eiydr,'' a meirch hydr, mawr chwedl. 60 

* Ar/olty in " Gorch. y B.", is, perhaps, meant for arfolL H. L. haa 
^^namplad ar fold momplas"y which seems altogether corrupt. Or it 
may be the English word ^^ vault^\ The Teaaingfoldyfolty And foUt haa 
the consensus of MSS. 

8 Uwch (H. L.), Afewn. (T. E.) 
8 So T. E. ; gfrsc lie ktcsc (H. L,) 

* <* A nest for a whole tribe.'' But I. M. thinks this reading 
wrong. 

^ Ar bob ty talateg, (I. M.) Ar bob ty ("over every house") in 
*^ Gorch. y B." Bat the description here refers to the mansion only, 
the bakehouse of which had a tiled roof, probably for increase of heat 
in the oven. Chimneys must have been a special luxury in Wales 



ON OWAIN GLYNDWR'S PALACE OF SYCHARTH. 269 

A house, like those in Naples seen, 
Within it would contain eighteen. 
The timbered house, on topmost height 
Of a green slope, is fair to sight ; 
On pillars four so strangely high. 
The mansion seems to reach the sky ; 
Over each pillar stout of wood 
Is fix*d a chamber firm and good. 
And pleasantly, in slumbers deep. 
Among the rafters, minstrels sleep. 
Four rooms to eight afford their rest, 
A spacious, light, and airy nest. 
The bakehouse frowns from roof of tiles, 
Of smoke the chimneys nurse their piles. 
Nine ample halls of one design, 
In one and all are wardrobes nine ; 
Shops clean and bright, compact, and fair. 
With London's Cheap may each compare. 
The Cross-Church, white, is wall'd around. 
Its chapels with glazed lights abound. 
On eVry side the Court *s replete. 
Each house within it, all complete. 
An orchard, vineyard, too, hard by. 
With varied tints, beside it lie. 

at BO early a date, when the ordÌDary outlet for smoke was a hole in 
the roof. ^^ On all highly frowning houses chimneys where smoke gene- 
rates." (0. Pughe's Lex, s. v.) 

• MagaiW (H. L.), ni/agair fwg (T. E.), nVm magai nwog (1. M.). 

7 Cojly the folding of the arms, embracing the bosom. Here, ample, 
oomprehensiye. Cgflun^ identical in form (Dr. O. P.^s Lex.), H. L. 
has qjfiadd. 

^ Lotondeg (H. L.), step (H. L.). Cheapside, a comparison often 
found in the bardic poems of the fifteenth century. 

• Gioyrthxau, (H. L.) 

*® In H. L. this line is Pohty^n llavm^ pob ty^n y Llys. 

" (?ar//€ar. (I.M.) ^^ Jm poW cenedl. (H. L.) ^^ Krydr. (H. L.) 



270 THE POEM BY lOLO GOCH 

Dolydd glân gwyran/ a gwair ; 

Ydau mewn caeau cywair, 

Melin deg, ar ddifreg ddwr, 

A*i glomendy, gloew maendwr. 

Pysgodlyn, cuddiglyn,* cau, 65 

A fo rhaid, i fwrw rhwydau ; 

Amlaf, He nid yr^ ymliw, 

Penhwyaid a gwyniaid* gwiw ; 

A*i dri* bwrdd, a'i adar by w, 

Peunod, cryhyrod* hoywryw. 70 

A gaith/ i bob gwaith fo gwiw, 

Cyfreidiau, cyfair® ydyw, 

Dwyn blaenffrwyth,® cwrw Amwythig, 

Gwirodydd, bragodydd^® brig. 

Pob Uyn, bara gwyn, a gwîn, 75 

A'i gôg, a'i dan i'w gegin.^^ 

Pebyll y beirdd, pawb He bo, 

Pe beunydd, caifif pawb yno ; 

Teka llys bren penn hepai 

O'r dymas, nawdd Duw amai,^- 80 



^ Gtoyran^ pasture. It is used for coarse grass for cattle. O. P.'s 
Diet derives it * perhaps from gxcy, **water"; and rhan^ "a part".' 

* Arddygllyn. (I. M.) 
» Er, (T. E.) 

* Gwyniaid, The fish of that name are said to exist in Wales only 
in Bala Lake. As they can scarcely bo supposed to have been brought 
from thence, the term here may be used probably of gudgeon, roach, or 
other silvery fish. 

* Dir, (H. L.) Tables— query, for the birds' cages. 

« *' Crŷr and Crybyr and Crehyr," Ardea, Davies's Lex, C. Br. 
** Cregyr and Crehyr," Dr. Owen Pughe's Lex» 

' Gaith. lolo Morgan wg translates this ^^slaves'^ adding character- 
istically in the margin of his copy, which he took from a MS. of Rhys 
Jones of Blaenau, *' D — n Owain with all his mock patriotism." The 
next line he annotates thus : *' The same argument for slavery in Wales 
as our present pseudo-Christians urge for the West Indian slavery.** 



ON OWAIN GLYNDWR'S PALACE OF. SYCHARTH. 271 

One park, a warren, rabbits feeds, 

Another deer, the best of breeds. 

Ploughs, steeds are there — ^their master's name 

Of all the tribe's best known to fame. 

Bright meads, with grass and hay are fiU'd, 

And crops of com in fields well till'd ; 

A fair mill, on unbroken stream. 

And dove-house, bright with noon-day gleam. 

A fish-pond, hollow, dark, and deep, 

In need till netted, fish to keep. 

A spot where cannot fault be found, 

There pike and silvery fish abound. 

Three tables, too, and birds alive, 

Vivacious set ! her'ns, peacocks, thrive. 

And slaves, whatever he may direct. 

With promptitude each work effect. 

He has the first-fruits, Shrewsbury ale, 

Wassail and bragget never fail. 

For wine, and every liquor look, 

Fire for his kitchen, and his cook. 

The bards a lodging all may find, 

Altho' 'twere dauy, to their mind, 

This palace is, without compare, 

Protect it, God ! of all most fair. 



Bat the isBtitutíon became very gradually extinct even in England, an 
instance having been found as late as the reign of Henry YII. Rhys 
Jones would get rid of the difficulty by reading ag iaiih and *Man- 
guage'\ But this is far-fetched. Gaxth^ for caethy to rhyme to gwaith. 

8 Kyfar, (H. L.) 

» Blaendnvyth, (H. L.) 

'<* Gtcirodauy hragodau, (H. L.) 

" This couplet is not in H. L. 

*2 This couplet is from H. L. ; not in ** Gorchestion y Beirdd"; iiepai 
for heh bat. Teka for modern tecca\ 



272 THE POEM BY lOLO GOCH 

A gwraig orau o'r gwragedd, 

Gwyn y myd^ ol gwîn a'i medd. 

Merch eglur, Uîn marchawglyw, 

Urddol, hael, o reiol* ryw, 

A'i blant a ddeuant bob ddau,^ 85 

Nythod* teg o bennaethau ! 

Anodd^ yn fynych* yno 

Weled na chlicced na chlo ; 

Na phorthoriaeth ni wnaeth neb, 

Ni bydd eisiau, bydd^ oseb : 90 

Na gwall, na newyn, na gwarth, 

Na syched fyth yn Sycharth. 

Gorau Cymro, tro traglew,® 

Biau 'r wlad, lin by wyr® llew ; 

Gwr meingryf, gorau mangre/® 95 

A phiau 'r^^ Uys, liofif yw 'r lie. 

* Gwyn y myd^ a dialecticism for Gvoynfy myd, " Happy am T\ 

' reiol is, perhaps, a late addition, as it looks like an Anglicism 
from the expression ** royally*'. But O. P., s. v., derives it from rheiaw^ 
to gleam, connecting it with rheiawg (Meilyr), and rheiaior (Aneurin), 
none of which are found, however, in Davies' L. C. B. Yn rlteiol is 
often heard in North Wales in the sense of ^^exceedingly". U. L. has 
for it anianol. 

* Bob ddau. This couplet seems irreconcileable with the statement 
of the pedigrees that Owain Glyndwr had by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Sir David Hanmer of Uanmer, knight. Justice of the 
King's Bench, besides other illegitimate children, six sons, all of whom 
were either put to death as prisoners taken in arms against their sove- 
reign, or fell in battle, and died «./>., and four daughters. The difficulty 
may, perhaps, be solved by the hypothesis, that the two children of 
Owain who came to Sycharth during the poet's sojourn there, were 



ON OWAIN GLYNDWR's PALACE OF SYCHARTH. 273 

His lady — of all women best, 
Me with her bread and wine hath blest. 
Noble and knightly her descents, 
Maid royal in beneficence. 
Come, too, shall both his children there. 
Each one a nest of chieftains fair. 
There 'tis not easy oft to see 
Or latch, or bolt, or lock, or key ; 
The barriers there no porter lifts. 
No want is there of wealthy gifts, 
Nor lack, nor hunger, nor disgrace. 
In Sycharth ever sought a place. 
Of Welshmen by the bravest, best, 
Of lion's pow'r, the land 's possest ; 
Strongest of strongholds, strong yet slim 
Its lord, I love both it and him. 

two of the latter, the Lady Alice, married to Sir John Scudamore of 
Kentchurch, and the Lady Janet to Sir John Croft of Croft Castle in 
Herefordshire. 

* Nythaid, (H. L.) 

* Anoddj a form that often occurs in Welsh poetry for anhawdd. 

* Anvffmfch iawnfu. (H. L.) 

7 So I. M. ; but all the MSS. have budd, " No want of the benefit 
of gifts." 8 2Vy lew. (H. L.) 

* Sic (H. L.) Al. llyn and llys povoer y^ which are plainly of later 
invention. The bard probably wrote Bywys for the hywyr of the earliest 
MS. *^ The Lion of the line of Fowys", but cynghanedd suggested to 
some one the alteration at a later period. (H. L.) 

^^ Mangre, ** an intricate place, a stronghold." 
^^ A phvauW, The ph transgresses grammar to conform to cyng- 
hanedd. The form in H. L. is a phie. 



274 



THE 

TRADITIONAL ROUTE OF THE ROMANS 

ACROSS THB 

CARNARVONSHIRE MOUNTAINS. 



In venturing an opinion upon a subject that haa already 
occupied the attention and interest of so many antiquarians, 
it could only be through a reproduction of already acknow- 
ledged facts, and being allowed at the same time to bring 
forward such traditions as might be able to support the few 
authentic records that have been handed down to us by ancient 
writers. Neither ought an unheeded notice to be taken of 
the scattered and silent relics, left by the ravages of time, 
and still found even upon the desolate mountain track. With 
this understanding the present question is mooted, as to 
whether the road through Bwlch-y-ddeufaen is a road of 
British construction, or one made by the Eomans. The sub- 
ject is one of interest, and might, perhaps, be settled definitely 
in favour of the British, were all the traditional circum- 
stances allowed to have a proper weight in forming an im- 
partial opinion. In a letter from the Eev. H. Longueville 
Jones to the Editor of the Archasologia Cambrensis, voL i, 
page 70, first series, he mentions that his curiosity was 
aroused about the probable road made by the Eomans from 
Conovium to Segontium, close to Carnarvon, "because Pen- 
nant, that acute observer, had declared himself unable to 
determine its direction from Conovium." This, therefore, is 
all that Pennant says about the supposed route of the 
Bomans. Those who know these mountains well miglit l)e 



THE TRADITIONAL ROUTE OF THE ROMANS. 275 

justified in asking, Did the Eomans make a road across the 
Carnarvonshire mountains in this direction ? The traditional 
route of the Eomans, which is shown on the accompanying 
map by a red line, is one that horse and foot soldiers might 
easily take ; and the whole distance could be traversed in a 
few hours. The Eomans made a road to Pen-y-Gaer from 
Conovium, a distance of about two or three miles, as there 
are still traces of their road, and this neighbourhood abounds 
with their relics. Then again, before leaving the mountains, 
on the western side, in a direct line with their traditional 
route to the Menai Straits, we come upon boggy ground, and 
a mountain stream ; it is at this point that there are plain 
indications of a Eoman road, and Welsh tradition so far 
supports the idea, that at this present time the narrow road 
leading from the mountains to the plain is called by the 
Welsh "Ffos Ehufeiniaid'^ or the Eoman road, and passes 
near the ancient manor house of Cochwillan. The next 
question that is likely to arise in the doubtful mind is : How 
were the Eomans able, in a district unknown to them, and 
inhabited by the brave and warlike Britons, determined to 
defend their land and religion, and urged on at the same time 
by the warlike and priestly Druids, able to pass just across 
those mountains, so as to ensure themselves a safe pass- 
age ? It probably is true that the ground was contested " inch 
by inch", but still the Eomans are known to have crossed 
By referring to the map, the situation on the Drosgl shows 
where the severest fighting took place between the Britons 
and the Eomans, and where the Britons proved victorious, 
causing the Eomans to retrace their steps towards Foel Fras. 
The only answer to be given to this doubt is one of ti-adition, 
and one that has held undisputed sway among the WelsL 
The tradition is as follows : A British Chieftain, called by 
the Eomans Arviragiis, having offended the Druids, went 
over with all his armed force to the side of the Eomans ; he 



276 THE TRADITIONAL ROUTE OF THE ROMANS 

had also married into the family owning the lordship of 
Cochwillan, near which place the Boman road is discernible ; 
and tradition says that through the help of Arviragus, the 
Eomans were led over the Carnarvonshire mountains^ by the 
route described on the map in red ink, to the Menai Strait 
In revenge, the Britons are said to have stolen his young son, 
and to have carried him to Ireland; he was afterwards 
known as St Patrick. I believe it is correct, that no Eoman 
remains have been discovered in Bwlch-y-ddeufaen, or on Pen- 
maen-mawr, except some coins found when quarrying on the 
north side of the mountain. Having, therefore, related the 
account most generally believed amongst the Welsh in- 
habiting that mountain district, of the path taken by the 
Eomans on their way to the Menai Straits, we ought care- 
fully to describe Bwlch-y-ddeufaen, that being the road 
sometimes called Boman, though no Boman remains have 
ever been found there. Bwlch-y-ddeufaen is a recognised 
pass from the village of Y Bo, not far from the banks of the 
Conway, to the village of Aber, on the northern shore of the 
Menai Straits. The road thus crosses the Carnarvonshire 
mountains from east to west, passing on the south side of 
Tal-y-fan, a mountain 2,000 feet high. Of course, to form a 
right judgment, it is necessary to enquire whether the 
objects that have been observed in traversing this road are 
those belonging more especially to the Britons or to the 
Bomans. In the Rhyd MSS., compiled by the Bev. J. Uoyd 
of Caerwys, Denbighshire, dated 1772 (and much damaged 
by mice), mention is made of Bwlch-y-ddeufaen, as follows — 
his description commencing at the eastern entrance of the 
pass. 

" Monuments. — At the top of the ascent, as you go from 
Tal-y-cafh, stands a house called Buarth, qu, an. from Beirdd, 
as its situation is in a Druid Grove ; in a hedge-row, a bow 
shot from the house, stands Uech-yr-ast, in length five cubits, 



ACROSS THE CARNAKVONSHIRE MOUNTAINS. 277 

in breadth four-and-half, supported by five pillars, two taller 
than the rest, which gives it an inclination to the north : a 
fine prospect from hence. Further on, vast numbers of 
foundations of carneddau, etc, ; on the left hand, opposite to 
them, a tall slender pillar called Maen gwyddel, four cubits 
and half high; Maen hir between this and the mountain 

Gwaen-y-Penin (qu, an. ^nmance), in it stand pillars five 

cubits high , a pavement of pebbles supposes 

this to be a pl[ace of interjment. After entering the on 

the left hand appears an oblong square, distinguished by 
short upright stones. The author judges this a proper situ- 
ation for their Cerrig Brudyn, or astronomy schools. Several 
large carneddau hereabouts ; one having a stone coffin in its 
skirts, composed of seven shivers without a lid, of the make 
of our present coflBns, five feet or more in length ; on the 
right hand of this an oval, and some ruinate carneddau, the en- 
trance south-west nearly facing the largest of the two columns 
of Bwlch-y-ddeufaen. The road passes between them, that to 
the left the largest, being a conic figure of eight or nine 
cubits high ; that to the right has [an entour]age of corres- 
ponding pillars." 

From personal observation in the year 1 876, when walking 
upon this road from Y Eo, the cromlech at Buarth, on the 
right hand side, was noticed with much interest ; it served as 
a shelter for sheep, and formed likewise part of a boundary 
wall ; after passing this cromlech, a slender pillar, or maen 
hir, was seen on the left hand. By a short divergence on 
the right hand side, and ascending the ground from the road, 
you come to the small British fortress of Gaer Bach, the 
stones of which, within the last ten or fifteen years, have 
been taken to build the adjacent boundary walls. During 
the many hours spent there, the eye has learnt to look on 
many Druidical remains, now too trivial to be mentioned in 
writing ; from the smallness of this fortress, and the import- 



278 THE TRADITIONAL ROUTE OF THE ROMANS 

ant places seen from there, it probably was one of the British 
signal stations. It also may be as well to note that Gaer 
Bach is at the south entrance of Bwlch Du, which crosses 
Tal-y-fan in the direction of Llwyn-pen-du (Grave of the 
black point) ; Bwlch Du is not marked on the Ordnance Map. 
Continuing the walk from Gaer Bach in a westerly direc- 
tion, we arrive at some cistvaens, or as the shepherds told me 
in English, "the tombs'*. They are a large pile of rock and 
stone, containing places of sepulture. I entered one of the 
graves to see if any inscription or Ogham character could be 
found, but the search was unsuccessful. These cistvaens, 
from their situation, could not be the same as those men- 
tioned in the Bhyd MSS. Descending from the cistvaens the 
road is regained, and soon on the left hand are observed the 
Cerrig y Pryved. These are worthy of notice. Longueville 
Jones remarks upon these stones, saying that himself and 
friends, in walking through Bwlch-y-ddeufaen, " had come 
upon several interesting British antiquities, in particular, 
not far from the pass, a circle of stones, about seventy feet 
in diameter ; some stones of no great size still remained in 
situ ; the rest were gone, but the trace of the circle was very 
plain. After this, occurred a second circle of the same dimen- 
sions, with only five large stones remaining, but with a circu- 
lar cyst or house, five feet in diameter inside the circum- 
ferenca" Our guide informed us that, according to local 
tradition, these were called "Cerrig-y-pryved", the stones of the 
flies. With remains like these on either side the road we 
reach " Y ddeufaen", at the foot of Y Drosgl ; one of the 
stones has been thrown down by quarrymen, the other still 
remains standing. Here a thoughtful pause ought to be 
made, for at the distance of three miles northwards is to be 
seen rising the probable grand Druidical temple, on the 
summit of Pen-maen-mawr ; and again, more to the east, 
is seen, according to Canon Williams, the famous Temple of 



ACROSS THE CARNARVONSHIRE MOUNTAINS. 279 

Ceridwen. A turbary lies between the fort of Y Drosgl and 
the temples just named, and the road continues a winding 
course through many Druidical remains until it reaches 
Aber, at which place no Koman relics have been found. 

Clara P . 



280 



THE NATIONAL EISTEDDFOD OF 1882. 



The National Eisteddfod of 1882 was held at Denbigh, on 
the 22nd, 23rd, 24th and 25th of August. In spite of the 
inclement weather, from which Wales escaped no more than 
the rest of Europe, it may fairly rank among the em- 
inently successful Eisteddfodau of recent years. The pavilion 
was erected near the crown of the hill upon which the old 
town of Denbigh is built, and the Gorsedd ceremonies were 
celebrated, under Clwydfardd's auspices, within the precincts 
of the ancient Castle which marks its summit The presi- 
dential chair was occupied in succession on the four days by 
Major Comwallis West, by the Lord Bishop of St. Asaph 
(Dr. Hughes), by Sir Watkin W. Wynn, and by Sir Eobert 
CuulifTe. Sir Eobert was understood to do the honours of the 
platform on the 25th as proxy for Mrs. Gladstone, who 
arrived in Denbigh on that day, and was escorted to the 
pavilion amidst universal enthusiasm. Pedr Mostjm, the 
Rev. Glanffrwd Thomas, and Mr. T. Marchant Williams, 
officiated as conductors ; and Eos Morlais, Mr. Ben Davies, 
Mr. Sauvage, and Mr. Lucas Williams, sang the Eisteddfod 
song. In addition to the Presidential addresses, speeches 
were delivered by Sir Eobert CunlifTe, by Mr. Lewis Morris, 
and by Mr. Osborne Morgan. It was not surprising that the 
educational needs and prospects of the country supplied the 
staple topic to the speakers. Though the most renowned 
of all the visitors to the Eisteddfod was not called upon for 
a speech, and indeed was allowed to pass with but scant 
notice, it must not be forgotten that the platform, on the 



THE NATIONAL EISTEDDFOD OF 1882. 281 

first day, held a peraonality no less potent than that of Mr. 
Punch, of Fleet Street ; who subsequently commuuicated his 
views on the subject to the readers of his journal after his 
own peculiar fashion. We sincerely regretted to learn that 
Cambrian ministrelsy had proved altogether too dull an affair 
for the merry little gentleman's taste, and that he was fain 
to beat a retreat in the direction of limcheon at a compar- 
atively early period. 

The proceedings of the Gorsedd were varied on the last day 
of the Eisteddfod by an unusual event, the admission of a 
lady to Bardic honours. The candidate was Mrs. Key Blunt, 
of Baltimore, U.S., a poetess well-known in America. The 
Bardic name of "Mair Madoc" was conferred upon her by the 
President. The examinations recently instituted as a neces- 
sary preliminary to admission into the Bardic order, have 
made this honour one of greater significance than formerly. 

The Cymmrodorion Section held its meetings in the Town 
Hall daily on the five days from August 2 1st to August 25th. 
The attendance was good, and several papers of high value 
were read. A list of the meetings will be found below. 
The utmost credit is due to the indefatigable Honorary 
Secretaries of the Section, Mr. T. Marchant Williams, B.A., 
and Mr. W. Cadwaladr Davies, for the continued success of 
these meetings. 

The evening concerts were of a miscellaneous character, 
except that of the 25th, at which the oratorio of the Messiah 
was performed. 

The following prizes were awarded during the four days: — 

In the Department of Poetry. 

Ten pounds and a Bilver medal to Dewi Glanffrwdlas, Bethesda, for an 

ode to Denbigh Caâtle. 
Two pounds to Mr. John Williams, of Denbigh, for a poem on *' Welsh 

Fairs.'» 
Two pounds to Mr. John Davies (Ap M'/fffr), of Pontypridd, for a Welsh 

epi<;^ain. 
VOL. V. U 



282 THE NATIONAL EISTEDDFOD OF 1882. 

A prize to Owilym ap Owilym LUyn o Treuddyn^ for eight original 

hymns. 
Five pounds to Mrs. Thomas, of Uandegai, for an English translation 

of a portion of Golyddan's"Ie8n." 
Eight pounds divided between Ap Lleurwg of Llanelly, and Mr. 

Edward Foulkes, of Llanberis, for English poems on *^ Home.** 
Twelve guineas and a gold medal to Mr. D. K. Williams, of London, 

for a pryddest in memory of General Garfield. 
The Tuchangerdd prize of two pounds to Watkyn Wynn, of Nantlle. 
The Chair Prizk of twenty guineas and a gold medal, offered for a 

poem on ** Man*\ was not awarded. 

In the Department of Prose Composition. 

Ten pounds divided between Mr. David Evans (Ap Tudor )^ of Cardiff, 
and Mrs. Owen, of Beaumaris, for an Essay on the '* Natural Ad- 
vantages of Wales as a Field for Manufacturing and Commercial 
Enterprise." 

Ten pounds divided between Mr. Joseph Aubrey, of Toungstown, 
America, and Mr. Roberts, of Llanrwst, for an Essay on "Trans- 
lators and Translations of the Welsh Bible.** 

Twenty-five pounds divided between Mr. D. J. Rowlands, of Carnarvon, 
and Mr. T. H. James, Llanllyfni, for Essays on '^ Agriculture 
in its relation to landlord, tenant-farmer, labourer, and general 
interests of the country." 

Five pounds to Mr. Robert James, of Ruthin, for an Essay on Sir Hugh 
Middleton, and William and Thomas, his brothers. 

In the Department of Musical Composition. 

Five guineas (offered by the Rev. W. Morton, of St. Asaph) to Mr. 
W. T. Rees (Aiaw Ddu)^ and a second prize of three guineas to Miss 
A. J. Williams, of Wrexham, for original anthems. 

Five guineas (offered by Miss Burt and Lady D. Francis) to Mr. C. L- 
Renshaw, of Birkenhead, for an arrangement of Codiad yr Hedydd, 

In the Depajitment of Musical Execution. 

One pound to Edmund Bevan, aged six, of the Rhondda Valley, for 
pennilUon singing. 

Three pounds to Mr. Richard Prichard, of Carnarvon, for harmonium 
playing. 

Three pounds to Mr. W. T. Davies, of Talgarth, for solo singing. 

Six pounds to Miss Stephenson and party, of Wrexham, for quartette 
playing. 

Twenty pounds to the Irwell Brass Band, from Manchester, for ren- 
dering *'The March" in Tannhaiiser. 



THE NATIONAL EISTEDDFOD OF 1882. 283 

lliree poundB to Mr. StephensoD, of Wrexham, for violoncello playing. 
Two pounds to Mr. George Williams, of Manchester, for a bass-solo. 
Five pounds divided between Miss Hannah Parry, of London, aged 

twelve, and Miss Ella Richards, of Bangor, for pianoforte playing; 

also one pound to jMiss Edith Furnivall, aged ten. 
Three pounds to Master E. Williams, of Pontypridd, for pedal harp 

playing. 
A similar prize to Master D. Pierce, of Treherbert (given by Sir Watkin 

W. Wynn). 
Three pounds to Miss Mary Owen, of Tydraw, for a soprano solo. One 

pound each to Miss Minnie Jones, of St. Asaph, and Miss Amy 

Lawson, of Anglesey. 
Three pounds to Miss Parry, of Bethesda, for pianoforte playing. 
Three poun<ls to Eos Mon for pennilUon singing after the manner of 

North Wales. 
Fifteen pounds to the Arfonic Society of Llanberis, in a choral com- 
petition for male voices. 
Thirty pounds, and a medal to the Conductor, to the Nantlle Choir, in a 

choral competition for not less than fifty voices. 
Ten pounds and a medal to the Denbigh Volunteer Brass Band. 
A violin, value five guineas, to Miss Smith of Chester, for violin playing. 
Five guineas (offered by Miss Burt and Lady D. Francis) to Mr. C. L. 

Renshaw, of Birkenhead. 
The great Choral Prize of £100, to the Penrhyn Quarry Choir, with a 

gold medal to the Conductor, Dr. Roland Rogers, of Bangor. 

For Fine Art. 

Six pounds to Mr. Leonard Hughes for a water-colour drawing. 

Fifteen pounds to lolo Ooch for a carved oak mantelpiece. 

Ten pounds, for an original oil painting, to Mr. Leonard Hughes, of 

Holywell. 
A silver medal for an ornamental screen to Miss Mainwaring, of 

Galltfaenan. 

For Handiwork, etc. 

A silver medal (offered by Dr. R. T. Roberts, of Aberystwith), to Mr. 

6. J. Williams, of Ffestiniog, for a collection of foasila 
A silver medal, for a piece of Welsh flannel, to Mr. Waterhouse, of 

Holywell. 
A prize, for a patchwork quilt, to Miss Jones, of Holyhead. 
One pound to Mrs. Jones, wife of Dafydd Morganwg, for a pair of 

Welsh stockings. 

It was aunounced that Cardifif had been selected as the 
scene of the Eisteddfod of 1883, and that "Syr Huw Owain" 
would be the subject proposed for the Chair Prize. 

ü2 



284 THE NATIONAL EISTEDDFOD OF 1882. 

THE CYMMEODORION SECTION. 

The Cymmrodorion Section held its meetings in the Town 
Hall, as follows : — 

On Monday, August 2l8t, Sir Robert CunlifPe, Bart, in the 
Chair ; Dr. B. W. Richardson read a paper entitled " Race and 
Life on English Sou." 

On Tuesday, August 22nd, Mrs. Rhys (of Oxford) in the 
chair ; Mrs. Frances Hoggan, M.D., read a paper on ** The Co- 
education of Women." 

On Wednesday, August 23rd, Major Comwallis West in 
the chair ; Mr. Parry, Chairman of the North Wales Quarry- 
men's Union, read a paper on "Imperial, County, and Local 
Government'^ The chairman ruled that as the paper dealt 
with political matters, its discussion was out of order. Mr. 
Cadwaladr Davies, one of the Honorary Secretaries of the 
Section, read a paper by Mr. W. Cave Thomas on "The De- 
velopment of the Eisteddfod." 

Thursday, August 24th, Mr. John ThomasfPencerdd Giaalia) 
in the chair ; Mr. D. Jenkins, Mus. Bac., read a paper on "The 
Working Classes and Music in Wales." Dr. Parry read a 
paper on "The necessity of providing a Musical College for 
Wales." 

Friday, August 25th, Mr. Lewis Morris in the chair; a 
paper by Miss Dilys Davies, on "A Model School for Girls", 
was read by Mr. William Davies (Mynorydd), the authoress's 
father. 

CoRRRCTiox. — In the article on the National Eisteddfod of 1881 
(vol. IV, part ii, p. 234), the remark on the unfavourable comparison 
between the instrumental execution in the Principality and that of the 
North of England was erroneously attributed to Dr. Parry. Ihe 
remark was made by his fellow-adjudicator, Mr. William Griffiths, of 
Workington, Cumberland. 



285 



THE EISTEDDFOD AND POPULAR MUSIC 

IN WALES. 



On the 7th of March last Mr. J. Spencer Cnrwen, who had 
acted as one of the adjudicators at the Merthyr Eisteddfod in 
1881, read a paper on " Popular Music in Wales" before the 
College of Organists. The paper has since been " printed for 
private circulation" ; and although attention has already been 
called to it in the newspapers, many of the remarks in it are 
so interesting and valuable, that we are tempted to make 
some extracts from it, which we earnestly commend to the 
attention of our musical Eisteddvodists. 

Mr. Curwen is not among those who, as he says, regard 
"Welsh patriotism as an amiable and harmless form of 
lunacy." He sees in the Eisteddfod very much to admire, 
and expresses his admiration in terms sufficiently strong 
to satisfy any reasonable national vanity (if there is such 
a tiling) which our readers may feel. The whole paper 
is pervaded by a tone of generous sympathy which ought 
to secure for his criticisms and suggestions the most careful 
consideration. 

It is to the Eisteddfod Mr. Curwen attributes "the popular 
musical culture of Wales", a culture wljich is, in his opinion, 
"so remarkable, that if it existed in France or Germany 
we should never cease to hear of it Musicians and publidsts 
would make pilgrimages to the spot, and lecture us, on their 
return, about our inferiority." In describing the Eisteddfod 
as an institution " supported entirely by the working people", 
the lecturer made some remarks which may be recommended 



286 THE EISTEDDFOD AND POPULAR MUSIC IN WALES. 

to the attention of those good people who appear to be always 
consumed with anxiety to secure for it the patronage of 
princes. In the colliery districts "there is no gentry to 
lead or to patronise" the working people, "and they have 
therefore'^to patronise themselves. This is not to be regretted; 
tlie days of patronage and subsidy for popular art, either by 
Government or by the wealthy classes, are over, and it is 
much better that the demand for culture should rise spon- 
taneously from the people themselves." It is as the institu- 
tion of the working classes that "the Eisteddfod is profoundly 
interesting to all who value the popular cultivation of music, 
and desire to bring the masses within the influence of this 
most ennobling art." 

In speaking of what he saw at Merthyr, Mr. Curwen makes 
the following among other remarks : — 

*^ I am bound to say that the average merit of the competitora waa 

high There was very little bad singing, and of hardly any of the 

competitors could it be said that they had mistaken their vocation, and 
could never sing so as to be worth listening to. The remarkable thing 
is how these colliers learn their songs. A chance conversation generally 
revealed the fact that they were self-taught ; and the visits of great 
singers to Wales are so rare, that the opportunities of imbibing style must 
be few. Yet it was the gropings after style that made the singing of 
these untutored Welsh people so interesting. They sometimes lost the key, 
but they very seldom were either stiff or tame, and almost without excep- 
tion they had voices that were worth being trained. There were collier 
lads in their Sunday best of very shiny broadcloth or coarse tweeds ; great 
men with baritone voices of enormous power ; round country girls with 
rosy faces and sweet untrained voices, rich with promise. It was disap- 
pointing to think how few of these will succeed in getting a proper 
musical education. 

*'Tbe interest of the Eisteddfod culminated in the choral competi- 
tions. ... On the last day ... six choirs entered, having an aggregate 
of one thousand four hundred and fifty -six voices. . . . Ten thousand 
people passed through the turnstiles of the park, and £600 was taken in 

admissions It took three hours to hear these six choirs sing. 

During all this time the vast audience remained standing, packed with a 
dense pressure, suffering evidently the greatest physical discomfort ; yet 
orderly, eager, electrical Here were the common people them- 



THE EISTEDDFOD AND POPULAR MUSIC IN WALES. 287 

selves, crowding to no brutal sport, not even to clap-trap or flimsy enter- 
tainment, but to genuine art. It was just the consummation for which 
social reformers sigh in England. 

^^ The singing of these choirs lost much of its force through taking 
place in a tent .... but it was very impressive. The Welsh voices are 
very fine. They are richer even than those of Yorkshire, and they are 
far better than the French or German choirs which I have heard. 
Moreover, the Welsh sing as if inspired. They seem, as they are singing, 
to be under the influence of some invisible power. I have seen the same 
absorption and self-oblivion while singing with the children of the 
Jewish Schools in Spitalfields, but nowhere else. There seems to be 
something in common between these two old races. The choirs sing 
even long and difficult choruses like '* Ye Nations "wholly from memory. 
The intensity of the singers excites the audience by force of sympathy, 
and uo one who has heard a Welsh choir can fail to remember how 
pecuUarly moving their singing is.'' 

The speaker made also some remarks on Welsh com- 
posers : — 

*^ The fact that there is a Welsh school of composers is unknown to most 
English people. The word ^^ school'* may reasonably be used, because 
there is a distinct manner and direction in the writing of these Welsh- 
men. They compose almost entirely sacred music, and affect the fugal 
style. This is the style which the choirs seem best to enjoy. The music 
which they delight in — the tangle of a fugue and persistent imitation — 
would be voted unbearably dry by singers of the same class among us. 
At Merthyr two full-blown oratorios were produced with orchestral ac- 
companiments, both by Welsh composers, llie subjects were, of course, 
Biblical. It is impossible to dissociate Welsh music from Welsh theology 
and religion ; indeed, Welsh music can only be understood by realising 
the intense Calvinistic faith of the people ; their deep study of the Bible ; 
their system of Sunday Schools. The tinge of their theology harmonises , 
with the darker and more stern aspects of religion ; hence their sacred 
music is grave, impetuous, and sometimes wrathful." 

So nmch by way of praise. The paper, however, contains 
something that ought to be more valuable to us than this 
pleasant piping, to wliich many of us are perhaps but too 
ready at all times to dance. Now then, reader, audi alteram 
partem, 

Eeferring generally to some national characteristics of the 



288 THE EISTEDDFOD AND POPULAR MUSIC IN WALES. 

Welsh people, with which their English neighbours are not 
much in sympathy, Mr. Curwen says half reprovingly, half 
apologetically, but with entire truth, that "a small nation 
always is clannish, preserves its traditions eagerly, indulges 
in mutual admiration, and patriotic exaggeration." But even 
to this natural defect there is a corresponding and compen- 
sating advantage. "The way in which they [the Welsh 
people] stand by each other and honour their own prophets 
is beyond all praise. Almost all the Welsh singers who 
have risen to fame, have been helped by their fellow country- 
men to an education in music. They get up benefit concerts 

for them, make collections, and subscribe scholarships 

This sort of thing is constantly done. Would it be done 
under simUar circumstances in England ? " 

Of the Eisteddfod itself it is but too truly said that " there 
is, of course, a good deal of gush and wrangling thrown to 
the surface by the excitement" of it ; but it is kindly added 
tliat "these appearances are merely superficial". We are 
further reminded of what is only too apparent, that the 
"drastic stimulus" supplied by the large number of com- 
petitive meetings held all over the country " is not without 
its attendant evils", even though it does produce " a vast 
amount of singing and a countless number of choirs of all 
sizes and of all qualities". 

The observation, incidentally made, that " for the National 
Eisteddfod a guarantee fund is raised, and the proceeds go to 
endow musical scholarships" is unfortunately only partially 
true, but it contains a hint worth bearing in mind now that the 
reform of " the national institution" is so mucli discussed. 

Another important and delicate question touched upon is 
that of adjudication. Mr. Curwen justly observes that " the 
basis upon which public and individual satisfaction with the 
Eisteddfod rests is perfect confidence in the ability and fair- 
ness of the judges I am convinced that my work 



THE EISTEDDFOD AND POPULAR MUSIC IN WALES. 289 

was rendered far more easy through not knowing the hand- 
writing of a single competitor in the compositions, nor the 
personality or antecedents of a single solo competitor or 
choir or band. I was not a better judge than my colleagues — 
for their in^dncible fairness was apparent from first to last — 
but my work was far less troubled and anxious, and it was 
impossible that any one should accuse me of punishing an 
old enemy or of rewarding an old pupil. I believe the 
employment of English judges at the Eisteddfod — or at least 
of Welshmen not resident in Wales — would be in every way 
an advance." 

This solution of the difficulty is only practicable to a very 
limited extent in any other subject than music. Whatever 
evils may actually exist in this connection — as it is, they are 
probably exaggerated, and are doubtless not so much thought 
of as they once were — must be cured by cultivating an en- 
lightened public opinion on the subject. No adjudicator 
should be employed whose ability or honesty is open to 
reasonable question. And, on the other hand, no one who 
does not feel confidence in the appointed adjudicator should 
enter a competition. The adoption of the principle " Ofer 
dadleu gwedi bam" should be regarded as a matter of honour 
among competitors ; and it should be always made clear that 
every one who enters a competition, ipso facto binds himself 
to accept the decision of the adjudicator. 

In tliis matter very nmch can be done by the press to 
remove some of the evils. Editors of newspapers have often 
been far too ready to fill their columns by admitting anony- 
mous insinuations against, and even direct attacks upon 
adjudicators. It is a matter for great regret that this species 
of literary assassination has ever been tolerated among us. 

Our kind critic also thinks that " the mode of giving the 
adjudications is susceptible of improvement". He truly says 
that in giving orally the adjudication on choral competitions 



290 THE EISTEDDFOD AND POPULAR MUSIC IN WALES. 

much judgment is required. " The atmosphere is highly 
charged, and anything like ridicule stings sharply. The 
great thing is to know what not to say." 
Again : — 

*' In the case of musical compositions a carious custom has arisen of 
each judge writing his own adjudication and puhlishing it. . . . Judges, 
of course, often differ, and the verdict is given by the majority. Surely, 
however, these differences of opinion are not for the public ear. Yet 
this custom of publishing separate adjudications reveals everything, and 
can only have the effect of keeping alive the chagrin of defeated com- 
petitors. In the French Orpheoniste competitions the appreciations of 
the judges are united verdicts, written out by one of their number 
after the competition is over." 

A few words next about conductors : — 

*' The habits of some of the Welsh conductors are peculiar. Batons 
are recent, the old Welsh conductor did not beat time at all in any 
proper sense of the word. He waved his hands with open palms, as if 
pouring some electrical influence into his choir ; starting back or bend- 
ing forward, turning now to the left and now to the right, in sympathy 
with the music. This old style of conducting was to be seen once or 
twice at Merthyr. It is easy to ridicule it ; certainly it appears ridicu- 
lous, but it is in keeping with the fervid abandonment of the singers 
themselves.*' 

Dr. Stainer has a more important hint to give on this sub- 
ject. He asks : — 

'* Ought not the Principality to educate a number of highly-trained 
conductors f Certainly the excellent quality of tone of the voices, the 
correctness of ear, and the genuine enthusiasm of the singers, present to 
a musical director materials second to none in the world. At present 
the conductors are practically on a level with the rest of the choir ; but 
grand as the result is, infinite progress might be made under highly- 
accomplitthed directors.*' 

Of the choirs, again, it is remarked : — " The characteristic 
defect of these Welsh choirs is the tendency to scream. 
Especially is this the case with the boys who sing alto. 
They shout in the coarsest manner in the forte passages, and 
the effect is most unpleasant. These boy altos, in fact, may 
be mentioned as the most striking defect of Welsh choirs." 



THE EISTEDDFOD AND POPULAR MUSIC IN WALES. 291 

Among the defects which mar the work of the Eisteddfod 

as an educational agent, are the following : — 

^* It is one of the defects of the Eisteddfod that it offers no prizes for 
sight-singing. . . If I had the management of an Eisteddfod I would 
test each soloist and each choir in sight-singing before the competition, 
and reject those who could not read fairly at sight.*' 

Referring to the examination for "musical degrees", Mr. 
Curwen expresses his opinion that " the result was very un- 
satisfactory. The judges had no time to attend properly 
to the work, and it is evident that during the excitement 
of an Eisteddfod the cold-blooded work of a paper examina- 
tion cannot be properly done." 

Dr. Stainer — quoted by Mr. Curwen — ^points to a still 

graver defect, and one which is not peculiar to the musical 

work of the Eisteddfod. He says : — 

" There is every reason to fear that many young singers look upon the 
ribbon and medals as an end more than as a means to an end. Several 
cases have occurred in which singers have been quite content to live on 
the moderate income obtained by an Eisteddfod notoriety, and have 
neglected that sound training which would have made them a credit to 
the nation at large. The fact is Wales entirely lacks any organiz- 
ation/or sending its talented young musicians to great centres of study y and 
providing them with free education.*^ [Italics ours.] 

Finally, the speaker quoted the opinions of a Welsh corres- 
pondent about the merits and defects of the institution, some 
of which we reproduce as deserving of very serious considera- 
tion : — 

*^The chief drawback of the Eisteddfod, in my opinion, is its money- 
making aspect. A decided evil, although I fear a necessary one for all 
time. Attempts have been made to form an independent fund, and to 
get endowments, but I do not think this can be done ; and if it were I 
question whether it would be a lesser evil. This money-making business 
is an evil in this way, — the best music has to give way to that which will 
^ draw ' best ; the best artists to those who will put popularity first and 
art second ; the best adjudicators to those who will flatter the competitors 
and soft-soap the officials. Popular, easy, and often clap-trap and noisy 
pieces are continually chosen to secure a numerous entry of competitors. 
In some neighbourhoods you have the same piece chosen in three, four. 



292 THE EISTEDDFOD AND POPULAR MUSIC IN WALES. 

or five local Eisteddfodau, especially if that piece has been already com- 
peted for in the same locality. I know of cases- where a choir has 
competed in the morning, say Christmas Day or Good Friday, at 
Eisteddfod number one, in the afternoon at Eisteddfod nimiber two, and 
in the evening at Eisteddfod number three ; the piece being the same. 
All this produces laziness in the singers, and sadly retards the progress 
of true art. In this way I question very much whether we have made any 
real all-round advance in choral music of late yeara Our singing is a 
great deal too much in one rut — loudness. Our choirs and conductors like 
easy-sailing homophonic fuU-chorded music, and shrug their shoulders at 
what is at all fine, or anything but diatonic. 

As regards adjudicators, I am distinctly of opinion that we are retro- 
grading. It is very rarely any of our leading men appear in the local 
Eifiteddfodau. They either decline, or mention a prohibitory fee with 
the same object. These men, in adjudicating, do it having their 'con- 
science as their God', and consequently have many an unpleasant truth 
to tell. These truths are not palatable to the competitors; they attack 
the judges afterwards in the papers, under assumed names ; they threaten 
'boycotting 'in the next Eisteddfod; and the result is that the adjudi- 
cators get disgusted, the committee get disheartened; pleasing mediocrity 
wins the day, and pure art is entirely neglected. 

'' The superabundance of small Eisteddfodau is, I think, another eviL 
The standard to which some of these meetings have fallen is very low. 

'' The Eisteddfod as now carried on is not sufficiently educational. A 
choir or singer competes for a prize ; it wins or loses, and in ninety-nine 
cases out of a hundred there is an end of it. The same applies to com- 
positions, and I certainly think that the sooner a test of actual know- 
ledge is applied the better. 

'' The lists of subjects is much too long, and the prizes are too small . . 

*' I am afraid music itself, and the music of the sanctuary is consider- 
ably neglected through the spasmodic formation of choirs to compete, to 
show fight, to beat, etc. 

'' I very much wish our competitions could be made more generally 
open to English, Frencti, and German Societies. We are too insular, 
and if Twecdledam can beat Tweedledee, then he beats the whole 
world. In the Crystal Palace contests our conceit was only too well 
fed and I am honestly of opinion that it retarded the real progress of 
music in South Wales. We have been living a great deal too much 
upon that little affair, patted on the back by the press of Wales, and by 
platform oratory." 

It is easy to take objection to all this as "a stilted at- 



THE EISTEDDFOD AND POPULAR MUSIC IN WALES. 293 

tempt at high criticism", and to call the writer's strictures 
"flippant, captious, peevish, etc."; but it will be wiser to 
inquire carefully what truth there may be in his charges, and 
to endeavour to improve. 

To return once more to Mr. Curwen for a final suggestion. 
He says : — 

" A study of the French Orpheonists and their regulations would be 
of profit to the Welsh. The French have seyend claases for their choirs, 
and winners of first prizes have to compete against each other, while 
newly-formed choirs are grouped by themselves. This gives a chance to 
all, and is fairer' than promiscuous competition. The contests between 
choirs of children from elementary schools, which take place in the dif. 
ferent districts of Paris, offer another point of imitation for the Welsh.*' 

We now leave this budget of criticisms and suggestions to 
the consideration of all friends of the Eisteddfod, in the hope 
that they may lead to reform in anything that requires to be 
reformed, in connection with an institution which, after all, 
has a very strong hold upon the people. With all its defects 
the Eisteddfod has been productive of an incalculable amount 
of good — not so much as a direct educational agent, but 
rather as an indirect stimulus to self-culture, in the almost 
entire absence of the usual educational machinery. 



294 



HIGHER EDUCATION IN WALES 

AND THB 

PROPOSED UNIVERSITY COLLEGES. 



It is satisfactx)ry to find that the apathy which has for some 
months prevailed throughout the country in regard to this 
question, seems to be passing away again. The long-disputed 
point of the site of the South Wales College — a point which 
ought to have been decided months ago by the general voice 
of the province — is likely to be speedily settled ; and what- 
ever else the recent Conference at Chester may or may not 
have done, it seems to have proved clearly that North Wales 
will not accept the Aberystwyth College as its own. This 
decision of the northern province brings to the front three 
pressing questions ; — Where shall the new College for North 
Wales be fixed ? How are the funds necessary for its esta- 
blishment to be raised? and, What is to be done with 
Aberystwyth ? 

As to the first question, it does not appear that its settle- 
ment need involve any difiBculty or prolonged delay, if the 
Committee appointed at Chester proceed on the plan sug- 
gested at the time by Lord Aberdare; and we may hope 
to find the site of the North Welsh institution fixed without 
the loss of time that the same question has occasioned in the 
South. 

The providing of funds will be, of course, a matter of some 
difficulty, and, if anything really adequate to the require- 
ments is to be done, will demand a determined and general 
effort on the part of all classes. But, remembering what has 
been done in Wales, within the present generation, in con- 



HIGHER EDUCATION IN WALES. 295 

nection with other educational institutions, under far less 
favourable circumstances, we cannot regard the erection and 
endowment of the University College as too onerous an 
undertaking for North Wales, even if it should ultimately 
demand, as some have estimated, as much as £100,000. As 
instances of what has already been achieved by well-organized 
efforts, we would point to the Normal College at Bangor, the 
Calvinistic Methodist College at Bala, the Memorial College 
at Brecon, and the recent endowment of Trevecca College. 
And it must be borne in mind that these institutions are 
entirely the fruit of the liberality of the middle and lower 
classes, and, except in the case of the Bangor College, were 
able to appeal only to one religious denomination. But then 
very great faithfulness was shown by those appealed to, even 
farm servants, who received perhaps £15 or £20 a year in 
wages, contributing in many cases from £5 to £10. The new 
University College will appeal to the whole people without dis- 
tinction or restriction of class or sect ; and as such it ought 
to be welcomed by alL We often hear it lamented that 
owing to our sectarian divisions no movement is ever set 
on foot in which all can unite. We are therefore entitled 
to expect that this national educational movement will be 
hailed as one at last in which Churchman and Dissenter, peer 
and peasant, can conscientiously co-operate. It has been urged 
that North Wales has no great and populous commercial or 
manufacturing centres ; still, it possesses sources of wealth in 
various mines and quarries, and land to the extent of some 
two million acres, with a gross rental of nearly two and a 
half million pounds. We may trust that those who call these 
their own will practically recognise that while property has 
its rights — and these rights by-the-bye have been pretty well 
cared for during the last three hundred years — it involves 
also obligations of the weightiest kind. Whether these 
obligations have been fully acknowledged and discharged 



296 HIGHER EDÜCA.TION IN WALES 

in the past may admit of some doubt The College at 
Aberystwyth has certainly not received the support from 
all classes which it was thought to be entitled to; it, like 
the other institutions already mentioned, and, indeed, like 
almost every national movement in the Principality, has 
been supported chiefly by the middle and the working 
classes. It is to be hoped that the two new colleges will 
appeal more successfully to the sympathies of every class. 
It will be for the framers of the new scheme to see that 
the College is established on such a broad and " unsectarian" 
basis, that the peculiar tenderness of conscience, whicK many 
people bring to the consideration of a cause to which they 
are asked to contribute money-, may not compel even the 
most sensitive to close their purses. If the wealthier classes 
properly recognise their obligations to those who are the pro- 
ducers of their wealth, and prove as faithful in the cause as 
those below them in station have hitherto been, the new 
University College will not lack for funds. 

What to do with the present College at Aberystwyth, if 
North Wales adhere to the decision of the Chester Con- 
ference, is a question not to be lightly answered : it Ls much 
easier to say what should not be done with it. For instance, 
it has been proposed to sell the building, and hand over the 
amount realised to the North Wales College Fund. To this 
proposal there are evident and sufficient objections : if it 
were sold, nothing like its real value would be got for it; 
and as it stands, it is no more the property of North than of 
South Wales, though it may be safely assumed that if it were 
adopted as the College for the former, the latter would cheer- 
fully relinquish its proprietary rights. But we venture to 
say that the idea of selling should not be entertained : it 
should certainly be retained as an educational institution of 
some kind. Some would probably recommend its conversion 
into a first-class Grammar School ; while others have suggested 



AND THE PROPOSED UNIVERSITY COLLEGES. 297 

that it should be made the home of a High School for Girls. 
But we would ask, Why should not the existing institution 
at Aberystwyth be retained as a third College for Central 
Wales ? We are fully aware that to those who think that 
Wales does not require a College at all, this proposal will 
appear the very height of folly; but in view of the 
action now likely to be taken in response to the ofifer 
of the Glovemment, it is hard to see what better can 
be dona If we saw any prospect of the adoption of Mr. 
Jayne's proposal, that the Government grant, instead 
of being divided, should be devoted to the maintenance of 
one strong institution for the whole of Wales, either at 
Cardiff or elsewhere ; and that the various Theological Col- 
leges, including St. David's College, should be grouped 
around this, we would strongly deprecate the suggestion of 
any other course. But failing this, it may be said that any 
arguments which may be deemed valid for the establishment 
of two Colleges, tell almost equally for the retention of 
Aberystwyth. Admitting the general principle, so often 
urged, that ''Education must be taken to the people", with 
the corollary, practically accepted by both North and South 
Wales, that Aberystwyth cannot, on account of its position, 
meet the requirements of the remoter parts of the two pro- 
vinces, the very same thing may be urged on behalf of 
retaining Aberystwyth in the interests of Cardigan, North 
Pembroke, and Montgomery. Cardiff or Ehyl, or Caernarvon, 
will be inaccessible to the Cardigan or Pembroke student in 
precisely the same degree as Aberystwyth is now declared to 
be inaccessible from those places. But if the people of Car- 
diganshire and the adjacent districts are really anxious to 
retain their College, they must make a strong effort to com- 
plete the building and collect funds for its endowment. 
What chance there may be of State aid for a third College 
we do not know. A high authority has declared that Govern- 

VOL. V. X 



298 HIGHER EDUCATION IN WALES, 

ment will give no more than it has already promised ; but we 
strongly suspect that what the Government will do for the 
country will very largely depend upon what the country will 
do for itself. 

We are indebted to the kindness of his Worship the Mayor 
of Swansea, for a copy of the Memorial presented by the 
Corporation of that town to Mr. Mundella in support of its 
claim to be the seat of the University College for South 
Wales ; and we are under a similar obligation to Mr. Duncan, 
one of the Honorary Secretaries of the Cardiff Committee, for 
a copy of the Cardiff Memorial. It is, of course, beyond our 
province to discuss the rival claims. But we have further to 
thank Mr. Duncan for a copy of the Draft Scheme of the 
proposed College, and of this we append a brief summary. 

*^ The object of the College shall be to provide such instruction in all 
the branches of a liberal education, as may qualify residents in the six 
counties of South Wales and in the county of Monmouth and else- 
where to take Degrees in Arts, Science, Law, and Medicine, at the 
University of Wales (whenever such University shall have been consti- 
tuted), or at any of the Universities of the (Jnited Kingdom, and at the 
same time to give such technical instruction as may be of immediate 
service in professional and commercial life." It contemplates the ad- 
mission of female students, and is to be free from all religious tests. 

The Authorities of the College shall be : 

1. A Preddent, to be elected (after the first) by the Court of Governors 

for five years, and not re-eligible. He is to preside at any 
meetings of the Court of Governors, and at the opening and 
closing of the College Session, and shall have power to suspend 
or refer back to the Court any statute against which the Council 
or Senate appeal to him. 

2. A Vice-President, to be elected by the Court of Governors for five 

years, and re-eligible. In the President's absence, the Vice- 
President shall discharge his duties and exercise his powers. 

3. A Court of Governors, consieting of 

The President, and 

The Vice-President. 

Life Governors, consisting of donors of £500 or upwards ; 
or appointed representatives of any corporate body or 
association, or of any partnership firm, or of executors 



AND THE PROPOSED UNIVERSITY COLLEGES. 299 

or administratorB of any estate, contributing £500 or 
upwards in one sum or by instalments, or nominated 
representatives of any electoral body of individuals, 
corporations, associations, etc., contributing in sums 
severally not less than £25, a like donation of £500 
or upwards. 

EX'Officio Governors : The Mayor or Presiding Officer of every 
Borough in South Wales or Monmouthshire, with the 
High Constables of Merthyr and Aberdare ; the Chair- 
man of every Local Board, and of every School Board 
within the same counties representing a population of 
not less than 6000 ; the Principal or Head Master of 
University College, Aberystwyth; Christ and Memorial 
Colleges, Brecon ; St. David's College, Lampeter ; the 
Theological Colleges at Caermarthen, Haverfordwest, 
Pontypool and Trevecca, and of the Grammar Schools 
of Cardigan, Caermarthen, Cowbridge, Gelligaer, Ha- 
verfordwest,Llandaff (Howeirs), Llandovery ,Monmouth, 
Swansea, and Ystrad Meurig; and the County and 
Borough M.Ps. for South Wales and Monmouthshire. 

Bepresentatives nominated from without their own body by 
the Corporation of each Borough with 6000 inhabitants, 
or by the Local Boards of each District with 10,OuO 
inhabitants within the said counties — to hold office for 
three years. 

Three persons appointed by the Lord President of the 
Council, and holding office for five years. 

Representatives appointed by the Chancellor of the Univer- 
sities of Wales (when constituted), Oxford, Cambridge, 
London, Victoria, and Durham, holding office for five 
years. 

The Principal, with two other Professors, chosen by the 
Senate. 

If at any time the number of Life Governors fall below 40, the 
Court shall at once eltct a sufficient number to supply the defi- 
ciency. ^* The Court of Governors shall be the governing body 
of the College, and shall have power to manage all matters not 
otherwise provided for in this Charter.*' 

4. The Council, consisting of the President, the Vice-President, the 
Treasurer, the Principal and eleven members elected by the Court 
of Governors. The Council shall manage the ordinary businees 
of the College, appoint Professors and other officers ; sanction, 
modify or reject courses of study proposed by the Senate; receive 

X 2 



300 



HIGHER EDUCATION IN WALES, 



reports from the Senate, and present annual reports to the Court 
of GoyemoTB. 

5. The Treasurer, elected annually from among the Goyemors, by the 

Court of Goyemors, and re-eligible. 

6. The Senate, consisting of the Principal and the Professors, shaU 

regulate the education and discipline of the College. 

Appended to the Draft Scheme above summarised are 
given some " Suggested Statutes", among which the follow- 
ing may be noticed. 

The Teaching Staff is proposed to consist at first of the 
following Professors and Lecturers, receiving the salaries 
mentioned : — 

Arts. 



} 
Î 



Oreeh 

Latin 

Ancient History 

Mathematics 

Astronomy 

Natural Philosophy 

Experimental Physics 

Logic ) 

Mental and Moral Philosophy ) 

English Language and Literature ) 

Modem History j 

Political Economy ) 

Commercial and Mercantile Law ) 

Modem Languages 

Celtic 

Music 



Science. 



Botany 

Zoology 

Chemistry 

Engineering and Machinery 

Manufactures 

Geology 

Mineralogy 

Coal Mining 

Metal Mining 

Agrictdture 



One Professor, £300. 

One Professor, £300. 
One Professor, £300. 
One Professor, £300. 
One Professor, £300. 

One Lecturer, £100. 

One Lecturer, £100. 
One Lecturer, £100. 
One Lecturer, £100. 

One Professor, £300. 
One Professor, £300. 

One Professor, £300. 

One Professor, £300. 
One Lecturer, £100. 

One Lecturer, £100. 



AND THE PROPOSED UNIVERSITY COLLEGES. 301 

The Principal is to be one of the Professors and to receive 
£200 per annum in addition to the emoluments of his Pro- 
fessorship. It is also, of course, provided that Assistants 
shall be appointed and additional Professorships established 
as need may arise and the funds permit. It will probably 
be found that the scheme will soon require some readjust- 
ment or modification: for example, if Greeky Latin, and 
Ancient History are to be attached to one Chair, the 
appointment of an assistant will be an imperative neces- 
sity, unless these subjects are to take a quite subordinate 
place in the College course. To meet this, possibly the 
Lectureship in Agriculture might be merged in the Chair 
of Chemistry. It will be observed that the scheme gives 
a very prominent place to Science — six of the Chairs being 
assigned to Mathematics and Science as against three given 
to Language and Mental Philosophy. 

It is to be hoped that some further provision for the 
teaching of Modem ZangucLges will be called for; but this 
can only be determined after the classes have been oi»ened, 
and the amount of demand for such teaching has been shown 
by the number of students. At the new University College in 
Liverpool, three Lectureships in Modem Languages have been 
established — French, German, and Italian ; it is disappoint- 
ing to find that the number of students is by no means 
so large as to threaten speedily to overtax the powers of 
the Lecturers. 

It appears that some persons are dissatisfied with the 
position assigned to Welsh in the Scheme, thinking that 
instead of a Lectureship there ought to be a Professorship of 
Celtic. We have received a circular, which seems to have 
been addressed to the Scheme Committee, strongly urging 
this view. For no apparent reason the writer withholds his 
name, calling himself "An Octogenarian Welshman". He 
points out that the study of Celtic is rapidly advancing on 



302 HIGHER EDUCATION IN WALES, 

the Continent, as well as in England and Ireland, and urges 
that it is a shauie for Wales to neglect its own language, so 
zealously studied by foreigners. His request that the 
Cymmrodorion should " take up tlie matter", ought to have 
been addressed to the Council, not to the Editor. But we 
would observe, that in his reference to the study of Celtic 
in other countries he understates his case. He strangely 
makes no mention of the Edinburgh Professorship of Celtic, 
founded through the exertions of Professor Blackie, which 
must be held by a Celtic scholar possessing a competent 
mastery of " the graces of Gaelic", and is worth some £500 
or £600 a year. Then there are in Paris two Celtic Pro- 
fessorships, not one, as "Octogenarian" states ; and in Dublin 
not two, but three. 

It may be worth pointing out how this question shows 
the advantage that would result if the suggestion (already 
alluded to) of the learned Principal of St. David's College 
were carried out. If, instead of having two or three Colleges, 
an effort was made to establish one well-endowed Institution, 
the Council might be able to devote to a Professorship of 
Celtic such a sum as would enable the Professor to give his 
whole time to the subject of his Chair. How much good 
work might be expected if the accomplished scholar who 
now fills the Welsh Chair at Aberystwyth were permitted to 
devote his undivided efforts to the study and illustration of 
his native language ! * 

The salaries attached to the several Professorships and 
Lectureslxips will be slightly increased by the addition of 
a portion of the Students* fees, which it is proposed to carry 
" to a common fund, of which one-third shall be appropriated 
to the general expenses of the College, one-third equally 
divided among all the Professors and Lecturers, and one- 
third distributed among the several Professors and Lecturers 
according to the number of Students forming their Classes". 



AND THE PROPOSED UNIVERSITY COLLEGES. 303 

This is certainly a very judicious and equitable arrange- 
ment, and in many respects preferable to that by which 
all the fees of each Glass are handed over to the Professor 
taking that Class. 

It is proposed that there shall be three 

Terms. 

October Ist to December 15th. 
January 15th to April 15th. 
May 1st to July Slat. 

The FEES shall be One Guinea on Matriculation, and One Guinea 
each term for each Class attended. 

SCHOLARSHIPS awarded by Examination shall be of three kinds: 

1. Entrance Scholarships awarded '*at the commencement of the first 

session'^ [of each academical year?], on the result of the Entrance 
Examination or by Special Examination, and tenable for three 
years. 

2. Honour Scholarships, attached to special subjects, and tenable at the 

College, for two years. 

3. Exit Scholarships, to help descrying student;) to continue their studies 

after leaving the College, attached to special subjects, and tenable 
for three years. 

It has already been seen that the Scheme contemplates 
the establishment at some future period of a University of 
Wales ; and a sketch is given of the Course proposed and the 
Examinations to be passed prior to graduation. Into this 
we need not now enter. The advisability of creating a new 
University, with a new set of Degrees, will no doubt be ques- 
tioned by many, and strongly denied by some. It will, doubt- 
less, be argued that owing to the restricted area from which 
Candidates for Degrees will be drawn, the competition will 
be small, and the standard of the Examinations will there- 
fore inevitably fall; and the Higher Education of the country, 
instead of being promoted, will simply be sacrificed to the 
gratification of a petty national vanity. Such a result would, 
of course, be deplored by all ; and if this could be shown to 
be an unavoidable effect of the establishment of a Welsh 



304 HIGHER EDUCATION IN WALES, 

University, the mere statement of the fact would be a con- 
clusive argument against taking such a step. 

It is evident that the multiplication, beyond a certain limit, 
of educational bodies having power to grant degrees, would 
be an evil ; and some advantages would no doubt result from 
the merging of all our existing Charters in one "British 
University", with a uniform standard of Examination for the 
whole kingdom. But whatever may prove necessary at some 
remote future, it is quite certain that in the present state of 
education in this country, what would be lost by such cen- 
tralization would far outweigh any possible gains. Mean- 
while, as to Wales^ it cannot be denied that its position and 
its wants are in some respects peculiar; and in framing a 
suitable educational system for the country, it may be found 
necessary to give special prominence to certain special sub- 
jects, proficiency in which may have to be attested by special 
degrees. But whether this should prove to be so or not, it is 
certain that the possibility of gaining a degree at the end of 
three or four years' study would act as a strong stimulus to 
most students, and induce many, who might otherwise leave 
at the end of a couple of years, to prolong their stay in order 
to gain the coveted badge. The effect would be to bring 
many within reach of a University training, to whom other- 
wise such a training would be inaccessible. And we cannot 
believe that there is any great danger that the standard of 
education would be lowered thereby ; those who could afford 
to proceed to Oxford or Cambridge would still do so, while 
those who could not afford this, would have the benefit of 
a sound training at home. And to these, it must be borne in 
mind, the alternative is not between a course and a degree at 
an English University, and a course and a degree in Wales, 
but between a University training in Wales and none at all. 
And to some of these poorer ones — poor in worldly wealth 
but rich in intellectual endowments — the Exit Scholarships 



AND THE PROPOSED UNIVERSITY COLLEGES. 305 

contemplated by the scheme would open up a way to higher 
distinction elsewhere, so that the number of Welsh students 
proceeding to Oxford or Cambridge would not be diminished, 
but increased by the establishment of a Welsh University. 
How much splendid material is now left to lie unimproved, 
no observant person moderately acquainted with Wales can 
have failed to see and deplore. At almost any village Bible 
class, one can find some working men endowed with splendid 
abilities, which, if properly trained, might have raised them 
to high distinction. But hitherto these poor fellows have not 
had a chance ; they have never been enabled to plant a foot 
on the first rung of the ladder, and the country and them- 
selves have alike suffered in consequence. 

Scotland affords, in many respects, a close parallel to our 
own country, and its example in educational matters is in- 
structive. No one would say, we presume, that Scotland 
would have been educationally better off without its Univer- 
sities, even though some of them are very small. A course 
at Oxford or Cambridge is no doubt in every respect prefer- 
able to a course at Aberdeen ; but then, out of every hundred 
students who graduate at Aberdeen, possibly ninety-nine 
would never have been able to go to Oxford, and it would 
be absurd to say that the Higher Education of Scotland 
would have gained, if Aberdeen were closed and the ninety- 
nine kept without any university training in order to force 
the one to proceed to Oxford. Many of the ablest students 
from the Scotch Universities find their way every year to 
Oxford and Cambridge, and most of these would have been 
quite unable to go there, but for the advantages oflTered them 
beforehand in their own Universities ; and those less able, or 
less fortunate ones, who do not thus prolong their studies, 
receive at home such a training as enables them to make 
good use of their powers, and push their fortunes either in 
their own land or abroad. And the same beneficial effects, 



306 HIGHER EDUCATION IN WALES. 

I trust, will result from the establishment of the Univer- 
sity of Wales. 

Germany, again, possesses a number of small Universities, 
and very hard things are sometimes said about some of these 
and their traffic in worthless degrees. And certainly, such 
traffic, if it exists to any extent, is very disgraceful; but 
perhaps we should hear less about it here in Wales if we 
had genuine degrees at home placed within reach of those 
who seem to covet them. But in spite of all the evils and 
iniquities of the small German Universities, we, in this 
country, can scarcely flatter ourselves with being in a posi- 
tion patronisingly to sit in judgment upon the "Higher 
Education" of the Fatherland. And we trust there need be 
no fear that the founding of a University of Wales will prove 
detrimental to the cause of advanced culture in our own 
land. 



307 



Eelìtr\D£i of £ook£i. 



WOEKS ON EARLY BRITAIN. 

Origin of Engush History. By Charles Elton, some- 
time Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, etc. London : 
B. Quaritch. 1882. 

The Making of England. By John Richard Green, M.A., 
LL.D., Honorary Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. 
London : Macmillan and Co. 1881. 

Celtic Britain. By J. Rhys, M.A., Professor of Celtic in 
the University of Oxford, etc. London : Society for the 
Propagation of Christian Knowledge. 1882. 

The student of the early history of Britain is to be congratu- 
lated. In the works before us he has the result of the labours 
of three men, who stand in the very first rank as scholars and 
writers, and each of whom is an acknowledged leader in his 
own special field. It is a further advantage that these three 
writers, as might have been expected, view the subject from 
somewhat different standpoints; and their works, consequently, 
differ in aim and method. Mr. Elton's book has the widest 
scope; in it we have summarised all that archieology and 
history, literature and tradition, popular customs and legal 
observances, have contributed to throw light upon the early 
state of the country and its successive races of inhabitant. 
Mr. Green tells the invaders' own story of the Saxon Con- 
quest and the growth of the English power up to the time of 
Egbert; whereas Mr. Rhys is chiefly concerned with the 
fortunes of the Celts. In this way each of these valuable 
works is in some measure complementary to the others, and 



308 REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 

the three combined furnish a mass of information relative to 
the obscure period of which they treat, such as never was 
brought together before. 

By his Origins of English History Mr. Elton has conferred 
such a boon on the historical student, that even a cold-blooded 
professional reviewer might find it somewhat difBcuIt quite 
dispassionately to sit in judgment upon it ; a profound feeling 
of gratitude disarms criticism. In the opening sentence the 
author describes his work as ''the result of an attempt to 
rearrange, in a convenient form, what is known of the history 
of this country from those obscure ages which preceded the 
Koman invasions, to the time when the English accepted the 
Christian religion, and the civilising influences of the Church." 
Every one who has paid the least attention to the history of 
our country must have felt how greatly such a work was 
wanted, and how very unsatisfactory was the treatment of 
this period in all our histories. We had so often been as- 
sured that "the true history of our country begins with 
Julius Caesar", that we had almost despaired of ever knowing 
anything of what had preceded. Happily, Mr. Elton has 
very much to tell us of Britain and its inhabitants before the 
time of Caesar; and he tells it all so admirably, that his 
work, to use a somewhat hackneyed phrase, "reads like a 
novel." The first two chapters treat chiefly of the voyage of 
Pytheas, the Greek explorer from Marseilles, with the result 
that this great navigator, who was previously little more than 
a name to most readers, has become as familiar to our minds 
as Columbus himself. Chapter iii treats of "The Early Greek 
Komances about Britain"; chapter iv, "Chiefly of the division 
of the Celtic people, and the relation to each other of Gauls, 
Gaels, and Cymry"; chapter v, "The Gauls in Britain, their 
settlements and civilization"; chapter vi, "Celts and Non-Celts, 
the population outside the Gaulish settlements"; chapter vii, 
"Pre-Celtic Ethnology — Survivals of the Pre-Celtic Stocks — 



REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 309 

Evidence from Language and Manners", etc. ; chapter viii, 
"Customs of Inheritance and Family Eeligion"; chapter ix, 
"The Britons of the Interior"; chapter x, "Religion"; chapter 
xi, "The Eoman Province of Britain" ; chapter xii, " The 
English Conquest." There is also an Appendix containing 
the most important extracts from classical authors relating to 
this country ; a list of these authors ; and finally, a most in- 
teresting set of ten maps, copied from various old works of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. When it is stated that 
these various subjects are treated in a most masterly way, 
with a fulness of detail never before attempted in a con- 
nected history of the period, enough will have been said to 
show, that this work is absolutely indispensable to anyone 
who wishes to have a clear idea of what is actually known 
about Early Britain. In fact, there is no other single work in 
which the whole mass of evidence has been so fully ranged 
before the reader, and from which so clear a conception can 
be gained of the early state of the country and its various 
peoples. Chapter viii, on "Customs of Inheritance", etc., is very 
interesting and full of the author's special legal knowledge. 
Still more interesting to many will be Chapter x,on "Eeligion", 
though we fear it will prove sadly distasteful to those who 
have been wont to believe in Druidism as a monotheism of 
patriarchal simplicity and purity. On this subject, doubt- 
less, a good deal remains to be learnt from a fuller analysis of 
the older literature, especially old Irish literature, as well as 
from the clearer comprehension, which more systematic study 
may be expected to give, of much that is already partially 
known. But a good and solid foundation has been laid, and it 
is earnestly to be hoped that some part of the sound information 
collected in this valuable work will, in due time, filter down 
to popular histories and school text-books. 

Of course nothing is thought of a review which contains no 
criticism ; so to set ourselves right we would ask whether it 



310 REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 

has been absolutely proved that '*Brezonek" is "Welsh car- 
ried across the seas by refugees from Britain" (p. 97) ? Perhaps 
it would have been as well had the author made it clear that 
the "inflection of prepositions" is not peculiar to Welsh among 
the Celtic languages fp. 167). Then the statement in the 
note to p. 288, that the early Welsh poems are not older than 
the twelfth century, has not yet been proved. On the next 
page (289) "Arianrhod" is twice misspelt. We would also 
fain hope that in using the present tense in his description of 
the rite at Tegla*s Well, Mr. Elton is doing injustice to the 
good Christians of Denbighshire (p. 296 n). Lastly, we would 
point out that the assertion (p. 303) that Britain "fell an easy 
prey" to the invading Saxons is quite at variance with the 
opinion of Mr. Green, who dwells at length on the great 
"stubbornness of the defence" (Making of England, p. 133). 

We have seen it stated that the impression of Mr. Elton's 
book is nearly exhausted, and that it is not likely a second 
edition will appear. We trust the latter statement is not 
made "on good authority", as it would be a great hardship 
indeed if so valuable a work should become inaccessible to 
students. It may be added that the publisher deserves the 
highest praise for the form in which he has issued the 
volume : reading it is in every way a pleasure. 

Mr. Green's charming work is more limited in its scope 
than either of the others. After a short introduction on 
" Britain and its Foes", in which the author gives a rapid 
sketch of the conquest and administration of the island under 
the Romans, the state in which they left it, and the foes who 
assailed it on their departure, the story opens with the first 
Saxon settlement in 449, and is carried on to the practical 
union of the kingdoms under Egbert in 829. It is hardly 
necessary to state that the work is distinguished by all the 
autlior's well-known vivacity and grace of style and abundant 
knowledge of the authorities; but, as already implied, he 



REVIEWS or BOOKS. 311 

does not give any great place to Welsh sources of informa- 
tion, as to which, so far as they are noticed, he chiefly follows 
Guest and Skene. 

The first three chapters describe the conquest of the east 
and south of England down to about 577 a.d. The conquest 
of this part resulted, according to Mr. Green, in the " com- 
plete displacement" of the more or less Romanised Britons, 
who, however " for the most part, cannot have been slaugh- 
tered", but " were simply defeated and drew back". In this way, 
he thinks, the Eoman civilisation was entirely swept away ; 
and the whole political and social organisation which grew 
up in its place, was the independent development of the 
rudimentary social system imported by the invaders ; in fact, 
between the civilisation of Roman Britain and that of Saxon 
England there was a complete break, the latter owing prac- 
tically nothing to the former. It is, no doubt, true that a 
smaller Celtic element remained to the east and south-east of 
England than in western parts, but it may be doubted 
whether the proofs brought forward by the author in sup- 
port of his extreme statement will bear examination. It is 
not quite correct, for instance, that " British tradition" knows 
of no other people in England than the invading strangers. 
The Triads, which at least represent "British tradition", 
state that the " Caisariaid", the descendants of the legionaries 
and the Romanised Britons, coalesced with the Saxons ; and 
they state, also, that the " Lloegrwys" became " Saeson" ex- 
cept in Cornwall and the commot of Camoban. Then the 
fact that the local names which mark "the traces of human 
life, the names of the villages and hamlets", are " purely Eng- 
lish*', is by no means decisive ; for the very same thing may 
be said of Cumberland and Westmoreland, and Mr. Green 
would not assert that the Britons were entirely replaced 
there. And with regard to the inference drawn from the 
small number of Welsh words in the English language, there 



312 REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 

are two things to be considered : the Eomanised Britons, the 
" Caisariaid", would, of course, as Professor Rhys points out 
in his Celtic Britain, speak Latin, and could introduce no 
Celtic words into the English language; and, in the next 
place, those who find no traces of Welsh in the English of 
to-day, have never looked for those traces where they are to 
be naturally expected — and, unless we are mistaken, to be 
found to a considerably greater extent than is generally re- 
cognised — that is, in the provincial dialects of England. Let 
Mr. Green ransack the glossaries and word-lists of the Eng- 
lish Dialect Society, as Mr. Davies has done in the Archceo- 
logia Canibrensis, and possibly he may discover more Welsh 
words in English than Mr. Garnett's meagre list has led him 
to expect. 

In the last quarter of the sixth century, " The Strife of the 
Conquerors" (chap, v) begins, and with this, in our author's 
opinion, the conquest assumes a new character. Henceforth, 
as the Saxon power forces itself gradually further west, the 
natives are not completely driven away, but subdued, and 
combine to a large extent with the conqueroi-s. 

Space forbids one following our author through the re- 
maining chapters, in which we find ourselves on less debat- 
able ground. Before laying aside this most interesting work, 
we would point out that the " Fflamddwyn" of the Welsh 
bards is now generally supposed to be, not Ida (p. 72), but his 
son Theodric, and that it is rather hazardous to connect the 
name Dorset with the Welsh "dwi'' (p. 93). And if the 
site of London was not marked "by any settlement whatever" 
before the arrival of the Romans (j). 101), would Ammianus 
MarceUinus have spoken of it as vettis oppidum Î And would 
the name of a mere bare "rise" have been so universally 
known as to have, in the end, fastened itself on the magnifi- 
cent Roman city, to the exclusion of its imperial Latin rival ? 
Speaking of names, it may be observed that the author is 



REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 313 

somewhat uncertain in the use of them. Our native Peng- 
wern appears as "Pengwyrn", and once as "Pengewym" 
(p. 439, 8, V. Ceawlin); we have sometimes Glevum and 
sometimes Gleavum ; and we are not quite certain that he is 
always consistent in the use of Saxon names. Had it not 
been misleading, we should have said " English names", in 
deference to Mr. Green, who like Dr. Freeman, is " English 
of the English", even the Anglo-Saocoii Chronicle is throughout 
with him the Eiiglish Chronicle, 

One remarkable feature of this able work is the happy use 
the author makes of his familiarity with the topography and 
the physical features of the country. One feels in reading 
that every comer of the land must be almost as familiar to 
him as his own garden, and the way in which he uses this 
knowledge adds greatly to the vividness, the graphic force, 
and the charm of his narrative. 

Though we have not been officially requested to call atten- 
tion to Professor Ehys' Celtic Britain, we have taken the 
liberty to introduce it, Cymric fashion, to complete the triad. 
However, as probably all our readers have already seen 
accounts of it elsewhere, and most of them, we hope, are in 
possession of the work itself, we need not give any extended 
notice of it. It forms an indispensable complement, in some 
cases, perhaps, supplies a corrective, to the two larger and 
earlier works. It is strong where they, in common with all 
their predecessors, are weakest, that is, in the treatment of the 
linguistic evidence to the early state of Britain. Mr. Rhys 
writes history throughout as a philologist ; and, though there 
is little in the volume to remind one that the author is, as he 
himself modestly implies in his preface, "one unaccus- 
tomed to writing on historical subjects", yet it will be readily 
understood that the most important element of the work is 
the careful analysis of Celtic names which it contains, to- 

VOL. V. Y 



314 REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 

gether with the facts of history and ethnology which the 
author establishes thereby. 

The first two chapters treat of "Britain in the time of 
Julius Csesar" and " Britain previous to the Claudian Con- 
quest". Here the material is very scanty, and the best use has 
to be made of the few names of tribes, etc., which have been 
preserved by various means. Coins, also, are skilfully inter- 
rogated and compelled to yield their secrets; and a half- 
effaced inscription is sometimes made to tell a tale of revolu- 
tion or of conquest. It may ber urged that in this there is 
much that is hypothetical, and the hypotheses may quite 
possibly not correspond in all cases to what were the actual 
facts ; still it matters little, since we gain in this way a real 
conception of the condition and mutual relations of those 
"Ancient British" tribes which we could hardly get from 
previous historians, who sententiously informed us that the 
" Cantii inhabited Kent", that " the Iceni dwelt in what is 
now Norfolk and Suffolk", or that " the position of the Cctssi 
is uncertain". 

The third chapter gives an account of " The Eomans in 
Britain, and how they left it" ; the fourth treats of " The 
Kymry"; the fifth of "The Picts and Scots", while the sixth 
and seventh chapters discuss "The Ethnology of Britain". 
These chapters are throughout full of interest, especially in 
the treatment of the Celtic evidence. Naturally enough, the 
author's views on certain points have been somewhat modified 
since the publication of his Lectures on Welsh riiilology. 
The Gwyddyl in Britain he now considers to have been, not 
invaders from Ireland, but the remnant of an early settle- 
ment in this island of Goidelic Celts, who were not quite 
driven out by the succeeding wave of Brythons. As to the 
Picts, it is suggested very plausibly that the name " was 
never, perhaps, distinctive of race", but was applied to 
Brythons and Goidels, as well as more strictly to the Non- 



REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 315 

Celts, of the North, owing to their having retained the habit 
of colouring their bodies, after it had disappeared from the 
region brought under the sway of Eome. 

It will be observed that Mr. Ehys gives the pre-Celtic oc- 
cupants of these islands a larger place, and brings them down 
to a later period, than some other historians have done. ^ We 
sometimes find these early races relegated to some unde- 
finably remote past, and receive a kind of impression that 
they vanished before the Celts like the mist before the sun ; 
but Professor Rhys expresses an opinion that their languiige 
had not long been dead in Munster when Cormac wrote his 
Glossary in the ninth century. 

In the matter of proper names Professor Rhys has removed 
some stumbling blocks, which early scribes and modern editors 
had combined to place in the path of the unhappy student. 
For instance, the name of the great leader of the Silures, the 
son of Cunobelinos, wliich appears in modem histories under 
the form "Caractacus", Mr. Rhys writes "Caratacus",in which 
no one will have any difficulty in recognising the origiijal of 
our familar"Caradog". Again "Boadicea" ("the gibberish of 
editors"), becomes "Boudicca", a change, however, which per- 
haps does not quite remove a stumbling-block, phonetically 
speaking. 

While on the subject of names we would ask, Why has the 
name, which had grown familar to our tongues and ears as 
"Arderydd", been recently transformed into ^*Ardderyd"? 
Mr. Skene probably writes "Ardderyd" in order to bring the 
name phonetically nearer to " Arthuret", with which he iden- 
tifies it. Professor Rhys accepts both the form and the 
identification. On the latter point we say nothing beyond 
mentioning that the late Mr. Stephens locates the battle at 
Airdrie in Lanark (Stephens' Gododin, p. 72). But we ven- 
ture to put in a plea for the old spelling. The oldest form of 
the name wliich we can now recall is the Ai^mterid of the 



316 REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 

Harleian tenth century copy of the Annales Cambrian. In the 
JJlfcck Book of Caermarthen it appears as Arywderit (Four 
Ancitnt Books, ii, 4), pronounced, probably, " Aryfderydd" ac- 
cording to our present orthography ; in this MS. t very fre- 
quently, especially at the end of a syllable, represents the 
sound of later rfd, as, for instance, in Myrtin, Keliton, for 
Myrddiu and Celyddon. The spelling of the two thirteenth 
century copiüs of the Annales is Arderit and Brderit, in which 
the t also, tloubtless, has the same force, as well as in the 
Maralat, Griffith, etc., of the same MS. The modification 
seums to havu l)een regular, from Armterid through Arfderydd 
or Aryfdorydd to Arderydd. 

MoriJuuum is (p. 293) fixed at Wareham. But is not that 
too far to the east ? The position of Muridunum of the lliii- 
erai-y (the Moridunum of Eavennas, and the Ridumo — mis- 
placed, but with the distance correctly given — of the Peu- 
tinj^er Table) between Burnovaria and /òca, supported by the 
resemblance of the names, gives strong ground for identifying 
it witli Seaton, wliich name is a literal translation of the 
Celtic one. 

AVith regard to Pennocrucium (p. 300) it may be worth 
mentioning that this name is still used in the form of Peiicrug, 
applied to the spur of a hill about a mile from Llan- 
dovery. 

Anticipating the speedy issue of a second edition of this 
valuable little book, we would point out the misprints of 
"Bythons"for Brythons on the first map, of "Llanwrst" for 
Llanrwst on the second, and apparently of "epeio-Sf-a, or -ti" 
for epei-os, -a, or -on on p. 295. 



REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 317 



Les Celtes et les Langues Celtiques. Leçon d'ouver- 
ture du Cours de Langue et Littérature Celtique fait au 
College de France. Par H. D'Arbois de Jubainville. 
Paris: 1882. 

The author of this inaugural lecture is well known, both in 
this country and on the Continent, as one of the foremost of 
living Celtists ; and his appointment to the new chair at the 
College de France has been hailed as one of the happy 
omens which augur a brilliant future for Celtic studies. 
This lecture, in which the learned professor indicates the 
object he has set before himself, is the first-fruit of that 
most judicious appointment. In the first part the author 
treats of the names by which the Celts were known to the 
ancients, KeXrot, Volcae, Galli, and FaXaTat, and gives a brief 
survey of the position and history of the people. With the 
word Volcae, strictly the name of a Celtic tribe on the upper 
Danube, he connects the Teutonic names, Waelsch, Wdsh^ 
and Wales. In the second part it is shown how from about 
280 B.C., when the empire of the Celts extended from the 
Atlantic to the Black Sea, and their language bordered upon 
the Greek, the people and their language were gradually 
driven back into the recesses of the West, where they still 
survive. But traces of their sojourn are still found in 
names of places, etc., and the lecturer points out how the 
modern Celtic languages throw light on the older Celtic 
civilization, as it is presented to us in the fragmentary 
notices of the classical writers. In France this light has 
hitherto been sought in the Kymric dialects; but M. de 
Jubainville proposes to draw more largely upon the 
treasures of old Irish, and with a sketch of what has been 
done in this latter field, this most able and interesting 
lecture closes. 



318 REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 



The History of the Princes, etc., of Powys Fadog. By 
J. Y. W. Lloyd, of Clochfaen, Esq., M.A., K.S.G. Lon- 
don : T. Richards. 1882. Vols, ii and iii. 

This great and laborious work is advancing rapidly, the two 
substantial and beautiful volumes now before us bearing the 
date 1882. They do not differ in the nature of their con- 
tents from the first volume, wliich was noticed in a previous 
number. They are largely made up of tables of pedigrees 
and other matters connected with the various families of the 
province, but contain also a variety of extracts from MSS. on 
collateral matters. Amongst the latter the historical composi- 
tigns of the old bards, which were noticed as a feature in the 
first volume, are continued in these, and generally accom- 
panied by translations from the skilled hand of our esteemed 
contributor, H. W. Lloyd, Esq., M.A- We cannot too much 
admire the author's wonderful patience in compiling these 
long genealogies, rent-rolls, etc., and presume that it is 
with a view to relieve the strain on his own and the 
reader's attention that he introduces here and there letters 
on current topics from the various newspapers and perio- 
dicals, tales of apparitions, etc. These insertions appear 
somewhat irrelevant, but the author has respectable autho- 
rity for his practice, since, according to De Quincy, it is 
on much the same principle Shakespere has introduced the 
" knocking at the gate" in Macbeth, 



YsTEN SiONED : neu Y Gronfa Gymmysg. Aberystwyth : 
Cyhoeddwyd gan John Morgan. 1882. 

As may be inferred from its name, the contents of this little 
volume are somewliat varied, and it would not be easy to 
characterise them in one word ; perha})s the clastic term, 



REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 319 

"Folk-lore", would best describe them. But it is a most 
delightful little book, which we have read with very great 
pleasure. The most important portions are a collection of 
popular poetry consisting of eighty-two pennillion, some 
pretty well known, and others less familiar ; and an article 
on the " Folk-lore of Animals", partly from MS., and partly 
from oral, sources. The rest of the volume is made up of a 
varied collection of that class of tales that delighted the 
winter fireside of the last and former generations, and 
all together form a very good picture of rural Wales forty or 
fifty years ago. These short tales are delightfully told in 
pure Welsh, with a charming vein of quiet humour running 
through nearly all of them. No Welsh reader who pays his 
shilling for Ysten Sioned will regret it. 



John Jones yn yr Ysgol: Sef Ffughanesyn Ysgolaidd, 
sylfaenedig ar Ffeithiau. Gan y Parch. Evan Jones, 
B.D., Rheithor Trefdraeth, Penfro. Solva: M. W. 
WilUams. 1882. 

This is an attempt to describe what school life was fifty years 
ago in the rural districts of the Principality — that is, in those 
rural districts which were fortunate enough to have a school 
of any kind. The little book resembles a photograph more 
than a painting : it can hardly be called a work of fiction ; it 
is rather a simple narrative, such as could be given by many 
a Dimetian farmer of sixty, who might be moved to enliven 
his winter-fireside with an account of his boyhood's days. 
Mr. Jones's unpretentious little story gives a perfectly faith- 
ful picture of what it professes to describe ; it is written in a 
simple, but pure and idiomatic style ; and simple and artless 
as it is, no one who shares the author's evident sympathy 
with the simple rural life of Wales can read it without much 
pleasure and amusement. 



320 REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 



Aeron Ehondda. Gan Homo Ddu. Yn cynwys Caniadau ar 
Seren Bethlehem ; Cyflafan Bethlehem ; a Chanmlwydd- 
iant yr Ysgol Sabbothol. Treherbert : J. Jones. 

The three compositions, which make up this little pamphlet 
of thirty-two pages, have been awarded prizes at certain local 
competitions ; and though we cannot say in the familiar words 
of our stereoiyped adjudications, that they in any remarkable 
degree "enrich our native literature", they are fair specimens 
of the class to which they belong, and much better than any- 
thing which the writer's grotesque now de plurìu would have 
led us to expect from him. But what evil genius persuaded 
the author to print the extraordinary "translations" which ac- 
company his compositions ? We are "free to maintain" that 
they do him a great injustice. 



Y Geninkn. Cylchgrawn Chwarterol Cenedlaethol. Caer-. 

narfon : D. W. Da vies. 

This new candidate for public favour claims attention on the 
ground that it is intended to fill " an important gap" in our 
periodical literature as "a thoroughly national magazine", 
free alike from political and sectarian bias. That there is 
far too much of what is narrow and sectional in most of our 
existing periodicals, is unhappily only too true; and it is 
also equally true that there are far too many of them ; so 
that to add to their number might be thought an act of 
doubtful wisdom. Y Geninen, to justify its claim to exist, 
must establish a higher standard and a healthier tone than 
its competitors ; and if, doing this, it should succeed, even at 
the expense of driving some of its feebler rivals into the 
limbo of forgotten things, it will have proved itself a 
national benefactor. The Editor evidently believes in 



REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 321 

variety, as the table of contents offers the reader a choice of 
some thirty or more articles. It is to be hoped glitter and 
tinsel will be avoided. We greatly doubt the utility of such 
borrowed learning as appears in the first article on Y Geni- 
nen, even apart from the blunder of transforming the German 
lauch into Greek, and saddling the mistake on the Imperial 
Dictionary. The most striking article, in some respects, is 
that on the Extinction of the Welsh Language, by the 
Rev. J. R Kilsby Jones. We wish all our countrymen 
would bear in mind these words of his in regard to Welsh 
periodical literature : — " Our causeless, senseless, and endless 
divisions have almost entirely eaten up the little strength 
we might have possessed had we been united and irnly 
patriotic." 



VOL. V. Z 



322 



jl^oteí! anil (Bnttitü. 



Reply. 
We have received from the Rev. David Thomas, M.A., 
Rector of Garsington, by the hand of Professor Rhys, a reply 
to the latter's query in T Cymmrodor, v, 168. Mr. Thomas 
says : — 

" With regard to Pritchard, who sent his compliments with 
the "Covnod" to Ingram, I have suddenly hit upon a 
solution. 

" It occurred to me that Ingram, the Rector of Grey's, had 
a Jesus [College] Rector as a neighbour at Peppord, and that 
at that period he was a Pritchard. 

"On referring to an old Calendar, I find as Rector of 
Peppord, a Rev. R. Pritchard, doubtless a relative of the pre- 
sent Rector of Newbold-on-Stour." 



tt 



The Welshman of English Literature." 



Note to page 245.— Either the stonemason^s recollection of Huw 
Morris* lines was imperfect, or they were inaccurately jotted down by 
Borrow*s friend, or afterwards inaccurately transcribed by Borrow him- 
self. I have given them as they occur in Wild Waits. The following, 
for which I am indebted to my friend, Mr. LL Reynolds, B.A., of 
Merthyr Tydfil, is a correct version of the lines : — 

" MynM iV ail adail ar redeg-yr wyf 
Lie ceir oes ychwaneg, 
I baradwys bur wiwdeg 
Yn enw Duw — yn union deg." 

(See Eos Ceiriog, vol. ii, p. 427.) 



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